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Professor in the Presbyterian College, Montreal. 




GhapUr IX. 
The Hittites in Eoyit (Contiuned) ----- 1 

Chapter A'. 
The Hittites in Ecypt {Cu^iclnded) - - - 28 

Cliapter XL 
The Hittites at the Tigkis and Eiphkates - - - 57 

Chapter XII. 
The Hittites at the Tigris and Euphrates (Continued) 81 

Chapter XIII. 
The Hittites at the Tigris ami Eiphrvtes (Goncbided) - - 109 

Cltapter XIV. 
The Hittites in Palestine and the Xeighbotking Countries 

before the rise of the assyrian empire - - 13u 

Chapter XV. 
The Hittites in Palestine and the Neighkoukinc; Countries 

liEEORE THE RiSE OF THE ASSYRIAN EmPIRE (Ci>liti uued) - 153 

Chapter X]'I. 
The Hittitks in Palestine and the NEKiHiiouKiN,; Countries 

FJEKORE the RisE OK THE ASSYRIAN EmPIRE (C'liiii nVrd) - 181 

Claipter XVII. 

The Hittites in I'ai.kstune and the NKKiiip.ouRiM: Cointhif.s 

liEFoitE tjie Rise of the Assyrian Emi'IRE (Cnwhidid) - 2(K5 

chapirr xvm. 

The HiiTFrEs in Con)'a( r with the Assviuan Emimkk 2l'7 


Chapter XIX. 
The Aryan Struggle for Supremacy over the Hittites of 

Western Asia ------- 256 

Chapter XX. 
The Western Dispersion of the Hittites - 277 

Chapter XXI. 
The Eastern Mkjration in Asia ----- 304 

Chapter XXII. 
The Hittites in America - . . . 340 




The Hittites in Egypt (Continued). 

ZoHETH had the good fortime to many Sherah, the <hiughter 
of Beriah. She is said to have built Beth Horon, the nether and 
the upper, and Uzzen Sherah. The Hebrew word, to build up, 
is used to denote the founding of a family as well as of a house 
or city, but ever since the days of Cain, who built a city and 
called it after his son Enoch, the custom of commemorating the 
birth of an illustrious child, by imposing its name on a town 
continued to obtain, so that Beth Horon and ITzzen Sherah may 
be taken to represent at least two of the sons of Zoheth and 
Shei-ah. They are the Horus and Achencherses who iuniiedi- 
ately follow Amenophis in Eusebius's version of Manetho's 
eighteenth dynasty. To the name of Achencherses the note is 
appended : " Under him Moses led the Jews in their Exodus 
from Egypt." The wives of Seti Menephthali were Twea and 
Tsire, the last being the Sherah of the Kenite record. Josephus 
calls her Acencheres, but wrongly places her after Horus. although 
two masculine Acencheres are placed after her. Uzzen Sherah 
as Achencherses, Acencheres, Cencheres, Concharis, and in the annals Cingcris, is nlways connected with the Exodus of 
Israel or sf)me singular calamity that belell E<:;;ypt. In Gi'eek 
tradition he was Cenchi'ias son of l\)S('idon, and Cenchreae, the 
])oi-t of Coi"inth on the Sai'onic gulf, commemorated him, while 
the gulf itself, ]ik(; tlif Italian Surn-ntum and the Aurunei, bore 
tlu- naiiH' of his t!ld('i' br(jtlicr Ibiroii oi- Choi'on. But the most 
familiar (ii'i'ck form of his name was ('inyras. who liy \arious 


writers is made the father or grandfather of Adonis, or is 
identified with him. Adonis is the god Atin-re of the Stranger 
Kings of Tell el Amarna in Egypt, among whom Eesa or Ishi 
appears, and as a man represents his ancestor Othniel. He was 
worshipped at Byblus in Phtenicia and m many parts of Greece, 
his rites being celebrated by priests who shaved their heads after 
the fashion of the Egyptian priests of Isis. Lucian says that the 
ceremonies lasted two days.^ On the first all the people went 
into mourning, coffins were placed before every door, and pro- 
cessions filled the streets in which the images of Venus and 
Adonis were carried to the sound of mournful music and the 
loud wailing of their votaries. Many of these carried boxes or 
vases in which they had reared half-grown herbs, emblematic of 
the immature age of the god, and these gardens of Adonis they 
carried at the close of the day to the neighbouring sea or stream, 
into which they cast them amid great lamentation, to perish. 
But tlie second day was one of rejoicing, in which they celebrated 
the resurrection of Adonis from the dead. The story of the 
death of Adonis is that he was a prince beloved by Venus, who, 
in spite of her entreaties, exposed himself in the chase, until at 
lenoth, having wounded a wild boar of unusual strength and 
ferocity, the animal turned upon and slew him. This is supposed 
to have happened at the Adonis river in Phoenicia, which in the 
words of Milton : 

'' Kan iurple to the sea, supposed with blood. 
Of Thanimuz, yearly wounded." 

The wild boar is a fable, for the fate of Adonis was always 
associated with water. Not only was the river artificially 
coloured by his priests so as to appear to flow with blood, but, as 
has been told, the eml)Iematic gardens were thrown into the 
water to die. Ludian also says that a head formed of papyrus, 
or a vessul of papyrus containing a letter, was annually thrown 
into the sea at Alexandria in Egj'pt and floated to Byblus, and 
l)y its arrlNul there informed the women of Byl)lus that Adonis 
wats ffjiind. Athenaeus and /Elian describe a fish called Adonis 
which was e(jually at home in the sea and on land, spending half 

' Luci;in, de Deii Syria. 


its time on the shore, and the naturalist thought it was so called 
because Adonis, the son of Cinyras, was in love with two 
goddesses, one of the land, the other of the sea.- In another place 
^^lian mentions a large lish found in the Red Sea which the 
Arabians called Perseus.^ Now Cynurus was a son of the Greek 
Perseus, so that all these particulars relate to the overthrow of 
the Pharaoh of the Exodus in the Red Sea.'* The spectacle of the 
Egyptians whom Israel saw dead upon the sea shore long dwelt 
in the memor\" of the coast tribes, and, when the}^ saw the 
singular lishes basking on the rocks or sandy beach from which 
the waters had receded, it was but natural to name them after 
the lord of the submerged host. 

There is much confusion in the Greek accounts of Cinyras 
and Adonis. Apollodorus places at the head of his genealogy 
Cephalus.followed by Tithonus, Phaethon, Astinous and Sando- 
chus the father of Cinyras, whose sons were Oxiporus and Adonis, 
and whose three daughters died in Egypt.^ Tithonus is also 
made a son of Laomedon, whose name as Ulam Bedan is repeated 
in that of Phaethon. There is evidence of a union of the family 
of Leophrah and that of Bedan the Zimrite in the Assyrian 
record of the Patinians, some of whose kings are called Lubarna ; 
and in the geographical nomenclature of Palestine, where the 
transported Canaanitic Beth Horon the upper, was in the vicinity 
of the tomb of liedan the Pirathonite. Astinous is, therefore, a 
disguise of the name of Ishgi, who nnist have married a daughter 
of Bedan. His wife's name on the monuments is Taia, of whom 
M. Lenrrmant says : " This (jueen was not an Egyptian ; the 
monuments represent her with light hair, blue eyes and rosy 
cheeks, like the women of northern climates. An insci'iption 
preserveil at the Cairo Museum mentions her fathe)' and mother 
]y names which are not Egyptian, ami not even belonging to any 
fortjiuii riiyal famil}'."'* Sandoclius the son of Astinous is Zolieth. 
l^rot'es<or Sayee has exhilited the Ciliciaii eonnections of this 
nann'. and the ( 'ilicians, le it remembere(l, are the Charashim 

- At!i'-ti:fus, \iji. 5 ; Ailiaii, (!< Aiiiinaliiius, i\. 'M'>. 

I >< Aniiiialilius, iii. l.'s. 
* l'aw~aiii.-is, iii. 2. 
A|..,!l.,'loru>, iii. 11, ;<. 
' I.iiicpiiiiaiit, .\l,tini,-il, i. lil{S. 


whose valley in Moab Josephus calls that of the Cilices.'^ Sandes 
was a Cilician orod, and Sandochus is said to have e^one to Cilicia 
from Syria and to have founded Celenderis there. On the 
Assyrian Tnonuments two Cilician kings are mentioned, bearing 
the names Sanda-sarvi and Sandu-arri.*^ Stephanus of Byzan- 
tium states that Adana and Sarus founded the city Adana, and 
that they were g'ods, along with Ostasus, Sandes, Cronus, Rhea, 
Japhetus and Olymbrus. These are chiefly Ethnanite names, 
Adana being Ethnan or Othniel ; Sarus, Seraiah ; Ostasus, Isghi 
in an Astinous-like form: Sandes, Zolieth ; and Olymbrus, 
Leophrah. The change of Zoheth to Sandes, Sandacus, Xanthus, 
Zacynthus, is analogous to that which transformed Hod into 
Hind and Bedad into Pandu and Pandion. Pausanias associates 
Zacynthus with Eryx and Archon, who is Rakeni the uncle of 
Bedan.-' The Irish annals also connect his father Ishgi jvitli that 
Zimrite, making him as Ith the son of Breogan, and representing 
Taia the wife of Ishgi by Tea the grand-daughter of Ith and wife 
of HeremonJ" The Latin version mediates between Rakom and 
Bedan by calling Ishgi or Acestes the founder of Segestae near 
Eryx in Sicily, and representing him as the son of Egesta and the 
river-god Crinisus ; while Egesta is the daughter of the Trojan 
Hippotas who sent her away to Sicil}', lest the monster who 
ravaged Ilium in the time of Laomedon should do her an injury.^^ 
Butes is called the son of Eryx, so that a marriage of Bedan with 
the daughter of his uncle Rakem may reconcile all the accounts, 
anfl this is confirmed by the statement of Pausanias that Lamedon 
of Sicyon niari'ied Pheno the daughter of Clytius, which Clytius 
as denoting the Gileadite family can have been no other than 
his uncle Rakem. ^'- 

Apollodorus gives to Sandochus in marriage Thanacea, or, 
as some editions read, Pharnace, the daughter of Megessareus or 
^legessaras, names which it is hard to connect with history, unless 
Megessaras be an amplification of the name Sherah, and Thanacea 

' Trans. Self. l')il). -Vi'cli. \u. 2sri : JoHeiilnis, .\nti<initirs, xiii. 15, 4. 

* S'-c .Saycc, ^loiiuiucnts of t\w Hittites, Trans. Scic. Bib. Aix'li. \"ii. 28."i 

'' Pausanias, viii. 24. 

'" Kcatiiif,', 14(i. 

" Virt^Hl, A\ni-\<\, \ar. Inc. 

1- I'ausanias, ii. (i. 


a corruption of Taliath, thus inverting the nomenchxture of the 
Kenite and monumental lists. She was the mother of Cinyras, 
who married Metharrae, daughter of Pygmalion of Cyprus, and 
was by her the father of Oxiporus and Adonis. Panyasis, accord- 
ing to Apollodorus, had a ditierent story which made Adonis the 
son of Thoas king of Assyria and liis own daughter Myrrha. 
This is the story that Ovid has versified, but he replaces Thoas 
with Cinyras. From many sources Sir Lsaac Newton recon- 
structed a stor}' of Cinj/^ras by which he attempted to explain 
the fall of Vulcan from heaven.^^ Thoas married Calycopis, 
daughter of Othreus king of Phrygia, and acquired the name of 
Cinyras from his dexterity in playing on the lyre. Bacchus, 
having entered his home and intoxicated the king, injured him in 
his marital relations, but as a solatium made him lord of Byblus 
and Cyprus, where he grew enormously rich and lived to the time 
of the Trojan War. Adonis was the son of Calycopis. Here is a 
plain confusion of Zoheth's union with Sherah and that of Hadar 
with her cousin Mehetabel, for Othreus is Hadar. Much might be 
reported of Cinyras, but the contradictory stories would only 
confuse, and their contents are not to edification. He is not the 
father of Adonis, but the same person, for Cinyras was a name of 
that divinity.^* Thoas, who is called his father by Panyasis and 
others, denotes not Tahath but Zoheth, and is thus the same 
person as Sandoclms. His mother Sherah is a Pharaoh's daughter, 
but Mehetabel, her cousin, whose father was Thothmes II., is the 
saviour oii Moses. As Myrrlia Sherah appears to have been the 
accomplice or victim in an act of the vilest incest, recalling the 
story of the daughters of Lot. The Greek ti'aditions are only too 
true. M. Lonormant says oi Rameses II.: "This Sun-king of 
Egypt increased the royal harem to an unprecedented extent. 
])urinLi: the sixty-seven years of his reign he had 170 children, 
59 of tlioii sons. Considering himself superior to all moral 
laws, Ik; (-ven went so far as to marry one of his own daughters, 
t\\(' [iriiic(/ss Bcnt-Anat." '' Mr. Osbuni (|Uotes an inscription in 
\\hich ;i Pharaoh, whom he calls Thothiiiosis, is styled the brother 

'' ' 'l]i"ii'iliit(y of Aiiriciit Kini^'iluiiis. 
' ' i ii/iiiaiit, Ri'li^fioii- ill' rAiiti(|uiti'-, ii. l."p. 
F,'n"riii:ilit, .Maiiu:il, i. 2.")Ci. 


of his mother, and between this Thothmosis and his father and 
grandfather Mesphi-es Thothmosis he places the name Acencheres.^^ 
The same horrible story is told of the Indian Prajapati and his 
daughter Sarawati, who, represented by a river, was said to flow 
with blood ; it is repeated in Irish tradition, which makes Aongus 
Tuirmheach the father and grandfather of Fiachadh Fearmara ; 
and in the British legend of Vorti^ern.^" Professor Max Mtiller 
has identified the Vedic Sai'anyu with the Greek Erin}-^, those 
avengers of evil deeds who came to represent the remorse of an 
accusing conscience.'^ The two Horons are their originals, Horon 
the Tachatton and Horon the Elyon or Gelyon, whence came 
Aurunca and Suessa Aurunca of the Italian Aurunci, the Hiranya 
Aksha and Hiranya Casyapa of Indian mythology. Sons of the 
injured Zoheth, they were the natural avengers of his honour and 
their mother's shame. In the evils that befell Uzzen Sherah or 
Acencheres, and for his sake fell upon all the land of Egypt, the 
ancient world saw the hand of divine retribution and gave to it 
the name of those most wronged. 

Leaving the history of Zoheth and his sons for later consider- 
ation, we must retrace our steps and take up the main Egyptian 
line after the death or abdication of Mezahab. Taliath or Thoth- 
mes II., who married his daugher Hatred and introduced the 
Zoroastrian creed of which Mithra was the centre, does not seem 
to have done any memorable deeds beyond commencing some 
buildings in Ethiopia wdiich were completed by his successors. 
We have seen that Saul or Osortasen III. and LeophvaU or Amen- 
hotep II. were his contemporaries, the latter at Elephantine and 
the former at Abydos and in Lowei" Egypt. When Saul died and 
Ophrah met his fate, there was a time of anarchy. The Cymro- 
Zerethite dynasty, which had powei'ful allies in Chaldea and 
Mesopotamia, took possession of all Southern Palestine and 
Ai'abia Petraea, and probably made common cause with the 
representatives of the Ammonian line in Thebes. In Lycopolis 
or Siout in Central Egypt the name of a king Rekamai has been 

" Monunicntal ITistDi y of K^'vpt, ii. 302. 

1" Muir's Sanscrit Texts, i. ; Keating : (ieotfrcy. 

'** Chips ii. Coiniiarative Mj-tliDlogj'. 

'" Ji>s<'iilins against Ajiion, i. 'J6. 


found, who represents wliat was in the time of Jabez the vice- 
regal family of Mareshah. The son of Mareshah was Chebron 
or Hebron, who as Chebron or Chebros follows Amosis or Mesha, 
with whom he was really contemporary, in the beginning of 
Manetho's eighteenth dynasty. A son of Chebron was Rekem, 
who maj'' be the Rekamai of Lycopolis, suppo.sed to be a Shepherd 
king. The descendants of Rekem in succession were Shammai, 
Maon or Magon, and Beth Zur. The latter name in Hittite was 
Zur-vuna, and in geographical nomenclature was Saravcne in 
Northern Commagene. It was probably the original of the divine 
name Serapis, whose fanes in Greece Pausanias connects with the 
Argive .Egyptus and with Alcon son of Hippocoon, who is 
Rekem. The Serapium in Lower Egypt marks another stage in 
the fortunes of Mareshah's family, and their* tinal stand in 
Eg\'pt was made at the Serbonian marsh that extends almost to 
the river of Egypt called Arish after Mareshah himself. Lycon 
or Lycopolis may have received its name from Rekem, and the 
facts that Zur-vuna was in Egypt and that the Deltite kingdom 
of the Anubite Ammonites continued, are indicative of the support 
that the obstinate Thebans received, not only in repelling the 
three kings, but in retaking the short-lived empire of Saul. 
Typhon had not yet taken refuge in the Serbonian bog. It was 
the southern Pharaohs who tied, as .Tosephus tells us from 
Manetho. His account is that Amenopliis collected the lepers 
and impure people of the land (probably the Aadtous or Jahdaites 
whoi^e name is translated, the impure), and set them to work in 
the (juarries, at the same time granting at their re(|uest the city 
of Avaris as their residence. There a priest of On or Heliopolis 
united them and other ti'ibes in Egypt ami Canaan in a confeder- 
acy. This Osarsiph, who may possibly l)e Zur-vuna, gave his 
people new laws oppose<l altogether to those of tlie Egyptians, 
requiring them to destroy the sacred animals, and ha\e no fellow- 
ship with any tribes beyond the bounds of tlieii' oonl'ederation. 
Marching .s(juthward to the number of 2()(),()0(), tlie\' i-a\aged the 
countiy, setting towns on tire, profaning the temples, and making 
the ])riests c<jok the sacre(l uiiimuls with the wooden idols, after 
which th(;y stripjx-d them and drove them out ot" the land. 
Amenopliis sent his son Sethos, surnaiiie(l llaiiieses, to a iVieiid of 


his in Ethiopia, and marched against Osarsiph's host with 
300,000 of the most warHke of the Egyptians. But his courage 
failed him, and he retreated into Ethiopia without an engagement. 
" For the king of Ethiopia was under an obHgation to him, on 
which account he received him, and took care of all the multi- 
tude that was with him, while the country supplied all that was 
necessary for the foou of the men." Concerning the anarchy 
and historical difficulties of this period, M. Lenormant writes : 
" Everything shows us a time of trouble, of continual revolution, 
and of civil discord. No doubt part of the disturbances, of which 
the monuments bear traces, must have been contemporary with 
Har-em-Hebi, and have lasted during the whole of his official 
reign. In that period, we repeat, there are obscurities still 
impenetrable in- the present state of knowledge, and which new 
discoveries alone can dissipate." -'^ 

The Greek traditions confirm the statement of Josephus. 
Tyndareus, who was now Hadar, tied from Tentyra and Abydos 
to the representative of the line of Aphareus or Ophrah, and had 
an asylum granted him in Talmis, opposite which a new 
Dendur soon arose. x\nd Danae, with the infant Perseus, and 
perhaps the aged Tahath his father, found their way also to the 
court of Dictys. Thus the Elephantine kingdom became the 
refuge of two monarchs, and its king Ishi, a third Amenhotep or 
Amenopliis, might justly arrogate to himself the title of King of 
Egypt. The same~ account is given in the Indian scriptures of 
the Might of tlie royal line before the Kshattriyas or Achash- 
tarites, and of the birth of Parasara, Parasu Rama and Urva, the 
avengers of the slain in after years, in exile and deep distress.-^ 
Here, liowevei-, the real difficulty begins. Manetho's list of the 
eighteenth dynasty is teri'ibly confused, yet he recognizes only 
one Thotlniiosis and one Rameses, while modei-n workers among 
the inoimments hud four Thothmes and three Rames(.'S. Mr. 
Sharpe jtroves by monumental evidence that Thothmes II. 
mairifd (^ueen Mytera or Nitocris, the successor of Menthesuphis, 
in the language of the contemporary Kenite scribes, Matred, 
laughtei- of Mezahab. This Mezahab is Har-em-hebi, the golden 

Maiiiinl, i. L>40. 

-Muir, Saii.-ci'it Texts, i. 


Horns, father of Mutretem or Miitneteni, and M. Lenormant says 
that Raineses I. was the grandson on the mother's side of Har-eni- 
hebi." According to Mr. Sharpe, that gi"andson was Thothnies 
III.--* According to Sir Gardner Wilkinson, Raraeses I. traced 
his descent from Anienophis I., or the Kennezite Meonothai son of 
Hathath and Abiezer.-^ The name Rameses, the son of the Sun, does 
not occur in the Kenite list at all. It is probably a religious title 
first niaile use of by Tahath or Thotlimes II. as the reviver of the 
old Horite line of Ra, which descended to his son Beriah and to 
Uzzensherah, the ofi'spring of that monarch. It is possible that 
the second Tahath married into the family of Meonothai, and thus 
counted his descent from the Amenophids, but the honour which 
he accorded to Amun shows that he allied himself with the Jabez- 
ites or Amenemes. It follows, however, that Thothmes III. and 
Rameses II. are one and the same person,- and that the forty-seven 
years of the former are included in the sixty of the latter- 
Eusebius gives to Rameses a reign of sixty-eight years. According 
to Josephus, the expulsion of the Shepherds took place in the 
reign of Thothmosis, but the Bible statement that the captive 
Jews built for Pharaoh the cities Pitliom and Raamses connects 
liim with the latter name, for the Tahaths we)-e the descendants 
of Etam, Atmos, or Pi Atum, after whom Pithom was called." 
The name Rameses, although not a personal name, and thus 
valueless in the comparative study of traditions, is useful as 
indicating the point at which the old line of Ra regained Egyptian 
sovereignty, and completely confirms the Bible story of Egyptian 
rule and Israelite oppression. There were only two supreme 
Pharaolis on the throne between the fall of the Hyesos and the 
Exodus, the old king wlio died, and the young successor who 
perislu'd in the waters of the Red Sea. The old king was the 
Greek Perseus, the Indian Parasu Rama, and the Kgyptian 
Thothmes III. and Rameses II. He was thus Mci'iah of the 
Keniti' reeoi'd, who united two (l\'iiasties, being the son of 

Tahath II.. the native Fliai'aoh, and of Matred the daughtei- of 

Mezahi'.li, tli(^ last <if the 1 lycsos-Amiiioniaii line. 

-- .Manual, i. L'lO. 

-' Hi~t..iv nf l':-v|>t. i. 17. 

-' Rau litisiiir>'itns, apii. lik. ii. cli. \iii. (\i\tli <i\nasty). 

' .[..-(Iilius a''aili>l .Xliioii, i. It; l'',\ii(lus, i. 11. 


The monuments show that Mehetabel, the daughter of Tahath 
II. and Matred, was much older than Beriah, thus discrediting 
the romantic Greek legend of Danae which makes Perseus her 
tirst-born. With her pai'ents she found refuge from the 
tumultuary Hittites and Carians, who were ravaging Egypt to 
the very borders of Nubia, in the kingdom of Ishgi. Although 
this son of the great Leophrah had married a daughter of Bedan, 
who even then it may be was acting as regent for his kinsman, 
the youthful Baalhanan, and was thus associated with the ally 
of the Egyptian spoilers, he courteously received the fugitives. 
The descendants of Jabez and his son Mesha were sacred in his 
eyes, for he called himself the tirst prophet of Ames and Isis, or 
of Mesha and Hathath. Also the southern land which con- 
stituted the kinofdom of the Tahaths seems to have been left 
under his government, when the second of that name went to 
Thebes to claim the empire that had been guaranteed to him with 
his Theban spouse, for one of his officers, Necht-Ames, is termed 
" superintendent of the double storehouse of all the gods in 
Takahti and the god Ames in Xenti." At the court of Ishgi 
another refugee from cruel enemies obtained shelter, Hadar the 
son of Saul, and he succeeded in gaining Mehetabel for his. bride- 
He thus became a fourth Thothmes, foi- the infant Beriah was 
the third, and as such his consort's name is Mautemva, or, if the 
boat-like Hieroglyphic at the foot of her cartouche be read hai'i, 
the boat of the sun, Mautembari. Her Annnonite descent is clear, 
for, assuming royalty as regent for her aged father and infant 
brother, she wrote upon her monuments, " King Thothmes, she 
has made this wo)-k for her father Amun." Hence .she is also 
called by the TheV)an name Amun-nou-het. Still another name 
borne by her is Thermuthis, which is the Egyptian Toer Maut or 
great mother, out of which the Greeks made Andromache and 
Andromeda. Homei- could not if he had tried been guilty of a 
greater paradox than that which converted the chief enemy of the 
Trojans into their protector Hector, the husband of Andromache, 
for these are Hadar and Mehetabel. That Hadar's (pieen was as 
warlike as himself cannot l>e averred, although her monuments 
represent her d)'(;ssed as a man and engaging in foreign con(}uests, 
for these representations may be attributions to the (jueen regent 


of the acts of her warlike husband. It was indeed Adi-astus who 
led the Epigoni back against Thebes. Prior to this conquest, 
however, we learn from the stories of Ixion, Zohak, and Dictys, 
that a struggle had taken place in the Elephantine kingdom. 
The two sons of Ishgi, probably no older than the youthful 
Beriah, if indeed they had attained his years, were the puppets 
of adverse factions, of which that of Zoheth favoured the heir of 
the Theban throne, while that of Ben Zoheth, whom th(! Egvp- 
tians called Zaiath-Khirrii, and the Assyrians, Sandu-arri, was 
opposed to, and desired to injure, him. The latter is the 
Polydectes who sought to force Danae to marry him. Taking 
his father Ishgi's name, he is the Ixion who entrapped his father- 
in-law Deioneus into a tire pit to his destruction, and sought to 
win the affections of the wife of the Pharaoh who, according to 
Tzetzes, expiated him, and for these offences was bound upon the 
wheel. The descent of Ixion is from Phlegyas or Bela, or from 
Peision or Pacinian, and his wife Dia agrees with Taia, the wife 
of Ishgi. But that Ishgi's son Benzoheth was the criminal 
appears from the Persian story, in which Zohak served his father 
or father-in-law Mirtas the Tasi as Ixion served Deioneus, Ijeing 
himself Biurasp, a descendant of Beor.'-''' It seems probable that 
the aged Tahath fell in the contest that ensued, being the 
Jamadagni, peaceful sage, whom Parasu-ama avenged e(|ually 
with Siphthah or Zabad, and his three sons, that fell lefore 
Thebes. The Polydectite faction was subdued, and Zaiath-Khirrii 
Iriven out of Egypt to swell the Hittite horde in Canaan. 

Hadar and his royal consort took Thebes, where she set up 
two ol)el!sks in memory of her father 'J'hothmes, one of which 
still stands amid the ruins of Karnak. Seated at last upon the 
throne of her grandfather Mezahab, she had her brother Buriah 
crowned as Rameses II., the second .son of the Sun and guardian 
of the; Mithriac faith, and as Tbothuii-s III. the heir of the ancient 
Egyptian line of Tahath. But while tlu' yomig king was tht; 
S')n of the Sun and of TlK)tli, she did not allow him to forgtt his 
mat'i'nal ancestry, calling him .Mei Auiuii.tlu' bcloxed oi' Ainmon- 
For fiftiM'ii years at least Mehetultel kept the empire for liei- 
brother, not only j)Ushiiig her border noithwaid and limitiiii;,- 

-' TaKari, !I7. 


the region overrun by the Hittites and Philistines, but crossing 
over into Arabia and enriching- herself with the spoils of Yemen. 
At Semneh and Amada in Nubia, her husband Hadar, .as 
Thothmes IV., erected monuments, in which he rendered adora- 
tion to his father Saul as Osortasen III. There he conquered 
the negroes. But in the north he left his name upon the Sphinx, 
that Hittite monument at Gizeh. as a sign that the empire of the 
Jachdaites was at an end. Of his career of conquest there is no 
record beside, save that the Zerethite Rutennu of Mesopotamia 
paid him tribute, and this means much. It means that Caphtorim 
and Philistim were driven out of Egypt, hovering, nevertheless, 
like hungry lions, upon her north-eastern borders ; that the 
alliance made between Saul and Michael of the Xoite kingdom 
by the marriage of Helen to that Anubite prince was ratified ; 
and that the palmy days of Beerothite sovereignty in Gebalene 
were restored. Hadar was the hero of the eighteenth dynasty, 
who fought its battles from the. Euphrates in the north to distant 
Yemen and Ethiopia in the south, while his queen, as regent for 
Beriah, sat upon the Memphite throne. Already he has appeared 
as the overthrower of the Cymro-Zerethite kingdom on the shores 
of the Dead Sea. Farther south in Arabia Petn^^a he recovered 
the mines opened by his ancestor Hadad, and set up his queen's 
name with that of her brother Beriah as Thothmes III., conse- 
crating the peninsula to her as Hathor the mistress of Mafkat. 

Beraiah did not like his sister's tutelage and would willingly 
have cast it off, yet dared not, for Hadar the Beerothite was the 
mightier of the two men, and a sino-le word from him would 
have been enough to bring all his brother Hittites, a number- 
less and valiant host, into the land they had wrested from the 
ancestors of the Thothmes long years before. There is a singular 
nobility in Hadar's character. Brave as a lion, rich and powerful, 
he not only endured the ill disguised dislike of the petulant 
Bei'iah. whose egregious vanity made him jealous of his Ijrother- 
in-law's fame, but modestly eff\iced himself, ascrilnng all the 
iioiKnir of his warlike achievements and great consti'uctions to 
his consort and the sovereign for whom she exercised the 
functions of regent. The second Rameses is saiil to have reigned 
sixty-six years, but his reign n)ust have been longer, for his 


successor had only been twelve years on tiie throne when death 
overtook him. and at this time Moses was eighty years of age. 
At the birth of Moses, Rameses exercised regal authority, for his 
was the edict that the infant sons of the Hebrews should be put to 
death. Prior to this time the subjugated dwellers in Goshen 
had been condennied to hard labour as builders of the treasure 
cities Pithom and Raamses, and on the moiuiuients of Thothmes 
III. and Rameses II. they are represented at this task, the victims 
of cruel oppression. " They are more and mightier than we," 
said Phai'aoh of the children of Israel, nnd this was probably 
true, so far as the native Egyptians who adhered to his foi'tunes 
were concerned, for many of its Amorite families had passL'd into 
Palestine, and others in the Arabian desert were waiting, along 
with the expelled Moabites, for the death of Hadar or the decay 
of his power to wrest Canaan from the Hittites.-'' The alliance 
of Rameses with Hadar the Beerothite, and his descent from the 
Ammono-Hittite kings of Thebes, did not please the families of 
Shechem, Gibeon, and Seir. But tor the support of Hadar and 
the Xoite Michael, Rameses would never have gained his throne, 
nor, gaining, would have been able to keep it. Hadar was at the 
height of his career, and his wife Mehetabel was still nominally 
the regent, when the infant Moses was laid in the ark ()f bul- 
rushes and placed among the papyrus plants on the brink of the 
Nile. Rameses was still young, for he reigned sixty-eight ^^'ars 
after this, young, tall and handsome, every inch a king, but 
proud, crafty, vicious, and cruel as the grave. He had issued the 
edict to slay the childixm : his otticers had approved it, and by 
none might it be gainsaid. Yet (jne there was whose right royal 
mother heart revolted at the fiendish counsel, and who expostu- 
lated, but all in vain, with her younger bi-other, to whom she had 
been as a mother while her husl)an(rs strong ai-m had secured 
him Egypt's wide ilominion, for, so fai', thei'e is no recui-d that 
Rames(.'S had fought a battle in person. Pharaoh's daughter 
saved th(! infant .Moses and adoptecl him, I'oi' hei* one son Shimon, 
the Esf(;ndiar of the Pc^rsians, was away at the wai-s with his 
father liadai-, an Agaiin'iunoii, king of men, dear to the hearts 

-' Kxodus, i. ;. 


of the Egyptians, who longe'd to see him on the throne.^^ This 
Pharaoh's daughter was Mehetabel, and that is why the Hebraeo- 
Kenite record mentions her name, the only name of a consort 
given to the kings that reigned in Edom. Josephus calls her 
Thermuthis or Toer Maut, the great mother, probably the affec- 
tionate title she bore among the Egyptians as mother and all to 
young Rameses and his people. Homer may be pardoned for his 
historical blunder in making Andromache daughter of Eetion, 
king of Thebes, and mother of Scamandrius, the wife of a Trojan 
Hector, on account of the beautiful picture he draws of the white 
armed matron, so full of motherly love and tender solicitude for 
her husband's Avelfare. None but she in all the broad land of 
Egypt would have dared to brave the tyrant and save the He- 
brew child. Other writers mention her, but so confusedly that 
their statements add nothing to our knowledge. Artapanus calls 
her the daughter of Palmanothes, which looks like an inversion 
of her true name, and the wife of king Chenephres, her name 
being Merris. According to Bar Hebraeus, she was Trimuthisa, 
called Damris by the Hebrews, the daughter of Amenophathis 
and wife of Knapbra.^^ But the true name of the queen regent 
and saviour of Moses survives to this day on the Lower Colorado 
in America, among the Mojeves or Amockhaves, who have a tra- 
dition that Mathovelia or Matevil once lived with them in a casa 
(jraadc, but the (-(n^a vx^as broken down, and he departed into the 
east to a mountain where dead warriors go.^*^ It is strange that 
the lineage of Mezahab, for such are these Mojeves, should hold 
in honour the granddaughter of the last Jahdaite Pharaoh, seeing 
that she was the expeller of his Caphtorini from Thebes and 
Coptos, and that her father Taliath and husband Hadar were 
alike enemies of the descendants of Jabez. 

Although Rameses or Beriah was in a sense the lord of all 
Egypt, there were three monarchies in that land more or less in- 
depfudeiit of his sway. Michael and his brethren held the eastern 
part of the Delta ; Islii and his son Zoheth occupied Elephantine ; 
and Hadar and his son Shimon disputed in a measure with their 

De L.inoy.-. Rumcs.'s th.' (Jrcat, 23(1. 

(Jniy's Anoifiit Fnig-ineiits. 

Becker, CfUiyri-.s de.s Aint'iicanistcs, lh77, Tmue i. p. 33."). 


brother-in-law and unclothe sovereignty of the whole country. 
It is yet difficult from the joint testimony of tradition and the 
monuments to reconstruct the history of the lonfj reiffn of him 
who has been regarded as the greatest of the Pharaohs, and 
whose mummy has so recently been brought to light. Nevorthe. 
less it is clear that his reign consists of three distinct periods. 
In the tirst, he was under the guardianship of his sister Meheta- 
bel, and Hadar fought his battles. In the second, he was at times 
in friendly, at others, in hostile, relations with her son Shimon, 
whose death he seems to have compassed. And in the third, he 
was supported by the valour of his son-in-law Zoheth, the Seti of 
the monuments. The first of these has been already illustrated. 
The second calls for information concerning Shimon and his sons. 
Hadar the father of Shimon was the first Persian Darius, so that 
Persian history should tell the story of his family. It does so, 
but with as much confusion as that which reigns in Homer's poem 
on the fall of Troy. The cause of this confusion is the change of 
relation from enmity to friendship and from friendship to enmity 
brought about by the many alliances of rival Hittite and native 
Egyptian families. Already Hadar as Gudarz has been found 
in Mirkhond warring on the side of Thebes instead of against it, 
yet betraying his true position as an Adrastus by the twin cir- 
cumstances of a sanguinary defeat and subseciuent glorious vic- 
tory. His son Shimon as Esfendiar again is falsely made the 
.son of (nishtasp and the great enemy of the patriarchal Rustam, 
who, as the son (jf Zaul, should be his own father. A Persian 
tradition reported by /Elian sei'ves to connect the nursling of the 
Siiaurgh with his grandson, for it states that Acbaemenes was 
brought up by an eagle. ^^ Plato's scholiasts i-epresent this Achae- 
menes as the ofi'spring of Perseus and Andi'omeda, instead of 
Perses, who is generally made their son. Half the tiHitli is liere, 
for Aiidi-oiiicda, dauglitt')' of Ccpheus, is Mclietabcl as Toer Maut, 
the descfiKluiit of Me/aluilj and Zipli, the sistei' of I">eriali or Per- 
seus, iiiid the wife of iladai'. ()tliei' (Ireek traditions display 
siiiiil.'ii' blunders. ALiaiiieinnon, who is Sliiiuoii and Achaemenes, 
is riL,ditlv' the son of Ati'eus, hut in marrying (Jlyteiiinestra, the 

' I )" Aiiiin.-ilihu.^, \ii. 21 . 


daucrhter of Tyndarus, he is made to ally himself with a daughter 
of his own line, inasmuch as Tyndarus or Tyndareus is a form of 
the dynastic name Hadadezer. But the story that Clytemnestra 
was betrothed to a son of Thyestes, from whom Agamemnon took 
her, and that he suffered death at the hands of his unfaithful 
wife and her paramour, ^gisthus, son of Thyestes, coupled with 
that of the enmity of the Persians to the race of Zohak, lets in a 
flood of lioht upon the history of Shimon, showing that he mar- 
ried a princess who stood in some relation to the Kenezzite king- 
dom at Elephantine, and that Zoheth, son of Ishi and Taia, who 
replaced him as the general of Rameses, was the cause of his 
death. Further Greek traditions make Orestes the son of Agfa- 
memnon, but restore the great enemy of Tro\' in Tisamenus, the 
son of Orestes, who w^ith his four sons was driven by the Hera- 
clida:^ out of Argos into Achaia, and who fell fighting against the 
lonians, as Esfendiar died b}' the hand of Rustam. According 
to I'ausanias, the four sons of Tisamenes were Daimenes, Sparton, 
Telles, and Leontomenes. Persian history gives Esfendiar but 
one named Behmen, whose surname Ardeshir explains the Greek 
Orestes. But the Kenite record presents the true names of the 
four as Amnon, Rinnah, Benhanan, and Tilon.'^- Of these Amnon 
corresponds to Daimenes, Behmen, and Memnon, and Tilon to the 
Greek Telles. To Diodorus, Shimon was Os3'-mandias, whose 
tomb at Thebes he describes as the work of Memnon of Syene.^^ 
He tells of the enormous statue of his mother, on whose head- 
piece three (jueens were represented, showing that slie was the 
daughter, wife, and mother, of a king. On his own statue were 
the words, " I am O.symandias, king of kings ; if anyone would 
know liow great I am and where I rest he must destroy these 
works." Within the lofty chamber of the tomb the king was 
represented subduing the revolted Bactrians with an army of 
400,000 foot and 20,000 horsemen, the army consisting of four 
divisions commanded by his four sons, and by the side of (-)sy- 
Tiiandias a lion marched. Mr. Xenrick supposes that the Rame- 
seum is the monument of Osymandias, whose name niay relate 
to that of Simandu, called a son of Rameses III., and points out 

- 1 Cliron. iv. 20. 
- l)i(,(l. Sic. i. -2, i 


the similarity between the pictures in it and those described by 
Diodorus, in particular the fortress of tlie so-called Bactrians 
surrounded by a river, and the king attended by his four sons. 
The Greek accounts of Menmon call him an Ethiopian or a Per- 
sian of Susa, the son of Eos and Tithonus, who was governor of 
Persia for Teutamus the king of Assja-ia. The Rameseum also 
was anciently called the Memnonium, and the great colossus of 
Thebes which responded with musical tones to the beams of the 
rising sun bore the name of the same hero. 

Shimon is well determined as Amunoph III., for that mon- 
arch was the son of Thothmes IV. and Mautemva, the Kenite 
Hadar and Mehetabel. But how can the name iVmunoph or Am- 
enhotep be explained ? The first Amenhotep was Meonothai, 
son of Hathath the Kenezzite, and the second was his son Leo- 
phrah. The third should have been Ishi, the son of Leophrah. 
The son of Hadar and Mehetabel could not trace his descent from 
Leophrah, unless the second marriage of Hathath and Mesha was 
deemed sufficient to give Mesha's descendant Mehetabel a claim 
to Kenezzite ancestry. The solution seems to be found in the 
fact that Taia was the wife of both Ishi and Shimon. Now Tith- 
onus, called the father of Memnon, is also made the father of Plui'- 
thon, from whom came Astinous or Ishi, and his son Sandochus 
or Zoheth, and another Tithonus was tlie son of the Trojan Lao- 
medon. Tithonus seems to be a myth, and Menmon is given as 
the husband of the widow of Ishi, and the usurper of that mon- 
arch's title as the third Amenhotep. It is his name that appears 
upon the vocal statue. He was one of the greatest builders 
among the Pharaohs, and his monuments are at once the grandest 
and the most ])erfectly executed of those that adoi'u the valle\' of 
the Nile. At Thebes he eidarged tlie temple of Kn.i'uak and built 
tin- gi'eater part of that of Luxoi'. At Syenc and Kle])hantin<' 
other teiii])les <jf beautiful workmanship, hearing his name and 
that of his cons(jrt Taia. mark him as the possessor of tht- Ken- 
ezzite kingdom, whicli had not ])asscd out of the hands of tlie 
sons of i\i'naz sinci- the first Sckciifii made his suhmission to 
Ajii'pi. liis own naiuf he confcn-cil u])on the i'ortihc(l citx- of 
Sennie'h h<'yond the st-eond entaract, aii'l in the ti'mplcs he their 
hnilt were re'Corde(l his victories o\-er tlie negrcics, wlinm ln' pur- 


sued beyond distant Napata, and against whose incursions he 
interposed the fortifications of Soleb, wlience Tirhaka in later 
days carried off the sculptured lions that adorned them. In Sem- 
neh also he united with his name that of his uncle Beriah as 
Thothines III., in an act of adoi'ation to his great ancestor, the 
third Osortn.sen or Saul. At Napata itself lie left a temple to 
mark his conquest. But elsewhere his memorials appear at Sil- 
silis, Eilithyia, and in the Serapeum of Memphis. Nor did he for- 
get his mother's dowry, won by the gallant Hadar back from 
Cymro-Zimrite foes, the land of Hathor, mistress of Mafkat, 
whose mines Hadad opened when the world was young, and on 
which he impresed his royal name. He was a warrior, this king 
of men, as Homer calls him, a warrior like all of his race, Beerothite, 
Bharatan, Parthian, British, and, though the Briton who calls him- 
self such sails under borrowed colours, they are colours of which he 
need not be ashamed. It was perhaps no very chivalrous thing 
to conduct a slave hunt in the Soudan, but it was a more humane 
thing to bring home prisoners than to return with the scalps and 
ears of the slain, as many a Hittite army did, in barbarous tri- 
umph. Did Beriah as Thothmes III. take Carchemish ? Its 
name is on Shimon's monument as his conquest. Did he as 
Rameses II. overthrow the men of Kadesh ? It is recorded as an 
actio)i of Amenhotep III. It was he, Shimon, Amenhotep III., 
who pacified Naharaina or Mesopotamia ; and there is no foe of 
Egypt in the reign of the so-called Rameses II. and I'liothmes III., 
whom the .son of Pharaoh's daughter did not meet victoriously. 
Little he seems to have cared for the vainglorious and gloomy 
despot who oppressed Israel in Goshen, and held regal state at 
Memphis, wliil*' the strong arms of his sister's husband and son 
shelteied him from his enemies. At Luxor he styled him.self 
" Horus, the strong bull who rules by the sword and destroys all 
barbarians: he is king of Upper and Lower Egypt, absolute 
master, sou of the Sun. He strikes down the chiefs of all lands ; 
no country can stand before his face. He marches and victory is 
gaiiKid, like Horus, son ol" Isis, like the Sun in heaven. He over- 
turns even their fcH-tresses. He brings to Egypt by his valour 
tribute from many countries, he, the lord of both worlds, son 
of the Snn."''^ This was no emptv bojist, as many traditions tes- 

'* Ijcnoriiiaiit, Mainutl, i. "J.HT. 


tify, for the words are those of the Persian Esfendiar, to 
Gushtasp, who seems to represent Rameses, promised the succes- 
sion to the kingdom on condition of his subduing all lands. He 
succeeded after a career of constant victory, and Gushtasp for 
reward cast him into prison. When the enemy returned and 
there was no bulwark of the empire, Esfendiar was taken from 
the prison house again triumphantly to lead the troops of Iran to 
conquest. And then, seeing with jealous eye that his son's fame 
eclipsed his own, the perfidious monarch sent him against the 
great warrior Rustam, by whose hand he fell.^^ Let nephew take 
the place of son, and this is the story of Ramese? and Shimon. But 
he is Menmon too, the blameless Ethiopian and viceroy of Persia, 
who subdued all the nations between Susa and Troy, and fell by 
the hands of Achilles. And he is Agamemnon, the tall Grecian hero 
so noble, so graceful, and dignitied a warrior as Trojan Priam 
never saw before, a kingly man, the far rulincr Aefamcmnon, son of 
Atreus, wliotn shameless Helen yet judged a good king and a brave 
soldiei". He also met his death in his own house, like Memnon, 
fabulously slain by Achilles, and Esfendiar by Rustam, for the 
historical Achilles, and Zaul, father of Rustam, was Saul of Reho- 
both, the grandfather of Shimon. The Greek story which makes 
/Egisthus, .son of Thyestes, and Clytemnestra, the assassins of Aga- 
meiiinon, im])utes the ciiine of Shimon's death to Zoheth, the eldest 
son of his wife Taia. 

Shimon must have been the protector and upbi-ingcrof Moses, 
whom his }nother Mehetabel had saved from death. Arabian 
autlKji's call the (jueen who adopteil Moses and accejited his fnith 
xVsia, the daugiitei' of Mozahem.-"'' Rabbinical writei's I'epresent the 
young Hebrew as a d ueller in Ethiopia, which, strange to sa\', they 
call Diidiaba, and as the husband thei'e of an Ethiopian ((ueen in 
wiiose service he wai-rc^l against her rebcllicjus subjects.'*'^ The 
langiiage of St. Stephen is agi-eeablu to this ti-adition, for it 
atiinns that .Moses was miglity in words and in deeds, and that he 
was full foi-t\' years old when it came into his heart to visit his 
bi-(thi-en the cliilili-en of Isi-ac;l.''' Tlie monunumts indicate that 

FinluM, .Mirkh'.iMi. 

KMiail, ell. Iwi. Sail''.-, note. 

I'.ariiiK'fl'Milfl, \,i-^''n<\^ <<f Old 'l'.-st:ilii.-lit CliaiacliTr 

Act.H of till- Apnsll.-^, vii. L'2-;(. 


Mehetabel's regency did not extend to the twentieth year of 
Beriah, so that she must have bequeathed her adopted son to the 
care of Shimon, and him the youthful Moses must have accom- 
panied to the court of queen Taia at Elephantine, where his edu- 
cation in the learning of the Egyptians was received, and whence 
he afterwards followed Shimon and his four sons to many fields 
of conquest. W^ith them he may have been in Arabia Petra^a at 
the mines, at Kadesh in Palestine, and at Carchemish on the Eu- 
phrates, traversing on the way that land of Canaan promised to 
the patriarchs, his fathers. At Elephantine also he made a 
princely convert of the royal line of the Sekenens, the Kenezzite 
Jephunneh, father of Caleb, another like Jabez, more honourable 
than his brethren, who gave up rank and fortune with the abomina- 
tions of Baal Peor, to be an exile for the love of God.^'^ With 
such an example as Shimon before him Moses could hardly fail 
to be a princely man, but there is no evidence that his protector 
shared the Hebrew's faith. The gallant Beerothite reigned thirty- 
six years, and then seems to have been succeeded by his son Ain- 
non, the Behraen of the Persians, and the Pthahmen who is men. 
tioned with Amenhotep III. at Silsilis. The so-called Strange]- 
Kings claim alliance with him in their cit}^ of Tel-el-Amarna, but 
their ungainly figures and imbecile features, with the unbounded 
servility of their attendants, ])resent characteristics most unlike 
those of the Osortasens, and indeed those of the Hittite rulers in 
general. One of them, called a son of queen Taia, who rejected 
the title Amenhotep IV. for the name Atin-re-Bakiian, is the 
most idiotic in appearance, yet he mentions Hadar or Thothmes 
IV., and pays divine honours to Shimon or Amenhotep III. He 
was a wor.;hipper of the solar disc under the name Aten, and this, 
as well as his name Bakhan, connects him with the native 
Pharaohs of Elephantine, descended from Othniel and his father 
Kenez, the Paclinan or Apachnas of the lists. The names of these 
Phai-aohs are not in the Kenite record, for Annion, Riiniah, Ben- 
hanan, and Tilon, are irreconcilable with them. The joint evi- 
<lence of tradition and the monuments tends to sliow tliat with 
Pthalnnen oi- Amnon the Egyptian rule of tlie Beei'othites came 
to an enrl, and that the family withdrew to a Syrian home, there 

'' Niniib. xiii. *). 


to appear in after centuries as Benhadads and Hadadezers. Yet 
M. Lenormant thouglit that there was some connection between 
these Stranger Kings and the Hebrews. " There are curious 
resemblances between the external forms of Isi-uelitish worship 
in the desert, and those revealed by the monuments of Tell-cl- 
Aniiirna. Some of the sacred furniture, such as the table of shew 
bread, described in the book of Exodus as belonging to the Taber- 
nacle, is seen in the representations of the worship of Aten, but 
not at any other period."^'' Doubtless Bezaleel and Aholiab, who 
were placed over the work of the Tabernacle, had exercised their 
art in Egypt, so that, while guided in the general plan of its 
furniture by divine instruction, the details would naturally be 
according to models with which they were familiar, and such 
models would be those of Tell-cl-Amarna.^^ Before the death of 
Shimon, Moses must have refused to be called longer the son of 
Pharaoh's daughter, and, passing from the security of the Upper 
Kingdom to the Memphite region, over which Beriah exercised 
his tyrannical rule, visited his enslaved brethren. It may have 
been his project as a warrior to lead them forth fi-om slavery, but 
their objection to his interference showed him the fruitlessness of 
such, an attempt, and taught him that the time of redemption was 
not yet come. Crossing over into Arabia Petraea, where the 
subjects of Shimon, but Kenites of the family of Hamath, dwelt, 
he was in safety from the pursuit of the Hebrews' oppressor at 
Memphis, and at freedom from the irksoineness of court life in 
the palaces of Thebes. 

When the Persian historians reach the reign of B(;hmen, they 
flounder and fall into anachronisms innumerable. Behmen set 
aside hissonSassan in favour of his daughter Humai, who launched 
her infant Uarab in the traditional ark. A miller or a fuller 
took up the child, and he became king, an<l was followed Vy a 
son l)ai';i, at'tei- whom came Iskandei\ oi' Alexandei' of Macedon. 
With iSt'liiin-n. the gui<lance of the Prrsian nari'ative ceases, and 
the gr-Mt iiifu of P)eei"oth slniiibei' I'oi- a time. l>nt a new hei'o 
comes upiiii (Im' tidd. the Kmc/./ite Zohetli, who is Zoliak, the 
well hati'd of tlic i'.'rsiiurs soul, an-l llic (Ji'eek l)ietys. whom 

'" .M il,ii:il, i. L':'.'.i. 
v. {. xxxi. -J. t;. 


Perseus set upon the throne of Seriphus, in the room of the 
tyrant Polydectes. It may be that the kings of Tell-el-Amarna 
were the Polydectites, the Beni Zocheth or Zaiath-Khirrii of the 
Egyptians. The readers of the Egyptian monuments find several 
Setis ; the Kenite record knows but one. Seti was of shepherd 
descent, it is agreed, and the long ears of Labradh and Midas 
adorned his monuments. He is also called Menephtah, a name 
derived from his ancestor, Meonothai. Had the succession been 
rightly noted, he would be the fourth Menephtah in regular des- 
cent from Meonothai, Leophrah and Ishi. He must have been 
almost as old a man as Beriah, so that the princess Sherah, eldest 
daughter of the latter, w^hom he married, must have been very 
much younger than her husband. Serah, or Tsire, as the readers 
of the monuments call her, was not Seti's first wife. Her name 
was Twea, and her posterity may appear at Tell-el-Amarna. But 
the children of Sherah were the heirs to the Egyptian throne, 
although Rameses had many sons, of whom two, Rephah and 
Resheph, are mentioned in the Kenite list.*'- Many of these sons 
did not sui'vive their long lived father. Rameses was fortunate 
in his generals, who might better be called his allies. His 
brother-in-law, Hadar, had set him on the throne and vanquished 
the enemies of the early part of his reign ; his nephew Shimon 
had made the middle of that reign prosperous ; and then Zoheth, 
the Kenezzite, as the son-in-law of the haughty monarch, became 
the support of his declining years. Many students of Egyptian 
history make Seti Menephtah the son of Rameses I. and father 
of Rameses II. although others regard him as only the son-in-law 
of the first. Accoi'ding to the Kenite list, and the testimony of 
tradition, the first Rameses was the same person as Thothnies II. 
who called himself Rameses as the restorer of the ancient line of 
Ra or Reaiah, and the institutor of the worship of the sun in its 
modified Zoroastrian form. He was the father of Rameses II., 
Thothmes III. or Beriah ; and Hadar was his son-in-law, the true 
guardian of the throne for the youthful monarch. Seti Meneph- 
tah then, the son of Ishi, and son-in-law of Beriah, and only 
Pharaoh of tliat name, was one of the greatest and most \\ ai'like 

*'- 1 Chron. vii. 2b. 


of Egyptian monarchs. His tirst exploit seems to Iiave been the 
overthrow of the Beerothite regency, for Abydos, the Avith which 
Hadad, the son of Bedad, tirst made the capital of the Osortasens, 
he occupied, and in it he erected the gi-eat temple of Osiris. He 
drove the posterity of Shimon out of Thel)es, and built there 
the magnificent palace of Kurnah, and the Hall of Columns, 
in Karnak, on the walls of which his actions are recorded. Then 
intelligence reached him that the Shasu or Shuhites, who still 
kept the Serbonian marsh towards the river, named Arish after 
their hero Ma Reshah, had made a descent upon Egypt, and were 
besieging Zal, near the Bitter Lakes, which was a memorial of 
the great Saul or Osortasen III. built as the frontier fortress of 
the mining country in the Sinaitic peninsula. Seti drove them 
back into the desert. Afterwards, marchino: throuoh Canaan, he 
met with no resistance, but on the contrary the tribes flocked to 
his standard, proud of the Hittite lord of the Egyptian host. His 
great exploit in the Hittite country was the capture of Kadesh, 
which is said to have been on the Orontes. This identification is 
more than doubtful. especially as the people whom Seti found there 
were not Hittites, but Aimaru or Amorites. There were two 
places named Kedesh in Palestine proper ; one also called Kishon, 
to the south-west of the sea of Galilee, and another known as Naphtali, between that lake and the sea of Merom. The 
latter was famous in Canaanitic history, as adjoining Hazor and 
Harosheth. and Safed near it would answer to Shabutana, wliich 
the Egyptian accounts place in the vicinity of Kadesh. Josephus 
calls it a Mediterranean city of the Tyrians. by which he must 
mean that it was surrounded by a moat, traces of Avhich are still 
visible, and thus also it corresponds to the Kadesh of the monuments. 
Seti made a treaty of peace with Mautnar, King of the Hittites, 
and restored Kadesh, of which the Aiuorites had deprived hii'i, to 
his possession. But the Kutennu or Zt-retliites wen- not included 
in this peace. Driven out of their stronghold on the Nahaliel by 
Hadar an<l his valiant son, they now occupied eastern Syria, and 
the l);isin oi tln' Euphrates. There Seti sought them out, and 
bi-okt' still fai-thtjr tlieir powci', compelling i^aliyloii, Singar, and 
Ninevt'h to sue for ]eacc. Anothri- Hittite fiiinily, which had 
inaugural(Ml the Akkailiau kingdom in the person of llegein, son 


of Jachdai, but was known as the tribe of the Remanen or 
Armenians from his son Harum, and that seems to have dwelt 
between Lebanon and Carehemish, he conquered, thus pacifyino- 
all the northern nations on the east of Egypt. But on the west 
the Robu or Rephaim, who had given their name in its Lapp 
form to Libya, made encroachments, it may be in concert with 
the X oites, for the Kenite list of these kings ends with Michael 
and his brethren. It is, therefore, probable that Rameses had 
made an end of Xoite royalty. However, Seti repelled the Libyan 
invaders, and having thus brought all Egypt for the second time 
in history under One sceptre, he reconquered the Arabian king- 
dom of Yemen, which ITadar and his heroic consort had first 
subdued. The fleet that carried the Egyptian troops to Yemen 
was unavailable for the more important service required on the 
Mediterranean. Accordingly Seti carried out that great engineer- 
ing triumph attributed to Sesostris, performed in later times 
by the Macedonian Pharaohs, and re-achieved in modern days by 
F]-ench genius and British capital, the opening of the Suez Canal. 
Phcienicians in part manned the navies that coasted along 
the two seas thus connected, but most of the sailors who served 
in it were Hittites, well accustomed to brave the terrors of the 
deep, the Shardana and the Takkaro, descendants of Zereth and 
Tsochar, who, like free born sons of Heth, served Pharaoh when it 
pleased them, and when it did not, made war upon his people. 

M. Lenormant says : " The features of Seti are too handsome, 
and of a regularity too cla.ssical, for the pure blood of Mizraim ; 
they denote an origin drawn fi'om another people." This people 
he shows to be the Hittites or Shepherds, whose deity Sutech 
was worshipped at Tanis or Zoan, where Rameses II. traced his 
descent from Set Aahpeti, on a red granite tablet erected by his 
son-in-law Seti, in which ho erroneously represents a period of 
four hundred years as having elapsed since the time of the great 
Jalx'Z."''* Two hundred would be nearer the mark. Manetho 
states that Sethos reigned 5-5 years, which would make him sur- 
viv(3 Rameses. Sir Gardner Wilkinson says : " His long reign 
and life appeal- to have ended suddenly, for after h". had com- 
pleted Ins tomb, ho ordered an extra chamber to be added to it, 

'' M;iim.Tl, i. LMl : l{.'c<.nl.s uf tlit- I':ist, iv. Hl^. 


which was never finished ; and the figures left in outline prove 
that time was wanting to complete it." *^ Did he perish with the 
successor of Rameses in the Red Sea ? There is a dirge of Men- 
ephtah that is significant. 

" Amen gave thy heart pleasure, 

he gave thee a good old age, 

a lifetime of pleasure followed thee, 

blessed was thy life, sound thy arm, 

strong thy eye to see afar, 

thou hast been clothed in linen, 

{of gone to the gap, to ivlrich the dead went in tJie mm boat) 

thou hast guided thy horse and chariot 

of gold with thy hand 

the whip in thy hand, yoked were the steeds, 

the Xaru and Nahsi marched before thee, 

a proof of what thou hadst done, 

thou hast proceeded to thy boat of cedar wood, 

a boat made of it before and behind, 

thou hast approached the beautiful tower which 

thou thyself made, 

thy mouth was full of wine, beer, bread and flesh, 

were slaughtered cattle, and wine opened ; 

the sweet sonfj was made before thee, 

thy head anointer anointed thee with kanii, 

the chief of thy gardenpools brought crowns, 

the superintendent of thy fields brought birds, 

thy Hsherman brought fish, 

thy galley came from Xaru laden with good things, 

thy stable was full of horses, 

tliy female slaves were iiidusti'ious, 

tliy fuemies were placed fallen, 

t!i\' word no one o))p(>sc(l. 

TlidU liast gon' Ix'forc tlu' ^ods, the I'ictor, the justiiicd." '' 

Pau>;i!ii;is knows /olictli as Sandioii. ^vllo, he says, slew Hy- 
Tx-i'iiin. till' son ol" Aganiciiiiioii, I'ni- bis aiTogancc and covct- 

" l;.iv. liiiMiii's H. r..(lot,ns. ;i|.|.. Ilk. ii. I'll. S (\i\tli (l.Mi:i>ty). 
' l;. .,,'1- ..f III- I'uM, iw .".1. 


ousness, thus confirmin<y the account of the death of Shimon 
which the stoiy of Agamemnon tells, for in the latter the son of 
Thyestes is the murderer.*^ The horrible narrative of Thyestes 
mirrors the crime of Rameses rather than those of his son-in-law. 
Another Greek story of Zoheth calls him Xanthus of Thebes, and 
makes liim fall by the hands of the Messenian Melanthus, through 
a stratagem of the latter. As Sandochus he is connected with 
Cilicia, and made the father of Cinyras or Adonis. But as the 
Greek Xanthus of Psophis and Zacynthus, and as the Latin 
Acestes of Segestae, no information is added beyond the fact of 
his maternal relation to the Zimrite Bedan and Rakem. The 
Mahabharata calls him the majestic royal rishi Sindhudvipa, son 
of AmV)arisha, thus giving Ophrah, his grandfather, a name 
similar in form to the Greek Amphiaraus and the British Ambro- 
sius. He made a pilgrimage to Prithudaka, where he obtained 
Brahmanhood, and became a composer of Vedic hymns. The 
Raja Tarangini lauds him as the virtuous king Siddha, saved 
from destruction in the field of Siva, who governed the world 
sixty years, and, surrounded by his retinue, ascended bodily to 
heaven.*' This looks very like the Dirge of Menephtah, the story 
of a man whose dead body could not be found. His descendants 
Hiranyakcha and Hiranyakula are the two Horons, and then comes 
Mihirakula, concerning whom it is reported that, wishing to 
remove a rock in the river Chandra Kulya, and being divinely 
informed that it would move at the touch of a virtuous woman, 
he assembled all the women of his kingdom and found only one, 
Chandravati, the wife of a potter, who successfully stood the 
test. Thereupon, in the exaggerated language of the east, he slew 
thirty million noble dames, with their husbands, brothers and 
sons. Then he voluntarily cast himself into the fire to fim] relief 
from a disease that devoured him. The statement that in his 
time men did not respect the persons of their daughters-in-law is 
also significant.*^ But Herodotus tells a similar story of Pheron, 
the successor of Sesostri.s. The Nile had swollen and overtlowe<l 
the country, and a wind suddenly coming up caused it to rise in 

*' Pausanias, i. 43. 

*' Miihaljliarata : Muir's Texts : Raja Tarangini. 

'^ Raja Taranf,Mni, L. i. si. 2fS!), st-tj. 


vast waves. Pheron, enraged, threw his spear with violence at 
the stream, for which he was struck with blindness. The oracle 
of Buto informed him that a chaste woman alone could restore 
his sight. Accordingly he made trial of all the women of the 
land, to no purpose for a time ; but at last he found a virtuous 
one, whom he married, and the rest he burned in the city Ery 
thrabolus.''^ Diodorus, who repeats the narrative, calls Pheron 
Sesostris II., and states that the first Sesostris also became blind, 
and consequently destroyed himself after a reign of thirty-three 

<9 Herodot. ii. 111. 
50 Uiod. Sic. i. 2, 11. 



The Hittites in Egypt (Concluded). 

Turning now to Beriah himself, the monarch for whom Hadar, 
Shimon, and Zoheth fought, conquered, builded, and governed, 
we find him to be the Perseus of the Gi'eeks, as his genealogy and 
early history attest. Herodotus speaks of the Watch Tower of 
Perseus, which was the Pharos to the west of the Canopic mouth 
of the Nile. The same historian tells of an enclosure at Chemmis, 
sacred to Perseus, and reports the people of that city as 
claiming the hero for their own, and worshipping him in a temple 
bearing his name.^ Diodorus also testifies : " It is said also that 
Perseus was born in Egypt, and that the Greeks transferred the 
birth of that hero, and of Isis even, to Ai-gos, through the fable 
of lo metamorphosed into a heifer." ^ Strabo again mentions the 
presence of Perseus in Egypt, and ascribes the name of the Red 
Sea to his son Erythras.^ Strabo, Pomponius Mela, Pliny, and 
Solinus agree in placing the adventure of Perseus with the Ceto 
or sea monster at Joppa, in Palestine.^ Even in the time of St. 
Jerome, there were rocks near the cit}^ called in honour of the 
rescue of Andromeda, " The Place of Deliverance." Joseph us 
says that Joppa " ends in a rough shore, where all the rest of it 
is straight, but the two ends bend towards each other, where 
there are deep precipices and great stones that jut out into the 
sea, and where the chains wherewith Andromeda was bound have 
left their traces, which attest the anti<|uity of that fable." All 
the actions of Perseus were placed in the heavens, a personification 
of the constellations which could only obtain currency with the 
authority of a very powerful monarch. Now, in the Rameseum 
at Thebes there is a chamber, the ceiling of which represents the 
heavens, in which the stars are grouped into figures. One of 

' H.To.lot. ii. If), 91. 

- I)i...l. Sic. i. 1, 13. 

.Stnilin. xvii. 1, 4.S, is ; xvi. 4, --'O. 

' Stnitio, i. 2, .'!; : .Mr-la. i. 11 ; Plin. ix. :> ; Sdlimis. xxxiv. 1. 


these exhibits Rameses II. preparing to throw his javelin at a 
huge monster, the lattei- part of whose body narrows into a tail 
like that of the seal. It bears hieroglyphics which may be read 
as Meseramaut.'^ This mapping out the heavens and mythologiz- 
ing the stars was the work of the vain king, who caused the 
chamber to be made and its ceiling to exhibit his exj^loits, and 
the Toer Maut or great mother whom he professed to deliver from 
the power of the Ceto was doubtless the daughter of the Hittite 
or Kheta king Khitasira, whom he added to his harem, and on 
whom he conferred an Egyptian nan)e. Creuzer pointed out the 
identity of Perseus and the Persian ilithras, and others have 
shewn that Mithriac worship prevailed in Ethiopia, whither 
Perseus is said to have gone.^ The Indian Parasu Rama combines 
the Perseus and Rameses nanu's, and is famous as the slaughtei'er 
of the Kshattriyas or Achashtarites, just as Thothmes III. and 
Rameses II. were for their victories over the Hittites." The name 
Beriah is not found on the monuments of these two Pharaohs as 
they have been read, but this is probably because the name has 
not been expected. Baenra is found (Hi monuments of Menephtah, 
but whether it relates to Rameses or to the subject of the writing 
is not clear. One passage appears to make ^Menephtah his son : 
" Victorious by the valour of Amen was the king of the Upper 
and Lower Countr3^ Baenra beloved of Amen, the son of the Son 
of the Sun, Mene}jhtah at peace through truth, giver of life." "^ 
The title Mei Amun or beloved of Amen, is the peculiar property 
of Rameses II. Rameses III. evidently deities his father l)y tiie 
name Barui, when Amen Ra is represented saying to him : 
" Pas>ed has my valour in thy limbs to destroy the invaded coun- 
tries. I place Amen and Barui with thee, and Khonsu, lloi'us in 
thy limbs, each god prevails, following in thy service to the pcr- 
\"t'rs(; lands of the savages."'' Rames('s II. often compares him- 
self to the god Car, as in the ])()eiii of Pentaur.'" 

' Sliar|M-, Hist'.i'Vuf K;.'-y|.t, ii. MI. 

' Syiiiliiilik : ' I niiriiiaut, ii. U',:;. 

\'l>lni'l I'urali.H : MalialiliM ;,t:.. ,U 

- li,vnv,\. uf 111- l'a,-t. is. III. 

K.-c., ,.i th.' l'a~t, vi. _'(). 

' It.-CMids of th'- I'a-t. ii. <;s. 


In identifying the Pharaohs, Thothmes III. and Rameses II. 
one argument is that two long reigns of the oppressors of Israel 
are inconsistent with the Book of Exodus, which is the only 
received history for the period to which they are said to belong. 
Manetho knows only one Thothmes and one Hameses, although 
he places them more widely apart than does the Kenite list. Their 
shields, giving not only the name Thothmes or Rameses, but also 
various titles of honour, are found confusedly, if they be different 
persons, on many buildings which one or more Thothmes and as 
many Rameses are together represented as having erected, so that 
there is liardly a temple or even a pillar of a Thothmes that a 
Rameses is not supposed to have restored or completed two hun- 
dred years after.^^ They overcame the same enemies in the same 
localities, and have the some products presented to them as tribute 
by the same peoples, under precisely similar circumstances.^'^ 
They worshipped the same gods, honoured the same ancestors, 
and had identical family relationships.^^ Herodotus and Diodorus 
know neither Thothmes nor Rameses. Tacitus ascribes the tablet 
expounded by the Egyptian priests in the hearing of Germanicus, 
to a Rameses ; but modern investigators agree that it is of ' 
Thothmes. This very statistical tablet of Kainak mentions the 
setting up of a stele in Naharaina, and the form of the stele, as 
represented in tlie inscription, exactly corresponds to those cut in 
the rock at I^^ahr-el-Kelb, bearing the imao-e of Rameses 11.^^ 
Pliny seems to indicate, and Ammianus Marcellinus plainly states^ 
in his Greek translation of the hieroglyphic inscription, that the 
obelisk now in the Piazza del Popolo at Rome, was erected by a 
Rameses, while it really bears the name of Thothmes Y^ }'' Mr. 
Henry Salt, an early student of Egyptian monumental history, 
speaks of Rameses Thothmo.sis as contemporary with Moses ; 
and Mr. Osburn, in a sketch of Egyptian history, suppresses all 

" K.'iirick, ii. 181, 215, 224 ; De Lancye, 172 ; Lep.sius, 248-9. 

'^ K.'iirick, ii. 210, 178, 213 ; Lenorniant, i. 240 ; Keiirick, ii. 226 ; Rawlinson's 
Herodot., a])]), bk. ii. ch. 8. 

'' Tlie j,'ods Ka, Thotli, Ainun ; the descent from Horus ; the two long reigns ; the 
feiii.ale n-gents ; the same queens, Ahmes, Nofre Ari, Atari, etc., etc. 

'* Tacitus, Annales ii. (JO ; Osburn, ii. 453 ; Kenrick, ii. 11)2 ; Kenrick, ii. 190. 
F'liiiy, H. N. xxxvi. 13 ; .Vmmianus xvii. 4 ; Sharpe. 


the Thothmes.^^ The first of tlie two Pharaohs mentioned in the 
Book of Exodus must be he, of wliose reign bricks containing 
straw are found, and on whose monuments captives with Israel- 
itish features are represented engaged in brickmaking and build- 
inof.. >lr. Kenrick, following Rosellini, calls this monarch Thoth- 
mes III. ; while M. Chabas and Dr. Brugsch, on the authority of 
two papyri mentioning the Aperiu or Hebrews as this subject 
people, and of the rock inscription at Hamamat, decide for 
Rameses 11.^" Manetho in one place, and Chaeremon, call the 
Pharaoh in whose reign Israel went out of Egypt either Sethos^ 
Rameses, or Amenophis, it being distinctly stated by them that 
Sethos and Rameses are names of the same person, and that 
Amenophis was father or son of a Rameses.^'' The majority of 
recent writers whose oj)inions are of value, including the IJuke of 
Northumberland, Lepsius, Osburn and Lenormant, give their 
sutirages to Seti Menephtah, who is Chaeremon's Amenophath, 
son of the great Rameses.^^ On the side of Thothmes are found 
Manetho, in another place, where he is plainly inconsistent with 
himself, if Thothmes and Rameses are not the same ; Julius i\fri- 
canus and George Syncellus, and among the moderns, Sir Gardner 
Wilkinson almost alone.'*" He says : " The rising of Sothis in the 
reign of Thothmes III. now calculated by the learned M. Biot to 
correspond to Ijetween 1464 and 1424 B.C., shows that m\' placing 
his reign from 149r> to 1456 B.(A,only ditt'ered from his ival date 
liy aiiout thirty years."-' Most writers place the first of the 
Rameses about 1320 l^C, which will not at all tally with the 
Scripture account of the periijd that follows The Kenite gene- 
alogies, illustrated by the monuments, the Hebrew I'ecord, and 
many traditions, present the second Tahath of the old I'^gv))- 
tinn line as Thothmes II. and Raiucscs I. : his son Berinli, as 
Th'jthiiies III. and Rameses II.: aixl his son-in-law Hadar, as 

''' KssHV 'III I )|-. 'S'liuiij,' and M. ClKUii|iiiIlinii's I'liiilittii: Sy>t<-ln (if 1 1 ieroij^lyphics. 
lS2r. ; Oslnini in Mackay's Facts and Dates. ISC'.I. 

'' K'-nri(;k, ii. I'.tl; Wilkinson, ruimlar Acninn'" uf the Ancient I'lf^'yi'tians, ii. ]!M ; 
C'liah;i,s, Mi-lan<^'es l';;ry|jti)li.)^ni|nes ; I'rnescii, aiis dein Oi'ient. 

II- .Idseplins, a;r. A|ji"n. i. 'Jti, '27, 'M. 

:' liawlin-Mn's H.Tnd'.t ii>. app. lik. II. cli. S : Lepsins. f_'l ; Oslinrn, ii. .M'."> : Leii 
i.iniiiiit, i. L't;i. 

'" .(osephus. a^'. Apii.n i. 11, L't'i ; a|i. I'lnsel,. j'la'p. I'lvan. \. 1(1: S\neellus. r,;; 1',. 

'-' .\neieiit l''.;/ypt, alii id;.'e(|, ii. 'J.Vi. 


Thothmes IV. The son of Hadar it exhibits as Amenhotep III, 
thus usurping the place of Ishi ; while Ishi's son Zoheth, the 
son-in-law of Rameses II., is Seti Menephtah ; and his nominal 
son, but really the child of Rameses, is Uzzensherah or Rameses 
III, Hek An. 

When Thothmes III. was delivered from the guardianship of 
his sister, he proceeded to erase her name from the monuments, 
and to put his own in its place, and like Rameses II., he omitted 
all mention of that noble woman in the lists of kings. Seven 
documents constitute the Annals of Thothmes. From these we 
gather that, at an early period of his sole reign, the people of 
Palestine had revolted, Thothmes took command of the army at 
Gaza and advanced northwards to meet the enemy, who were 
moving from Kadesh to effect a junction with the people of 
Megiddo, near the upper waters of the Kishon, where in after 
years Barak and Deborah overthrew the host of Sisera, and Josiah 
fell fighting against Pharaoh Necho, and where in the end of 
days the prophetic battle of Armageddon is to be fought. It is 
also the traditional Magadha of Indian story, in which Jar- 
ashandha is said to have reigned over the nations. Thothmes 
defeated the Hittites of Kadesh, capturing all their chariots and 
camp equipage, but his prisoners only amounted to 840, and 
the number of the enemy's slain to 83. The fugitives took 
refuge in Megiddo, which soon after suri-endered. The Egyptian 
army was largely recruited from the Hittite bands, so that the 
Rutennu or Zerethites of Nineveh and Asshur were compelled to 
make their submission. In subsequent campaigns Thothmes 
passed into Syria, conquering the revolted people of Aradus in 
Phffinicia. Then he took Kadesh, supposed to be on the Orontes, 
by assault. This, however, is the same Kadesh that sent an 
armj^ against him at Megiddo, namely, Kadesh Xaphtali. He 
found the Achashtarites of the line of Mehir in Mesopotamia, and 
these Naharaina, as he terms them, were brought under his sway- 
In a poetical composition inscribed on a stele at Karnak, the god 
Amun addresses the king in language of which the following is 
an e.\anq)le : 

-'^ Kf-cords of tlif. Past. 


" I am come to thee have I given to strike down Syrian princes ; 

Under thy feet they lie throughout the breadth of their cmintry. 

Like to the Lord of Light, I made them see thy glory, 

Blinding their eyes with light, the earthly image of Amen. 
" I am come to thee have I given to strike down Asian people ; 

Captive now thou hast led the proud Assyrian chieftains : 

Decked in royal robes I made them see thy glory ; 

All in glittering urms and fighting, high in thy war car. "23 

The enemies overcome by Thothmes were the Nine Bow bar- 
barians, perliaps the Hamathites, whose favorite number was 
nine, the Annn -who named Ono in Philistia, descendants of the 
Jerachmeelite Onam, the Naharaina of whom the Rephaim and 
the Thapsacans were the chief, the Amu or Emim, also called 
Shasu, being the Shuhites of Ma Reshah, the Taha and Sat unde- 
termined, the Rutennu or Zerethites of Ardon, the people of 
*P&neter, or Beerothites of a northern Tentyris, the Kefa or 
Ziphites. the Asi, probably the rebellious Kenezzites, bearing Ishi's 
name, the Maten or Midianites, the Tahennu, descendants of 
Tehinnah, Rapha's brother, the dwellers in the isles of the Tena, 
one of which was Cyprus, called by the Assyrians Yatnan after 
the Hittite patriarch Ethnan, and the Remenen of Carchemish, 
descended from Harum, son of Regem, and grandson of Jahdai. 
The enemies overcome by Thothmes were chiefly the Hittite 
tribes, to wdiom may be added the Midianites, and one or two 
Japhetic peoples on the ^Mediterranean shore of Palestine. The 
Carians of Ekron and other Philistines, with some Hittite tribes, 
aided the king in his conquests, which cover the same ground as 
those of Seti Menephtah. 

Comparing the conquests of Rameses II. with those of Thoth- 
mes III., we find Sir Gardner Wilkinson saying : " The enemies the 
Egyptians had to contend with were mostly the same in the time 
of Rameses II. as of Thothmes III."-^ Discrediting the wide 
extension of (nnpii'e attributed to Rameses as the great Se.sostris, 
M. Lenormant writes: " Far from having penetrated to the banks 
of the (janges, he never carried his arms in Asia fai'ther than 
Thothnu'S III. and S('ti, and nearly all his canipaigns were con- 
fined to northei-ii S\-ria."-' in the early part of his reign there 

-' Li-iiuriii.-uif , .Manual, i. 2'.'>\ ; ciiiiip. ivfciirds of thi' Pa^t, ii. Ik!. 
'-' RawliiiHoii's HiTodolus, .-iii]). lik. ii., eh. S. 
-' Manual, i. '247. 


was war in Ethiopia, the conduct of which was chiefly in the 
hands of viceroys, although Rameses seems to have been present 
on one occasion to encourage his soldiers. Thothmes also gained 
victories in the same region. Then, as in the reign of Thothmes, 
all Palestine and Syria revolted and expelled the Egyptian gar- 
risons, Kadesh as before being the centre of rebellion. The great 
event of Rameses' reign was the battle of Kadesh, which the bard 
Pentaur sang in strains of fulsome adulation. The king, sep- 
arated for a short time from his army, was beset by the enemy 
in force, but succeeded in making head against them, until his 
troops arrived on the scene of action. At Kadesh, near Shebetun, 
which is Safed or Sapheta, to the south of Kadesh Xaphtali, 
the Hittites made a stand, for the Amorites had already driven 
them out of southern Palestine. The Naharina were there, 
and the Aradite descendants of Jered the Hamathite, and the 
Masu or Moschi, named after Mesha, son of the great Jaliez. 
There also were the Kairkamasha or men of Carchemish, the 
Leka for whose relationship Amalek, Bethlechem, and Lecah the 
Shuhite compete, and the Mashanata, who were expelled Kenez- 
zites, claiming the name of Megonothai. The Patasa descended 
from Paseach and namers of Thapsacus or Khupuscia, the Mauna 
or Maonites in the line of Laadah and Ma Reshah, the Dardanians 
of Zarthan, the Kerkesh or Zerachites of Karrak, the Katesh 
whose ancestor was Gazez, son of Haran, and father of Jahdai, 
the Anaukasa of the Rutennu, or Anakim of Arba and Ardon, 
and the Khilbu or Calebitos of the line of Ephron and Zohar, 
swelled the host. But Rameses, according to his own account, 
overcame the Hittite leaguers, who hastened to make a treaty of 
peace. Soon afterwards, however, the Hittite suzerain died, and 
his brother Khitasar fought with the Egyptians. Another cam- 
paign took place, ending in a second treaty, and the alliance of 
the supposed conqueror to the daughter of the Hittite monarch. 
Nevertheless Rameses pushed his way northward into Phd'iiicia, 
leaving records of his presence on the rocks near Tyre and Beirut. 
The Travels of an Egyptian, being the account of a journey made 
by a Mohar or military scribe in the reign of this Pharaoh, show 
that Egyptian su])remacy was maintained in noi-thern Syi'ia, and 
that Takar Aaar, near Hamath, was a centre of Pharaonic ])(nver. 


The author also mentions Joppa as a place of note, thus in a measure 
confirming its traditional association with Perseus' story. But 
his narrative breathes a feeling of insecurity such as is felt in 
many parts of Palestine to-day, clearly indicating that Egyptian 
conquest had not suppressed Hittite lawlessness.-^ There is every 
reason to think that Thothmes' battle of Megiddo and Rameses' 
battle of Kadesh are parts of the same campaign, represented in 
the legend of Perseus by the war with the Gorgon Medusa, and 
in Indian story by the twenty-one slaughters that Parasu Rama 
made of the Kshattriyas. 

According to the Kenite genealogy, two of the sons of Ram- 
eses II. were Rephah and Resheph, and Telah was the son of the 
latter. It is likely that one of these is the Rhampsinitus of 
Herodotus and the Remphis of Diodorus. In Herodotus, Rhamp- 
sinitus follows Proteus after Pheron, and in Diodorus, Remphis 
succeeds Cetes, who may be Seti. But neither of these became 
the successor of the oppressor of Israel. That successor was the 
nominal son of his daughter Sherah and Zoheth, or Seti Meneph- 
tah, who was called after his mother Uzzen Sherah, and who 
ascended the throne under the name of Rameses III., Hekan. He 
is thus the .Achencherses under whom Eusebius says that Mo>cs 
led the Jews in their Exodus from Egypt. He is also the Nun- 
coreus, son of Sesoses, whom Pliny identifies with the Pheron (jf 
Herodotus and the second Sesostris of Diodorus, saying that he 
consecrated an obelisk to the Sun after he recovered the sight 
he had lost.-'" In the Pluethon genealogy he appears as Cinyras or 
Adonis, son of Sandochus, and, in the story of Perseus, as Cvnu- 
rus, .son of that hero. George Syncellus makes Goneharis the 
last king of Lower Egypt and the successor of Raniessr \'aplii-L"s. 
Africanus has three Acheneheres in the ciglitecnth dynasty, all 
of whom reiirned twelve vears, and the sainc nundier is assiijiied 
to the Acencheres of other lists. No nioiniiiH nt of ItaiiifSfs III. 
Hfkan lias b('en found later tlian his twelftli year. Astronomy 
has been called in to settle tlie <late of this Pharaoh, for a nioini- 
ment at Me'linet Abu makes tlie heliacal i-ising ol" the stai- Sothis 
to coincide with his twelfth year. Accoi'ding to Syncelhis. a 

- iJ.-Cdnl-. '.f til.- I'a.-t. ii. lOK. 
-" I'liiiw xxxvi. 1."). 


Sothiac cycle was completed in the fifth year of Concharis, but 
Sir Gardner Wilkinson places this event in the reign of Thothmes 
III. Censorinus, who wrote his De Die Natali in the year 238 
A.D., says that a Sothic or Canicular cycle had been completed 
about a hundred years before that date ; and as the cycle was 
one of 1461 years, it follows that the end of the previous cycle 
was in 1323 B.C.-^ But Sir Gardner Wilkinson quotes M. Biot as 
making the heliacal rising of Sothis take place between 1464 and 
1424 B. G, while M. Lenormant, referring to the same authority, 
says the coincidence occurred in 1300 B.C. The combined astro- 
nomical and historical evidence is not sufficiently proven to 
discredit the Hebrew record, the truthfulness of which is attested 
by the confirmation of monumental records whenever they deal 
with the same facts, and that record places 480 years between 
the Exodus and the dedication of the temple at Jerusalem, which 
took place more than 1000 years before Christ.-^ In the lists 
and on the monuments the name of Horus is always associated 
with those of Acencheres and Rameses III. These are the Herons, 
half brothers and seniors of Uzzen Sherah or Hekan, the Hiran- 
yas and Arunas of the Indians, the Hiranyakcha and Hiranya- 
kula who precede that Mihirakula whose story, as told in the 
Raja Tarangini, is identical with those of Pheron and Nuncoreus, 
and is beside the record of the most infamous vice and fiendish 
cruelty that the writer of the chronicle has to tell. 

The Horons have a curious history. Had the Aurunci of Italy 
left any traditions, besides tliat which connects them with Liparus 
and Auson, the namer of the Oscans, their relations with Rameses 
III. might have been l)etter determined. The Indian traditions 
place the Aruna Ketus in Ketumala, and the traditions of the 
Quiches of Guatemala, who represent the Ammonite line of Anub, 
son of Coz, make Quauhtemalan a foundation of the Cachi(|uels 
descended from the grandmother Atit or Hathath, and one of 
whose chief kings was Zactecauh or Zoheth. All their kings 
were called Tukuches, and two of these, Zactecauh and 
Gagawitz, went down to the sea to figlit the Xonohualcas and 
Xulpitis. They slew large nundiers of these unhappy people and 

-^ Censorinus, De Die Natali, xviii. 10. 
-' I Kings, vi. 1. 


pursued them into the sea, but a great cloud of dust was raised 
by magic between the fugitives and the Cachiquels, so that while 
the former rallied and fell upon their pursuers unperceived, they 
were also aided by demons in the air, under the feet of the Cachi- 
quels, rising and falling upon them, till the pursuers iied, gaining 
solid ground as best they might and leaving man}^ of their 
number stretched upon the watery field of battle. " This terrible 
defeat left a cruel impression on the tribes." ^'^ The remnant 
assembled on mount Oloman and decided to leave the scene of 
disaster and seek a home elsewhere. Traversing land and -ea 
and regions of intense cold, with the Quiches and Tzutohils, with 
whom they lost their language on the way, they came to Urran 
and Rabinal, and established there the kingdom of Guatemala. 
Gagawitz plainly represents Uzzen Sherah, for he threw himself 
into a volcano to make it cease destroying the land and people, 
and, succeeding in quenching its fires by the sacrifice of himself, 
was restored to life, when festivals were instituted to commem- 
orate his resurrection. But the story represents him as the 
murderer of Zactecauh, w4iom, as he was taking a great leap in 
imitation of Gagawitz, the latter pushed into an abyss that served 
him for a sepulchre. The strange legend gives in its own way 
the overthrow in the Red Sea and the consequent alliance of the 
Kenezzites in part with the Ammonites of the Delta, and with 
some of the Tsocharites, which is attested by the presence of 
Horonaim or the two Horons between the countries of Moab and 
Ammon. Some Kenezzites, including princ(! Jephunnoh, were in the 
train of Israel. But there must have been a second Exodus h-o\n 
Egypt, led probably by the Horons, who, from the connection of 
the Arunas with Ketumala, and of the Urran valleys with (Juate- 
mala, appear to have been worsliippers of Atin Re, wliich god 
represents their ancestor Othniel or Godoniel. It is tlie form 
Godoniel that gives Ketumala and Qiianhtemalan or Guatemala- 
Atin Re was represented as the sun with rays proceeding from 
it that terminated in human liands. Now, the most remarkable 
god of the Mayas and Quiches was Kinieh-Kakmo, the son of the 
Sun, who was represented in the act of sacrificing, touching one 

'" l'>. df BouiKourg. Niitioiis civilist'<'n, ii. 04. 


of the sun's rays witli his linger as if to draw a spark from it 
with which to kindle the wood of the altar. ^^ Among the Cachi- 
quels, Kinieh was c^-lled Ouenech. But in southern California 
there is a tribe of Acagchemens belonging in point of language 
to the Aztec-Sonora famil}^, who worship a god Chinig-Chinich, 
a reduplicate form of Kinieh or Ouenech, although they say that 
their true god is Sirout, and that Chinig-Chinich was imposed 
upon them by invaders from the east. The more northern 
Shoshones, who are occidental Zuzim, apply his name to the 
tobacco they burn in his honour, thus combining religion with 
pleasure, and this name as Kinnikinnik is used to denote the 
Corniis sericea or silky cornel, the leaves of which the Indians 
are supposed to mix with their tobacco.^- Thus Sekenen Ra, 
Apachnas, Kenaz the father of Othniel, for he is this Kinieh, 
Ouenech, and Chinig-Chinich, besides beino- known to almost all 
Indian tribes as a very inferior and adulterated kind of tobacco^ 
has the honour of appearing on the labels of superior brands 
encircled by the revenue stamp of the United States. The wor- 
ship of the Hittite gods is sureh^ near its end when Chinig- 
Chinich furnishes old king Cole with material for his pipe. What 
a commentary, ludicrous though it be, is this on the words of 
the prophet Jeremiah : "A voice of crying shall be from Horon- 
aim, spoiling and great destruction. . . For in the going down 
of Horonaim the enemies have heard a cry of destruction. Flee, 
save your lives, and be like the heath in the wilderness. . . O 
vine of Sibmah, I will weep for thee with the weeping of Jazer ; 
thy plants are gone over the sea, they reach even to the sea of 
Jazer." ''-^ Where is this sea of Jazer so far awav ? According to 
Sadik Isfahani, Khazar is the Caspian, but over the broad Pacific 
Ocean the men of the two Horons passed, to find the home of their 
now degraded race.^* Our American Indians are not young, but 
the remnants of nations long grown old and hastening to decay- 
The Stranger Kings who worshipped Atin Re differed in form 
and feature from the other Egyptians, their foreheads I'eceding 

' 1'). dc Ijoiirlxjurg, Nations civilisee.^, ii. o. 

'-' ]5(ckfr, CiinsjrJ's des Aiiit-ricani.ste.s, 1S77, Tome i. 330. 

' .Tercniiali, xlviii. 3, 32. 

' Sadik Isfahani, 23. 


SO unnaturally that it must have been the result of artificial com- 
pression. They were Flatheads, and claim kindred with the 
Chinuks of north-westei'n America, whose name is that of the 
ancestral Chinig. But their language is akin to that of the 
Asiatic Koriaks and Tchuktchis, whose deity Gnai Gonozeh is 
Chinig Chinich, somewhat disguised, yet recognizable. According 
to Abernethy, the Koriaks flattened the heads of their children 
in the same way as the Chinuks.^'' Among the latter it is a sign 
of nobility, and they will not allow their slaves or neighbouring 
subject tribes to adopt the practice.^^ They are skilful carvers 
in stone, and their grotesque aboriginal designs, chiefly on pipes, are 
much sought after by antiquarians. In Peru the Chinchas were 
Flatheads.-^" But the most interesting American nation that prac- 
tised this barbarous and unsightly art, although it has now fallen 
out of use, is that of the Choctaws, who are American Tshekto, or 
as the Asiatic people who call themselves b}* that name are usually 
designated, Tchuktchis. The artist traveller Catlin expresses the 
desire which he did not realize, to institute a comparison between 
the Choctaws and the Chinuks, arising out of their common pos- 
session of the deformed skull.^^ The story he tells of the Choctaw 
deluge is more like the Quiche account of the disaster that drove 
the Cachiquels into exile. " There was total darkness for a great 
time over the whole of the earth ; the Choctaw doctors or mystery 
men looked out for daylight for a long time, until at last they 
despaired of ever seeing it, and the whole nation were very un- 
happy. At last a light was discovered in the north, and there 
was great rejoicing, until it was found to be great mountains of 
water rolling in, which destroyed them all, except a few families 
who had expected it, and built a great raft on which thev were 
saved." ^'-^ The Chinuks, Chinchas, and Choctaws are undoubtedly 
of tilt' same vacc. as the Cachiquels of (Guatemala, but while the 
latter lost tlieir language, iiecoiniiig semitiziMl, the former did not. 
Their tiii^ration mute w;is iioi-thcrii, and largt'ly continental, 
wliiic that (A' the Mayas, <^)uiches, and (.'achi([Uels, was southern. 

.\I.Hrkiiit'.>li, ()ii'_Mii ..f til" N..rtli .\in.Ti<':iii Iiidiaiis, 11^. 

I'l'-k.rin-'- U.-ir.-. nf M.-ui, L.. II. Ion, is.M, I'd. 

I'll ii\ i;i!i .\iiti(|iiiti''>, 'M. 

f^'.'itliii, .\"itli Aiii'-riiMii [inliaiis, ii. 1 1 L'. 

(':itlin, N'mtli Aiii-n(;:iii Indians, ii, 127. 


insular, and oceanic. The Chinuk language contains in abund- 
ance the tl click so characteristic of the Aztec, and which is also 
found in some Lesghian dialects of the Caucasus. Strabo places 
the long headed Siginni in the region of the Caucasus, and there 
Pliny and Mela situate the Macrocephali, but while the first 
named writer finds them in the east of that range, the two latter 
assign them to the west. Hippocrates expressly states that the 
Macrocephali flattened their children's heads.*" The Avars are 
said to have been Flatheads, and their name connects them with 
the Iberians or Georgians, and with the Lesghian tribe Avar.'*^ 
Flattened skulls have been found in that Scythic region, the 
Crimea. The Huns artificially changed the shape of the head, 
and Attila is represented as one in whom the natural feature had. 
been thus distorted. Among the South Sea Islanders, the Kanakas 
of the Hawaiian group are Flatheads. The weight of evidence 
gives to the Kenezzites, descended from the first king that reigned 
in Edom, and deriving from Ethnan the youngest son of Ashchur 
and Helah, the honour or disgrace of inventing this barbarous 
custom, of which the Elephantine kingdom of Egypt was probably 
the birthplace. From them it may have been communicated to 
other tribes, for it is represented in the sculptures of the Mayas 
of Yucatan. 

Rameses Hekan was not responsible for the circumstances of 
his birth, but he was for allowing statements of these to appear 
on the monuments, both Ramesside and Thotlimian. Morality 
must have been at a frightfully low ebb, some indication of 
which is found in a British Museum papyrus of the time of 
Rameses containing caricatures which are said to be " licentious 
in the extreme." *- The companion stories of Pheron and the 
Indian Mihirakula tell the same tale. A great decadence in the 
arts accompanied the fall in morals, barbaric structures and 
coarse sculptures taking the place of the great achievements of 
Hadar and his son Shimon. In the latter part of the reign of 
Rameses II., exactions far exceeding the power of the people to 
comply with were laid upon them, and formed the subject of cor- 

*o Strabo, xi. 11, 8 ; Pliny, vi. 4 ; Mela, i. 19 ; Hippoc, p. 289. 
*i Head Flattening, Short's North Americans of Antiquity, 178. 
^2 Lenormant, Manual, i. 268. 


respondence between two great functionaries of the kingdom.*^ 
The reign of his son was characterized by plots, the authors of 
which suffered severely.*^ But whether in person, or by 
deputy, Hekan was a warrior. The palace at Medinet Abon in 
Thebes recounts his victories. The Lebu and Takkaro, who 
were Hittite Rephaim and Tsochari, the latter of whom possessed 
a fleet, made incursions in the north-west, and these he repelled 
for a time, but they returned to the attack, and with them the 
Philistines, rightly identified with the Pelasgi, and the Hittites 
of Syria and Mesopotamia made common cause. Rameses again 
advanced to meet the enemy and overthrew the Hittites, it is 
supposed, at the Orontes. Then, descending to the coast of the 
Mediterranean, he encountered the Philistines and the Mashuosh, 
evidently preparing to take up their abode in Egypt, for they 
were accompanied by their wives and children in rough ox-cai-ts. 
The Mashuash were probably the Moschi of Mesha, the Caph- 
torim allied with the Philistines. Rameses carried their camp 
by assault, with the slaughter of over 12,000 of the enemy. 
Another invasion by sea and land was led by the Takkaro or 
Tsocharites, and with them came the Libyans or Rephaim, the 
Sardinians, Dardanians, or Zerethites, the Tyrrhenians or des- 
cendants of the Maachathite Tirhanah, and the Sicilians or As- 
calonians of Philistia. They were defeated on both elements. 
Minor wars took place in Syria and in Yemen, and all the 
strength of Egypt had to be exerted, not to make foreign con- 
quests, but simply to keep the enemy from occupying its sacred 
shores. Then after Rameses Hekan had reigned about twelve 
years, the divinely commissioned Moses stood before him to ask 
freedom for his oppressed fellow Israelites. If Seti, the nominal 
father of Hekan, was alive at the time, he must have known 
Moses, but, being the murderer of Shimon, he woultl not be likely 
to favour that monarch's friend, and the adopted son of that 
(jueen whose name he had helped ^lei Amun to erase; from the 
monuments; nor wf)uld Pharaoh give heed to the proi)het who 
sought to deprive him of his most peaceal)le an<l useful suljjects, 
for Junnes aii<l Jambrcs, his magicians, cast discretlit uj)on the 

*'' L<-iioriii!iiit, Manu.'il, i. LT'H. 
< K-coniKof th.' I'itst, viii. 57. 


Divine leo-ation of Moses, and with lying wonders mocked the 
miracles that attested it."** These two practisers of the black ai't 
are inentioned by the Rabbins and by some heathen writers, but 
little dependence is to be placed on the stories told of them. 
Pliny, who states that magic originated with Zoroaster, and 
names as some of his successoi's in it Apusorus and Zaratus of 
Media, Marmarus and Arabantiphocus of Babylonia, and Tar- 
raoendas of Assyria, also classes as adepts in sorcery Moses, 
Jannes and Jotapea the Jews, of whom the latter probabh' is 
Joseph.^'' Jambres in British history is Ambrose Merlin, or 
Merddin, who is to be distinguished from Aurelius Ambrosius, the 
Kenite Opbrah. This Ambrose Merlin was a magician, the son of 
a daughter of the king of Dimetia, born without a father, and he 
prophesied in -a most enigmatic way before Vortigern, the king 
whose crime was the same as that of the second Rameses."*" The 
Greeks confounded the two Ambroses of British story in their one 
Arnphiaraus, whom they make a soothsayer as well as a warrior. 
As the soothsayer, he had an oracle at Oropus in Attica, where 
those who looked for responses found them by lying upon a skin 
spread on the ground, in Celtic fashion.^^ He was the grandson 
of Antiphates, and great-grandson of Melampus or Rapha. This 
genealogy seems to be justified by his connection with Oropus, 
and by the fact that Ambrose Merlin was the worshipper of the 
two man-devourino- birds of Gwenddolen, and a water dweller. 
As for Antiphates, he is the Netophath of the Kenite lists, who 
is connected with Beth Lechem as descending with that house 
from Sahna. Netophath is placed far back in history, for the 
Egyptian Nuhotep who represents him was the father of Nahrai, 
a prince that has left a monument at Benihassan, on which is de- 
picted the arrival of a foreign family, once supposed to be that of 
Jacob, in the reign of Osorta.sen II.'*^ Ncnv Osortasen 11. was a 
son of Hadad, who can only liave reigned during the interregnum 
iiiiniediatelv following the death of Jahdai or Amenemes II., so 
that Netophath is thus made tlie contemporary of Coz, which he 

' 2 Timothy iii. 8. 

'' Pliny, XXX. 2. 

'" (W'offrey's liritisi, History. 

"^ Pausaiua.s, i. 'M. 

'' 1 Chron. ii. ~)i ; Lciisins, 112 ; Kenrick ; (Jsburii. 


micjht well be as a grandson of Chedorlaomer. According to Mr. 
Osburn, the son of Nahrai was Prince Hamshe, and his was 
Sukenes, the last of his race to receive monumental mention. 
Homer classes Antiphates, whom he calls the son of Lamus and 
king of the Laestrygones in his Odysse}", with man-eating mon- 
sters, such as the Solymi or Salmaites are said to ha\e been. 
But he also mentions the prophet of that name, calling him the 
son of Melampus and father of Oileus, from whom came Amphi- 
araus.*^ There must have been an alliance by marriage between 
the family of Kapha and that of Netophath, but the latter could 
not be the son-in-law of the former. The genealogy of the Neto- 
phathites is not given, or at any rate has not been found in the 
Kenite record, but in the time of David and among his chief 
captains were men of that family who had renounced their can- 
nilnil propensities. Such were Mahai-ai the Netophathite, and 
Ht'leb or Heled the son of Baanah, a Xetophathite.-''^ Now 
Baanah is a Beerothite name, and another of David's captains, 
who were almost all foreigners, was Nahari the Beerothite. This 
is natural, for the Beerothites, descended from Hamath, were rela- 
tives of the Netophathites, descended from his brother Chedorla- 
omer, who is called by the Arabs a man of Thamud. The two 
names Maharai and Nahari ai'e really divergent forms of one, 
and agree with Prince Nahrai, or as Lepsius calls him, Nehera- 
si-Numhotep of Benihassan. Nor could anything be more har- 
monious to historic truth than the exaltation of a Netophathite 
in the reign of the Beerothite Osortasen II. Ambrose Merddin 
again as son of a daughter of the King of Dimetia or Dyved 
exhibits his relationship with the Osortasens of Axithor Abydos, 
which, when transported to Syiia, became Tililiath. Jandu'es 
then was no mean man, ])nt one of I'oyal descent, in wliost- vrins 
ilowfd tlie ])lood of Pi-jiicc Nahrai tin.' Xctopliatliitc, and that of 
ibipha the Xaii'i, two families that ti'adition associates w itli blood- 
thii'sty i-iti'S, and that tlic special ti-adition> concerning Ambrose 
-Mei'ddin )-e]resent as tlu,' per])etuatoi-s of these wlien they lia<l 
lieen aliandoneil liy the i-e.-t of the world. It is probaMe that 
Janiies was also a llittite, i'oi- .losephus mentions .lamias or 

' < i.|>-M\, X. lOO, XV. L'l-J. 

"' J S;iin. wiii. lis, L".i ; 1 ('hi'.n. xi. 'AO. 


Janias as a Hycsos king who reigned after Apophis or Jabez, 
These Hittite sorcerers must have come from some country out- 
side of Egypt to the court of Rameses, so that there meiy be some 
truth in the rabbinical stories which associate them with Balaam 
or his family, for he flourished forty years later, inasmuch as 
Balaam's father bore the Hittite name Beor. That false prophet 
came from Pethor, a Hittite city, as the Assyrian monuments tell, 
which was situated by the river of the land of Ben Ammi or 
Ammon, not the land of the children of his people, as our English 
version has it. It is more than likely that the two magicians 
were princely hostages at Pharaoh's court, for it was the custom 
of the two Rameses to take the sons of the conquei-ed kings as 
hostages, and such seems to have been the position of Ambrose 
at the court of Vortigern. In comparing the Indian story of 
Jarashanda, king of Magadha, with the accounts of Thothmes' 
battle of Megiddoand Rameses' siege and battle of Kadesh, many 
coincidences present themselves. In the latter especially, men- 
tion is made of the drowning of two Hittite chiefs of Khilbu and 
Tonira, and in Jarashandha's story the chiefs thus perishing are 
Hamsa and Dimbika. Hamsa recalls the Netophathite Hamshe, 
son of Nahrai, and although he cannot be the same person, the 
family name may denote a later Netophathite, whose son Jambres 
may have been. In the Greek story of Amphiaraus he is said to 
have been swallowed up in an opening of the ground made by 
Jove to receive his favorite pro{)het. The Red Sea formed the 
opening that engulfed the water dweller. British tradition has 
preserved a confused account of the plagues of Egypt in the story 
that it rained blood for three days, and vast swarms of flies 
appeared, followed by frightful mortality among the people, in 
the reign of Rivallo, son of Cunedagius, for Cunedagius is the 
Greek Sandochus, father of Cinyras, and Rivallo is Rephah the 
legitimate son of Beriah, who as a resurrected Adonis, followed 
Uzzen Sherah on the throne of Egypt. ^^ 

The women who mourned one day for Adonis with their 
coffins before every door, and their little gardens that they cast 
into the sea, on the next rejoiced, because Adonis was found. So 
Gagawitz threw himself into the crater and saved the Cachiquels, 

^- Geoffrey's British History. 


but after a time came forth a living man once more. Some say- 
that the Pharaoh of the Exodus, this Achencheres, did not perish. 
There is, however, no record of him after the twelfth year of his 
reign. Tabari says he repented in the depths and cried, " I believe 
in the God of Israel." But he believed too late, and sank 
beneath the wave that overwhelmed his host. It was a terrible 
calamity for Egypt, but a boon to one man, and that was the dis- 
inherited Rephah. " The King is dead : long live the King," was 
the hail that greeted him who had seen no hope of sitting, the 
rightful heir, upon the throne of the Pharaohs. The accession of 
Rephah may be taken to represent the finding of Adonis, for 
Herodotus, who calls him Rhanipsinitus, says that he descended 
to Hades, and there oambled with Ceres, alternatelv winning; and 
losing, and that on his return to the region of the liviijg he 
brought back a golden napkin.''^ The Egyptians also instituted a 
festival in honor of his return. Herodotus describes part of the 
ceremony attending this festival as the blindfolding a priest hy 
his fellows, who led him out of Memphis and left him to find his 
way to the temple of Ceres, twenty furlongs distant, his journey 
thither and back again being accomplished by the aid of two 
wolves. Rhanipsinitus was no conqueror but the possessor of 
vast wealth, in connection with which an almost world-wide story 
is told. The nameless ai'cliitect of the king's treasury, wishing to 
make free with its contents, placed a stone in the outside wall in 
such a way that it could easily be removed by anyone knowing 
the secret, and, dying befoi-e he was able to avail himself of his 
act, communicated the knowledge of it to his sons. By this means 
they plundererl the treasury, which when the king pei'ceived he 
had traps set, and in one of them caught one of the brothers. 
But the other at his bi-othei-'s re(iuest had cut oil' his head, so 
that the body ctaild not he recognized. Tlie king eauscil the 
bc^ly to \)^^ hung on the ])alace wall under guard, in hope that some 
relative of the di-ad man would bf leil to an exliiliition of sori'oNV 
]>v til*' sight of it. Mo\cd liy his motliei's entreaties the sur\iv- 
iii'<- i-ohlicr, disguiseil as a \\'ine seller, dro\e some asses laden with 
wine-skins past tin; palace, when, as if l)y accident, one of the 
skins hurst, and the wine hfgan to escape. The guai'ds heing 

i llin..l..t., ii. 12L'. 


furnished with drinking- vessels, caught the spilling wine, and at 
length the robber left them in a drunken sleep, at the same time 
carrying off his brother's body. The amazed king set his daugh- 
ter to catch the thief, but he left a dead man's arm, that he had fas- 
tened under his cloak, in her hands, and fled. Then Rhampsinitus 
admiring the man's cleverness, offered publicly a reward if he 
would reveal himself. He came and received the king's daughter 
in mari'iage, for he excelled the Egyptians, who excelled all the 
rest of the world in wisdom. ^^ 

The Greek counterpart of this le^i:end is told by Pausanias 
Agamedes and Trophonius, sons of Erginus, descended from 
Phrj'xus, were the architects of the treasury of Hyrieus, king of 
Arcadia. They inserted the removable stone and plundered the 
treasury. Hyrieus, however, caught Agamedes in a trap, but 
Trophonius, fearing detection, cut ofl" his brother's head. After- 
wards he was swallowed up by an opening of the earth in the 
grove of Lebadea.^^ Sir George Cox has set forth the identity of 
these stories with the Gaelic tale of The Shifty Lad and the 
Indian story of Gata and Karpara.^^ Karpara made a hole in the 
king's treasury, which contained the monarch's daughter as well 
as his riches, but, staying too long in the room to which he had 
thus gained access, was caught and hanged. His body was then 
exposed in order to catch his confederate, but Gata outwitted the 
guards, gained his brother's remains, which he burned, and carried 
oft' the princess to another country. Ajamidha of Sanscrit myth- 
ology, who should answer to the Greek Agamedes, is a descend- 
ant of Bharata, his father being Suhotra, and his grandfathei" 
Bhumanyu, while his sons Jahnu, Yrajana and Rupin became 
heads of the Kusikas.^' Here Yrajana is Erginus, Vnit he is also 
the Pandu Arjuna ; and his ancestor Bhumanyu is Bhima or 
Bhimasena, another Pandu, the trio being completed by Yudish- 
thira, of v\^hose name Suhotra is a variation. But Bhumanyu or 
Bhima is the Persian Behmen, the Yohumano of the Zend Avesta, 
and he is the Beerothite Amnon, son of Shimon. Bhima was 

-^ Heroddt., ii. 121. 

''' Pausania.s, ix. 37. 

>^ Aryan Mythology, i. 115. 

' Muir's Sanscrit Texts, i. 3G0, &c. 


caught in the folds of the serpent Nahusha, but released through 
the mediation of Yudishthira. These plunderers of the treasures 
of Rephah are, therefore, descendants of Amnon, the Beerothite, 
whose son was Shemida or Sheniidag, the Agaraedes of the story 
and the Sanscrit Ajaniidha, and his sons were Achian, Shecheni, 
Likchi and Anigam.^^ Thus the family of Beeroth is carried 
down two generations later, and a Hittite Shechem is associated 
with Baal Berith instead of a Horite of that name. While Ahian 
is the Sanscrit Jahnu, his brother Likchi is the Sanscrit Riksha, 
wdio is Jahnu's brother. As for Erginus, he has no direct con- 
nection with the other persons named, but as denoting Rakem, 
the Gileadite, he i-epresents the alliance between the Beerothitcs 
and Gileadites constituted by the marriage of Shimon to Bedan's 
daughter Taia. The Greek story viewed Shemidah from the 
standpoint of the Gileadite genealogy, deriving him from Erginus 
of Clymenus of Phryxus, or Rakem of Ulam of Peresh. The 
Sanscrit accounts of Ajamidha, whom they also call Sumantu and 
Asvamedha, associate him always with Bharata. 

In western migration the Beerothite familj- appears as an ele- 
ment in the population of eastern Sicily, wliile the Gileadites of 
Rakem occupied the north-western part of that island. The 
Beerothites are there associated with tlie Palici, whose leader 
Ducetius shows them to have been the Tsocliethite descendants 
of Belao- the Ethnanite, the latter name o-ivino- the orioinal of the 
volcanic mountain yEtna. But Adranus and Amenanus are made 
fathers of these Palici, and Symucthus and Enna and Eii^yum 
are connected with them, setting forth Hadar, Annion, Shemidah, 
Ahian and Anigam. Tlie Hittite occupation of Sicilv v.-ould 
require a monograph of no small extent, so that it can but be 
nienti<jned in tiiese pages. Pkcti-acing our steps to the scene of 
history contemporaiy with the l\enite record, we tiiid a kingdom 
of Amnaiiu in Chaldea connected with l^i'ukh oi- W'ai'ka in 
ancient tinu-s, whieli Assurbaiiijial in later da\'s places in Elam 
as l)nr Amnani.''" Anienainis, Aninann, Amnani ai'e rare i'orms 
in niytliologic;il ;ind geo<_;i'ajihieal nomenclature, tlu' tendency 
bi-ini;- to dro]i the i-rdn])licate ii. The ancient Amnanu is men- 

'" 1 Cillntl. \ii. I'.t. 

-' Pi.-ca'i- ..f tli.- l';i-t. iii. 1' 


tioned by a King Sin-Gasit, whom Sir Henry Rawlinson calls 
Sinsada. His inscriptions, one of which is but partially inter- 
preted, are as follow : 

1. " Sin-Gasit, son of Belat-Sunat 

King of Uruk, builder of Bit- Anna." 

2. " Sin-Gasit, the powerful man, king of Uruk 

King of Amnanu, the palace of his royalty built." 

3. " To Sarturda, his god, 

and Belat-Sunat his mother, 

Sin-Gasit, King of Uruk, King of Amnanu, 

nourisher of Bit- Anna, who Bit- Anna built, 

Bit-Kirib, Bit-Kiba lib tulla kanene, 

he built for the prolonging of his kingdom, 

he built 18 segur 12 manehs of duJda 

10 manehs of bronze asni, the house, 

silver like a mountain, one shekel of 

silver .... its name he called, 

giving delight and pleasure." ^'^ 
Looking for other kings of Uruk, thi'ough whom Sin-Gasit 
and his mother Belat-Sunat may connect with the Beerothite 
family, those named Ismi-dagan and Gungunu present themselves- 
In Greek, Shemidah or Shemidag is Agamedes, in Sanscrit 
Ajamidha, hence one expects to meet a cuneiform Ismidag as its 
ecjuivalent, for the languages of the cuneiform inscriptions 
strongly aspirate the letter ayin, making Lagamar of Laomer 
and Laguda of Laadah. The final an of Ismi-dagan has been added 
to the original name to give it significance as " Dagon hears." It 
is likely that Gungunu is a reduplicate form of Ahian as Achian- 
which the Sanscrit better renders as Jabnu and the Greek as/Egina. 
Ismi-dagan is ]-eferred to by Tiglath Pileser I., who says : " Bit- 
Khamri, the temple of my lord Vul, which Shansi-Vul, high priest 
of Ashur, son of Ismi-dagan, high priest of Ashur, had founded. 
l)ecame ruined." He also mentions " Shamsi-Vul, my ancestor."' *^^ 
All inscription of Ismi-dagan reads : 

" Ismi-dagan, nourisher of Nipur, 

the supreme over Ur, the light of Eridu, 

'" Records of the Past, iii. 18. 
';i Records of the Past. v. 2.S, 24. 


Lord of Uruk, the powerful king, 
King of Karrak, King of Sumir and Akkad, 
the relative, the delight of Nana." 
Gungunu's two inscriptions follow : 

1. "To Sainas, the ruler hula Ur, 

leader of Bit-Nirkinugal, Ningal ra tiula his kings 

for the preservation of Gungunu, the powerful man, 

King of Ur, for the establishing of Anu, 

for the restoring of Ur, for Ur within Ur, 

the son of Isini-dagan, King of Sumir and Akkad, 

Bit-Hiliani built, Bit-Ginablungani built, 

for his preservation he built." 

2. " For the establishing of Anu, 

for the delight of Ur, for Ur within Ur, 
The son of Ismi-dagan, King of Sumir and Akkad." ''^ 
Isini-dagan as noui'isher of Nipur exhibits liis descent in the 
line of Hepher, and as the light of Eridu or Jered of the same 
family, confirms the relationship. Uruk and Karrak, however, 
can only have been his through the con(|uests of his ancestors, 
and in no other way can he have been King of Akkad, since the 
Akkadians were Chaldean Jachdaites. But his rule over Sumir 
or Ziinri miirht come in a legitimate way throuo-h the mari-iao-e of 
his grandfather Shimon to the Zinu'ite Taia, daughter of Bedan, 
the Greek Laomedon. In a list of so called Cassitc Kings of 
Babylonia, several Etirus appear among the Ulams and Buryases 
who represent the Ziuu-ite names Peresh and Ulam.^^ The un- 
translated Tuda of Gungunu's first inscription recalls the Egyp- 
tian Teta as a name of Hadad. together with the Assyro-llittite 
Dadi and the Graeco-Phoenician Adodus. king of the gcnls, denot- 
iiiir the same ancestral hero. But how came Ismi-dacran or Shemi- 
dag to be as Agamedes the plunderei" of the trcasuiy of Rliam])si- 
iiitus ' The; story cannot be taken literally, for. although princes 
Wfr<' often tlie superintendents of great constructions in Egypt, 
tli'-re is no e\idence that Slieniidah was such, nor is it likely that 
(jCcupyiuLT such a pitsition, he would ha\c liecn foun<l guilty of 

' [; (-..mI- .,f tli<- l':i>t, lii. 11. 

' I'n.r-. S. c. r,il,. Arch: 1.. .Ian, II. ISSl. p. II. 


robbery. His family was one of great builders, and his grand- 
father Shimon specially excelled in the execution of magnificent 
architectural designs. In this way the Beerothite line came to 
be identified with architecture and architects. But Shimon and 
his father Hadar had been the buildei's of the Pharaonic empire, 
ruled over by the second and third Rameses, and in it they had 
left themselves a corner, extending probably from the point of 
the Sinaitic peninsula to the kingdom of the Kudurs in Edom, 
and this must have been the loose stone through which their 
descendant Shemidah was able to take to himself some of Egypt's 
treasures. The #name Shemidag, with the prefix of the Coptic 
article, formed the Egyptian Psametik which the Greeks called 
Psammeticus, a name early known in Egypt, for a Psametik 
Munx was a priest of Cheops.^^ To Shemidag as a descendant 
of Saul, the Persian Zaul, the story of Rodabeh properly belongs, 
instead of to that ancestor, for the Greek story of Cinderella 
unites Rhodopis and Psammetichus. In Persian story, she is the 
daughter of Mihrab, a Greek Merops or Rapha, and it seems pro- 
bable that Shemidah did effect an alliance with the line of Ham- 
murabbi, whom his confederate Trophonius of Lebadea would 
denote. This early Psammetichus unhappily finds no mention in 
the obscure annals of Egypt for the period immediately following 
the Exodus. 

Greek tradition calls Shemidag by the name Thymoetes, the 
last of tl;e line of Theseus and the son of Oxynias, which latter 
name may denote his grandfather Shimon. He is called the King 
of Athens, and it is said that, on his refusal to meet the Thelmn 
Xanthus in single combat, the Athenians l)anished him. But a 
narration of Conon represents two sons of Hector, who ha;l been 
banished to L^'dia, returning to the Troad and taking possession 
of Mount Ida, where Eneas the son of Anchises dwelt, and drivincj 
that hero out. These sons of Hector were named Oxynius and 
Scamander. Conon saj^s they regarded the country about Ida as 
their patrimony.^'-'' The original Ida was Edom an<l the Llumcan 
mountain range, and the Idaei Dacytli who inhal)ite(l it iiiny be 
easily recognized as the Edomites of Joktheel. After the time of 

t K.'ch.Tch.'s, 17. 
r,,i,..ii, 46. 


the Argive Tisamenus, whom the Heraclidaj are said to have over- 
thrown, the story of the line of Shimon becomes shadowy, 
Shemidah is represented by Cometes, called a sou of Tisamenus, 
instead of his grandson through Amnon, but he is said to have 
passed into Asia, and that is all recorded concerning him. It 
seems, however, that Amnon or his son left Egypt and established 
himself in Hadar's realm of Gebalene, or in that portion of it un- 
occupied by the Amorites and Moabites, and afterwards extended 
his empire over part of the basin of the Euphrates. Thus he 
would be the chief competitor with the Egyptian monarch for 
the empire of the civilized world. His possession of Arabia 
Patraea, in which during the wandei'ings of Israel, Kenites and 
Amalekites, alike subject to him, dwelt, gave him a free passage 
to the Egyptian border on the east, and it is very probable that 
he made efforts to regain the sovereignty of the Nile valley in 
which his ancestors had left enduring memorials. M. Lenormant 
thought the Eg^-ptian monuments atford proof that Assyria and 
Mesopotamia recognized Egyptian suzerainty down to the second 
half of the twelfth century B.C. That some quarrelsomeHittite 
or Amorite king in these regions may have flattered Pharaoh's 
vanity by presents and a nominal recognition of his greatness in 
order to gain assistance against the arms of his fellows is not 
unlikely, but that the Egyptian arms penetrated these countries, 
or that there was any real submission of them to the crown of 
Memphis, is doubtful in the extreme. The Egyptian title was of 
e([ual value with that of the kings of Great Britain and Ireland 
to France, and of those of Austria to Jerusalem. 

The name of Achian son of Shemidah was given to tlie island 
Efina. Two thinffs attest this: the name of Myrmidons o-iven 
to its inhabitants, and the worship of Diana under the title Brito- 
niart. The word Myrmidon has already been found to designate 
the followers of Achilles or Saul of Rchobotli. and to have arisen 
(jut of a union of that licrcj (jr his fatlu-r with Miriam of the 
faniih' of Ezra, the S(,'inifaniis of tradition. In Hrit(niart, also 
called Dictynna. a Tsochcth like name, the t'eminine counterpai't 
of IJaal Herith of Shecheni appeal's, and that Slu'ehem is the 
secon<l son of Shemidah, Achian being the first. In an ancient 
in\-ocation, supp(jsei| to be in Hebrew, but really in the Il>ei-ie 


language, the Efrai of Taliesin, that bard mentions Britomart as 
Brith, who is the Brid or Bridget of Irish mythology, and calls 
Baal Berith her brother, as if she were the better known of the 
two. The invocation is translatable by the Basque language. 

" O Brithi, Brith oi O Brithi, companion of Brith, 

Nu oes, nu edi Give heed to me, hear me ; 

Brithi Brith anhai Brithi, brother of Brith, 

Sych edi, edi eu roi." Do thou hear, hear this measure.^ 

But in the line of Saum and Zaul the Persian historians place, 
although with no regard to chronology, their great hero Rustam, 
and he is the Chushan Jlishathaim of the book of Judges, who 
became the iirst enslaver of Israel in the land of Canaan. This 
Eishathaim or Rustam is the Aristomenes of Messenia, who, 
according to Pausanias, was made as great a hero in the Messenic 
war of the poet Rhianus Benaeus as Achilles is in the Iliad. 
The name of the poet Rhianus recalls that of Rinnah, a son of 
Shimon, and Benaeus may be the Beerothite name Baanah ; but 
the tradition that Aristomenes descended from Pyrrhus the son 
of Achilles, links him with the Beei'othite family. It is remark- 
able that this family should be celebrated in so many epics, 
Hadad Vjeing the hero of the Indian Mahabharata, Saul of the 
Greek Iliad, Hadar of the Welsh Gododin, and Rishathaim of the 
Persian Shah Nameh and the Greek Messeniacs. There must 
have been great chivalry and w^arlike powers in a race that so 
many widely separated poets united to honour in their verse. 
In the Hindoo genealogies Rishathaim appears as Rishtishena or 
Arshtishena, a descendant of Jahnu. Unhappily the Greek tra- 
ditions Eginetan and Messenian, and the Indian, furnish no 
definite information concerning Shemidah and his sons. The 
Mahabharata represents their time as one of strife and of humili- 
ation for the Beerothites. " And the hosts of their enemies also 
smote the Bharatas. Shaking the earth with an army of four 
kinds of forces, the Panchalya chief assailed him (Samvarana, son 
of Jahnu's brother Rikslia), having rapidly conquered the earth, 
and vancjuisheil him with ten complete hosts. Then King Sam- 
varana with his wives, ministers, sons and friends, fled from tha^ 

" Davit's" Diuids. 


great cause of alarm ; and dwelt in the thickets of the great river 
Sindhu, in the country bordering on the stream and near a 
mountain. There the Bharatas abode for a longr time, takincj 
refuge in a fortress. As thev were dwellinof there for a thousand 
years, the venerable rishi Vasishtha came to them. Going out to 
meet him on his arrival, and making obeisance, the Bharatas all 
presented him with the arghya offering, showing every honour to 
the glorious rishi. When he was seated the king himself 
(Samvarana) solicited him, ' Be thou our priest ; let us strive to 
retjain mv kingdom.' Vasishtha consented to attach himself to 
the Bharatas, and, as we have heard, invested the descendant of 
Puru with the .sovereignty of the entire Kshattriya race to be a 
horn over the whole earth. He occupied the splendid city for- 
merly inhabited by Bharata, an<l made all kings again tributary 
to himself." ''' 

The fragments of early Chaldean history preserved by 
Berosus mark the advent of the Beerothite family to the lower 
waters of the Euphrates and Tigris as one of the most important 
events in the history of that region, but like the Sanscrit writers 
he confounds it with the stovy of the flood of Xisuthrus or 
Satyavrata, thus giving to it an absurd anticjuity. In the time 
of Ammenon, the Chaldean, says Berosus, appeared the Musarus 
Cannes, the Annedotus from the Eiythraean sea, whose shape 
was that of a fish blended witli that of a man, and afterwards 
from the same region came another being of similar form named 
Cdacoi). This fish man ocetu's ireiuently in Assyrian sculj)tui'es, 
as at Ivhorsabad and Nimroud, sometimes as a complete human 
figun? in a stan<ling position wrapt about with fishy emblems, at 
others as a composite figure swimming in the sea/'- The se(juence 
of the Kt-nite Anuion, Shemidag. an<l Ahian as ilhistrated by the 
monumental Anuianu, Ismi-dag.-in and (lungumi. and the legen- 
dary Annnenon. Dagon. and (Jannes, ])lainly connects the ti'adi - 
tions of thf latter with tlir tinu when the IJeerothite family 
remov(Ml ciut of l^gypt into llabylc^nia. This being the case, a 
])lac<; is found foi- the Indian Vishnu, who ispi-oxcd the same j^er- 

.Miiir's .S.-ui.scril T^xts, i. .'{(il. 
IV.ii..iiil^ Xiii.'vrli, :iL".l. it;s. 


son as Jahnu of the Bharatan genealogy.**^ As Manu Satyavrata 
was offering a libation by the ri^er, a Saphari fish came into his 
hands, and Ijesought him not to cast it back to the monsters 
which devoured their kindred in that stream. The sage placed 
the fish in a water pot, but it was soon too large for that ; then 
he transferred it to larger vessels, to a pond, to lakes of various 
dimensions ; but these were all too small for the growing fish, 
which at last filled the sea, when Manu recognized it as an incar- 
nation of Vishnu, and paid homage to the god. This is but a 
form of the story of the dwarf incarnation in which Vishnu as 
the dwarf Hari easily got from Bali the right to as much ground 
as he could cover in three strides, whereupon he assumed his true 
form, and stepping out took possession of the world. ''^ These 
legends agree with other fragments of the Beerothite history of 
the period subsequent to the Exodus of Israel, in showing the 
feeble state of that race, its protection in this condition by the 
dominant powers, Egyptian and Cymro-Hittite, also perhaps by 
Amorites and Moabites, and its rapid expansion, by virtue of the 
military skill and prowess that distinguished its leaders, into the 
ruling nation of the east. All the fish stories, which embrace 
Atargatis or Derceto, Semiramis, Adad, and Oannes or Vishnu, 
have grown out of the final dag of Sheinidag's name, which in 
some Semitic tongues denotes a fish ecjually with min.~^ Some of 
the Khitan languages have preserved this word, such as the 
Yeniseian, which call a fish tig, tyk, apparently the same as the 
Lesghian tsJtua, Circassian tzey, and Georgian tsliekomi, but 
others have changed the initial d to /' or I, as the Circassian in 
arge, the Basque in arraga and the Yukahirian in olloga. In 
British mythology Ahian is Gwion the little. Ceridwen kept 
him to tend her magic cauldron, and one day when she was out 
collecting herbs for it, by some accident three drops of the caul- 
dron's contents fell on her servitor's finL>'ers. The heat of the 

'''^ There is confusion in Chaldean and Indian tradition of the Japhetic or .Terah- 
meelite line of Onam, whence (Cannes, with that of Sheniidah, arising out of the fact that 
Onani's two sons were Shammai and .Tada or Yadag. The latter is the original Dag, 

man fish, or Daguii, and the Chaldean story is that of an early Aryan culture in his 

'" Mtiir's Sanscrit Texts, i. 205, sei]. 

'' See note ()9, however. 


water made hiin put his fingers into his mouth, when immediately 
the future was revealed to him, and he saw that unless he 
escaped from Ceridwen, his life was in danger. " With extreme 
terror he fied towards his native country." On Cerid wen's 
return she saw that her whole year's labour was lost. " It is 
Gwion the little who has robbed me," she cried, and flew in pursuit 
of him. Afraid of being overtaken, Gwion changed himself into 
a hare, but she became a greyhound and ran him down to the 
river : then he became a fish, while she as an otter swam after 
him. Next he was a bird and she a hawk, and at last in despair 
he metamorphosed himself into a single grain in a pile of wheat '> 
but as a black high-crested hen she scratched him out and de- 
voured him. Yet even thus he triumphed, for he was born to 
her as a child so lovely that she had no heart to kill him ; but, un- 
willing to keep the thief, she laid him in the well worn coracle 
and sent him oft' to sea."- It is not easy to understand the whole 
of this allegory, but the gist of it is that the Beerothites, who, 
during their residence in Egypt from the time of Hadad, the first 
Osortasen, down to that of Shimon the third Amenhotep, had be- 
come versed in all the wisdom and science of the Egyptians 
carried away this knowledge to the banks of the Euphrates con- 
ti'ar}^ to the desire of the Pharaohs. Taking advantage of 
Egypt's weakness after the Red Sea overthrow, Shcniidah, or it 
may be his father Annion, led a Beerothite exodus, which robbed 
the Nile valley of its bravest defenders and most skilful woi'k- 
men, and established a rival civilization in the east. That Amnon 
sat upon a Chaldean throne there is as yet no evidence, but his 
son Sheniidah called the land after his father, Amnanu, and as 
Ismi-dagan became the first of a line of oriental kings, from 
whom the proud Tiglath Pileser did not disdain to own himself 
<lescended. Thus ends the national life of the Hittitesin the land 
of the Pharaohs. 

It is not ast(jiiisliing tc) find all ovei* the wocM art, ajijiliniices, 
rites, and traditions that {)oint back to l"^g}'l)t as their birth place. 
It was not the cradle of humanity, but it was the school of the 
nations into wliicli dcsccndtMl, oi- into contact with which I'ame, 

"" I)avii-,-, L'l.'i, 22'.K 


all civilized races and even those that in decadence still exhibit 
obscure traces of ancient culture, within a brief space of four 
centuries, centuries in many respects the most eventful that the 
world's progress has witnessed. " Out of Egypt have I called 
my Son " is true of Israel and of the Messiah of the chosen people, 
and it is also true of all earth's nations/^ There the Horite Phoe- 
nician learned his art, and acquired the training of the merchant ; 
the Jerahmeelite Brahman found models for his pride, and 
enriched himself with fancied sacred lore ; the Philistine or Pelas- 
gian, ancestor of many peoples, gained skill in cyclopean architec- 
ture and practised the arts of war ; and the Zimrite and Midianite 
Celt learned to sing the songs of other days. But among all the 
dwellers in the land of bondage there were none that left such an 
impress as did the sons of the father of Tekoa, the grandest archi- 
tects, the most skilful improvers of the cf)untr3''s resources, the 
bravest warriors, with the exception of their Philistine guards, 
the greatest reformers of worship and morals, and the most just 
and paternal monarchs whom Egypt has ever seen. That the 
pure religion introduced by the Hebrew captive Joseph had much 
to do with Hittite excellence in Egypt cannot be denied, but to 
produce the grand results which mark not only the reign of his 
apt pupil Aahpeti, but those also of all the alien Beerothites, 
from Hadad down to Shimon, there must liave been such a capa- 
city for culture of every kind in these Hittite monarclis and 
their people as the world has rarely beheld. The paliny days of 
Egypt were those of the Amenemes and (.)sortasens, Hittites all ; 
those of tlie Rameses were only saved from total decline by the 
help of theij- descendants. And if there appeared in the two en- 
slavers of Israel strength of will and vigor of intellect, it was 
their inheritance from the queen of the race which they expatri- 
ated, Matred the daughter of Mezahab. 

"' Hosea xi. 1 ; Matthew ii. 1.5. 



The Hittites at the Tigris and Euphrates. 

We have seen Hittite monarchy commencing with Ashchur, 
the father of the race, at Cutha or Tiggaba, near Babylon. His 
seven sons, who were as many kings, went forth on a career of 
con(juest, which in its details there are no materials to illustrate. 
Whether a spirit of adventure led them westward, or they were 
driven by the hostility of the Shemites or dissensions among 
themselves, four of the tribes left the birth place of their race, 
and in the fourth generation from Ashchur, occupied the eastern 
bank of the Jordan and the border land of the Sinaitic Peninsula 
and Greater Arabia. It is probable that the Ethnanites and 
Temenites came to the latter region across the Arabian Desert, in 
company with the Jerachmeelites and Joktanites, with whom, as 
well as with the later Nabateans and Midianites, the Ai'abian 
writers associate them. The sons of Achuzam and Achashtari, 
on the other hand, must have ascended the banks of the Euphra- 
tes, and crossing the wide desert that lies between it and Palmyra, 
have reached Damascus, thence to move southward into tlie 
fertile lands of Bashan, Gilead, and Northern Moab. Tluee tribes 
remained in part at least in the east, the child len of Hepher, 
Ze)'eth, and Zohar. Simultaneously the}' seem to have erected 
three kingdoms of Sippara, Ellasar, and 8hinar, along the course 
of the Euphrates, Ijetween the unhistorical Hamitcs of tln> Per- 
sian (lulf and the Arainaeans of Noi'thei-n ]\Iesoj)(jtamia. A gen- 
eration had liardly passed when wai" took place l)etwecn llai-eph, 
the son of Hepher, and tiie sons of Zercth and Zohai'. -The two 
grandsons of Helah mafic an attack u])on Naarah's dt'scciidant 
who had marricil ;i daughter of Manahath, the iirst l''.gyptian 
king, and trusting in this union of Sij)j)ara with .Meiides an<l 
Zoan. had jterhaps treated his cousins with new found haughti- 
ness. At any rate Ellasar and Shinar ])i-oved too stnmg for the 
heir of Hepher in spite of his liorite alliance. They dro\f him 


out of Sippara which the Zerethites occupied. Hareph, the 
Harphre of the Egyptians, who made him the son of Month and 
Ritho, and the Cerpheres of Manetho's third dynasty, but the 
Surippak of the Chaldeans, was forced to place the Shat-el-Arab 
between him and the sons of his father's brethren. On the east- 
ern side of the broad river he found the Elamites, a quiet, un- 
historical Semitic people, whom love of peace had probably led 
into the land they called El am, after their ancestor. These Elam- 
ites furnished the basis of a monarchy. With offers of protec- 
tion, Hareph bought their confidence and their service, and free 
from molestation, was able to mature his plans of revenge on his 
kinsmen. In his new home the exile fi'om Sippara found the 
horse, and made use of that animal as a valuable aid in war, 
training his subjects to horsemanship, until Beth Gader or Kanai 
Kidori, the beautiful household, as he named them, became known 
as the Gandharas and air-piercing Centaurs, half man, half horse, 
who inspired terror in the hearts of those who were unaccustomed 
to the novel sight of a horse and his rider. 

Hai'eph, who may be the Urbabi mentioned on an inscription 
of Dungi the son of Urukh, was the father of two famous sons, 
of whoDi Hamath seems to have been the legitimate heir to the 
throne, as the Arabians called his brother Chedorlaomer a man 
of Thamud. This Hamath, however, was put to death, and from 
the fact that one of his sons occupied the throne of Elam,it would 
appear that Chedorlaomer was a usurper and perhaps the assassin. 
He was honoured as an Elamite god under the name Sumudu, as 
was his son Rechab under the title Ragiba, and his brother as 
Lagomer.^ But Laomer or Larjomer, the Kudur, did not call him- 
self by that name on his monuments evidently. His mother was 
tlie daughter of the great Manahath, the Menes of Egypt, and he 
adopted his maternal grandfather's name, calling himself Kudur 
Nanliundi. To the Assyrian Assurbanipal, history is indebted 
for a record of this monarch. He says : 

" Kudur Nanhundi the Elamite, who the worship 
of the great gods did not fear, 
who in an evil resolve to his own force trusted, 

' Ilcc'.rds nf til.' ]';ist, i. 85. 


on the temples of Akkad his hands he had laid, 

and he oppressetl Akkad .... 

the days were full .... 

for 2 ner 7 soss and 15 years under the Elaniites."'- 

This period was 1635 years, at the end of which Assurbanipal 
con([uered Elani and brought back the image of the goddess Nana 
which Kudur Nanhundi had taken from Babylonia. The As- 
syrian monarch was wrong in representing Chedorlaomer as the 
oppressor of Akkad and the robber of its temples, for as yet 
Akkad was not. The worshippers of Nana were the Zerethites, 
Urukh and his son Dungi. It was reserved for Chedorlaomer to 
inflict upon Zereth and Zohar the vengeance which his father 
Hai-eph had in mind to visit upon those who had expelled him 
from Sippara and Surippak. Crossing the river he fell upon 
Ariocli. the Erichthonius of the Trojan line, in his cities of EUa- 
sar and Sippara, and made him tributary, A(.lvancing north- 
ward he found Amraphel. the grandson of Zoliar, in Shinar, and 
brought iiim also into subjection. Where he found the Goim who 
named (ialilee, is harder to decide. They were the true Japhetic 
Achaeans. who were first named Aegialeans or Galileans, but un- 
happily they have little or no ancient history of their own. It is 
possible that Avchiteles, son of Achaeus. may be a disguise of 
Thargal. but almost all their prehistoi'ic names belong to Hittite 
histoiy in Canaan and Eg^'pt. Especially is their story mixed 
up, through similarity of name, with that of tlie Hushamites, 
who seetn to have occupied Achaia before them, and whom 
meeting as Ossetes on the Euxine, the Greek geograpliei's i-e- 
garded as an Achaean remnant from Ti-qjan days. They were a 
maritime people in Accho and Achzib on the Meditci-ranciui coast, 
which cities Ashci- was not able to (lc])i-ivf them of wliru Israi'l 
conquei'ed Canaan. Before reaching Galilee they may ha\'e been 
fluxiatile. and the transpoi-ters of Chedorlaomei-'s aiTiiy up the 
Euphrates : lut this is mere cotijeeture. takiiiL;- i'oi- the ])i-esent 
the piac'' lit" historical e\i(leiice which is wanting. The Goini 
we)-.- ]ri)bal)l\' allits of the I'^lamite moiiai-ch rather than bis sub- 
jects, liut when he went fortli ujxiii his g)-eat bti'ay, the kings of 

I;,.-..i.U nf till' I':i~t, iii. S. 


Ellasar and Shinar accompanied him as vassals, yet well content, 
no doubt, to aid him as the ravager of the West. The details of 
that expedition have already been before us. All that remains 
to be added is that the presence of the Goim in Chedorlaomer's 
armv, speaking the same Pelasgic tongue as the Philistines, 
would hinder his attacking the Abimelech of Gerar or being 
attacked by his warlike host ; and that the descent of the Elamite 
king from Manahath would secure the neutrality of Zaavan, 
his grandson, in whose honour Zoan was built, or of his brother 
Akan, who was proljably his .successor. 

The fate of the confederate kings is undetermined. So far 
there are no data for deciding whether they fell before the aveng- 
inof arms of the valiant Hebrew and his Amorite allies, or found 
their way to the Euphrates, and thence regained their homes- 
There is no monumental record of Amraphel, but the Ute story 
of Sokus Waiuna^ts which awaits confirmation in the region of 
mythology and folk lore, indicates that his cruelties were avenged 
on his person. His son Machpelah, or the illustrious Chapelah, 
may have held Shinar after him, but in his time the Zoharite 
kingdom must have been absorbed, for Ephron its heir came, the 
first (jf a band of Hittite conquerors, into the country west of 
Jordan, driving the three Amorites towards the Mediterranean 
coast, where Eshcol and Aner preserved two of their names. 
There arc, however, many reasons for believing that a consider- 
able Zoharite element entered into the ruling family of Assyria. 
One of these is the constant union of Zereth with Zohar, as the 
Egyptian Shairetana and Takkaro, and as the Trojan Dardanians 
and Tfucrians. It was from Tsochar that the Tigris derived its 
name, as well as the Zagros mountains, which constituted the 
east'i-ii lioundai'v of Assvria, and this Tica-is or Diklath became 
the Tii,dath which forjned an clement in the names of at least 
five Assyvian moiiarchs. The history of Arioch presents diffi- 
culties. His DMuic does not appear in the Kenite recoi'd, which 
furnishes no intei-inediate links between Zereth and Jehaleleel. 
I he' youngest son of the latter was Asareel, whose name as Asar 
the mighty, might be rendered Elasar or the powerful Asa)-, Init 
his time is well determined by the fact that his elder sister 
Ziphah was tin; c^'Usort of the son of Amnion. It is thus impos- 


sible that any descendant of his could have been the ally of 
Chedorlaomer. Now the Urukh of whom we possess inscriptions 
built a temple to Sarili, who is Asareel, and calls himself king of 
Sumir and Akkad, neither of which was in existence in the time 
of Chedorlaomer. It follows that there must have been an older 
Urukh, the grandson of Zereth, whose father may have been an 
Asareel or Elasar, the same whom the Greeks calling Erichthonius, 
make the brother of Ilus. But he cannot even have been the 
brother of Jehaleleel, who was the contemporary of Amnion, and 
must be placed in the previous generation as the brother of 
Shachar. Nevertheless the Zerethite family which Arioch repre- 
sented kept the throne of Chaldea and became more powerful 
than the Elamite kings. After the death of Chedorlaomer, his 
son Salma, the father of Beth Lechem, was set aside, and the 
rightful heir of Hamath was recognized as his successor. This 
was Ezra oi- Gezra, the head of the Gezrites and the Tamudite 
Hezer of the Arabians. His name has been read on a monument 
as Simti Silhak, in which the fiist word appears to denote his 
father Hamath as Sumudu, and the second, his own name in a 
very corrupt form. The connection is found in the name of his 
son, who i-ostores the family designation Beth Gader as Kudur 
Mabuk. Here, however, although the line of Kudur is given, the 
personal name is concealed, for Mabuk is a feminine title con- 
nectei.l with the goddess Atargatis. who was worshipped at Mabog, 
Bauibyce, or Hierapolis in Syria. Two princesses ai-e mentioned 
in the Kciiite list as wives of one of the sons of Ezra, but whethei" 
of Jeth(,'r oi- of Mered is hai"d to determine: these are Hodiali, 
a daughter of Caleb the Zoharito, grandson of Ephron, and 
Bithi-ih, daughter of the Zerethite Ziph. The mother of Jered. 
the father of Gedor, who was the heir of .Tether, is (tailed .lehu- 
dijah, and she should be the Mabuk of the inscription. In Pro- 
fessor Palmer's report of ex])loration in ^loal), he nientions a visit 
to El Yeluidiy(;h, nejir Fugua, wliich may be the Pan of Ha(hir. 
He describes it as a black I'ock, about twelve feet long, "' of which 
the Ai'ab.s have a leg<.'nd that it is a woman turneij into stone for 
})r(jfanf',ly denying the cei-tamtv of death." The Arabic name 
and tliat of the mother of Jered are identical. ' in ( Jreek gene- 

I'alf.stiiif Kxpl'ir.itiipii Kiiiid, ^ii:irtfily Statfinciit, .liii.. 1S71, (;7. 


alogies Erythrius, who is Jerecl and the Rathures of Manetho's 
tifth dynasty, is called a son of Athamas, the Kenite Etham or 
Etam, and the Egyptian Atmu or Athom. The British Arthur, 
who is the same personage, is called a son of Uther Pendragon. 
Uther denotes his father Jether, but the surname Pendragon calls 
for explanation. In Irish history Jether, as Eathoir, is associated 
with Feniusa Farsa as joint administrator of the primitive Uni- 
versity of ^Jagh Seanair, a statement by no means so absurd as 
it inav seem, for the Kenite scribes were the educators of the 
ancient world and gave instruction in letters to the students 
o-athered in Zoan, Memphis, and Thebes. Eathoir is made the 
fathei- of a Gadel, but this Gadel, who fades out of history, is 
wrongly distinguished from Gadelas the grandson of Feniusa. 
Gadel or Gadelas, whom the Scottish Chronicle calls Gathelus, 
son of Cecrops, is in the Kenite genealogy the third son of Jether, 
namely, Jekuthiel the father of Zanoah, and ancestor of the 
Gaoidheals or Gaels, who, however, >vere not true Celts or Galatae^ 
but Ugiians of the Ugrians. The triple connection of Jether 
with Athamas, Pendragon, and Feniusa, finds explanation in the 
Kenite account of the family of the father of Etam, in which 
appears Penuel the father of Gedor.^ Now Gedor was a purely 
Hepherite family, and Etam as a Horite in the line of Manahath, 
had no rifht to the title of father to that family, save throuofh 
the marriage of his daughter to a Kenite. Such a Kenite was 
Jether, and his son being Jered, also the father of Gedor, it fol- 
lows that Penuel was the father of the wife of the former and 
the nujthei- of the latter. The Welsh traditions of Arthur's 
mother, filthough confused, furnish valuable identifications ; for, 
while they call her Eigyr or Igerna, wdiich is the name of Ezra 
the father of Jether, they represent her as the wife of Gorlois 
i)i ("ornwall, who is Jezrcel the son of Etam. As Penuel was a 
Horite, and will not re-appear in the histoiy, it may be well to 
inilicute wliat the Greek traditions say of his genealogy. The 
Scholiast in Apollonius Kliodius calls him Phoenix the son of 
Ag<;iinr ami ( 'assiepea, but reduplicates him as Phineus, who was 
tlif son of j-'lio'iiix, along with Cilix, ])oriclus aiid Atvmnius. 

1 ri, 


His children by Cleopatra were Parthenius and Crainbis, and by 
Idaea, the daughter of Dardanus, Thymus and Mariandynus- 
Now it is clear that the Scholiast or his informant had in his 
possession an oral or written version of the very genealogy that 
is contained in the book of Chronicles, for he mixes up the fam- 
ilies of Etam and Ezra through the alliance of the daughter of 
the Etamite Penuel with the Ezraite Jether. Agenor is the 
Horite Akan, father of Etam, as Agenor is the father of Cadmus ; 
Atymnius and Doriclus are Etam and Jezreel or Yetsregel ; Idaea 
is Jehndijah ; and Thymus and Mariandynus are E^htenioa and 
Miriam. In Norse mythology the wife of Jether or Odur is 
Freyja of the Vanir, who is also called Vanadis. " Odur left his 
wife in order to travel into very remote countries. Since that 
time Freyja continually weeps, and her tears are drops of pure 
gold." She is thus Bhavani, parent of the Rudras and Maruts 
as of Yena descended from Aoni and Manu. The story of her 
father is always a melancholy one. As Pentheus, the grandson 
of Cadmus, he climbed into a tree top to witness unseen the 
Dionysiac orgies, but the Bacchantes espied him and tore him to 
pieces. As Phineus, son of Agenor, he w^as struck with blindness 
by the gods, and then tormented by the Harpies. As Phineus, 
brother of Cepheus of Joppa, he was petrified by the Gorgon's 
head in the hands of Perseus. In Hindu story he is the magician 
Punchkin who imprisoned many princes and princesses in a great 
tower, till the son of one of these princesses, named Balna, 
travelling over the world, found the green parrot on whose life 
that of Punchkin depended, and, tearing it limb from limb before 
him, caused the magician to in the same way. Unhappily, 
Apuleiiis in his Golden Ass, begins the story of Psyche, who 
should be the daughter of Penuel, in the trite form, '' era )if in 
(juadaiii ciritnte rex cf rcglnu, thei'c were in a certain city a king 
and a (jueen," instead of informing us who the king and (jueen 
were.*^ She was married to a monster who tui-ncd out to be 
( 'u)>i(l. Init thi'(jugh curiosity she h^st him. To the Scadinavian 
\'anadis answers the Undine; of Fou(|UC', the water maiden who 

> Til.- I'ro.s.. K.i.ia. 

' Apulcius, I)c AmIihi Aurci), L, i\'. 


married a mortal on condition that he should never speak angrily 
to her in the neighbourhood of her relations, for thus they would 
regain power over her. And she is Bheki, the frog princess of 
Sanscrit story, who cautioned her husband never to show her a 
drop of water ; and Vach the wife of Indra. But her father 
Penuel is Pani the deceiver, who stole away Indra's cows. The 
origin of all these various legends, representing the union of 
members of two different races and their subsequent separation, 
is the marriage of Jether to the Horite Jehudijah, daughter of 
Penuel, who seems at some time to have left him for her father's 
house, whence Jether did not succeed in bringing her, until he 
had inflicted moi'tal injury on his father-in-law. To explain the 
connection of the two words Jehudijah and Bog or Mabog, it is 
necessary to premise that the former is Semitic, which is more 
than pr()i)able, as the Egyptian was a sub-Semitic language, and 
the Horites were apparently its authors. In Phoenicia also the 
same Horites spoke a purely Semitic tongue. In this case 
Jehudijah can be traced to the root jadah, meaning to cast forth, 
to utter, to praise. A similar root is the Japanese (modern Ham- 
athite) hokashi, to cast forth or away ; but as most Japanese 
words commencing with the aspirate have replaced an original 
labial by that letter, hokasJii is the same as the obscure bokushi, 
moaning to tell fortunes, soothsay, prognosticate. The ancient 
Hittite word translating Jehudijah must thus have been the 
ecjuivaleiit of the Sanscrit Vach, the voice, so that the primitive 
meaning of l>u/<' or hog was the utterance or oracle, and with the 
)ireti.\ iKJ/,, meaning illustrious, honourable, great, it became, as 
Mabuk and ^labog, and the Mexican Mapach, the sublime oracle. 
It is natui'al to think that the hec of the Syi'ian Baalbec and 
Egyptian Atai'bechis was the same term, and that these words 
signified the oracle of Baal, the oracle of Athor, or more literally 
tlie uttei-ance of the respective deities. It is remarkable that 
Pciiucl, whose own name has the blasphemous meaning of, the 
face (jf (lod, a name whicdi being transported to Pluenicia by 
bis descendants, the (jreeks translated as Theouprosopon, should 
ba\ ( bad a dauglitor called, the oracle ; and it may indicate that 
I'cnin-l arrogated to binisoH" the divinity of which liis daughter 
was to l>e tlie voice. 


The story of Jether as Mabuk is told in the Manyoshiu, a 
collection of Japanese poems said to have been composed between 
the fifth and ninth centuries A.D. The hero of the story is Ura- 
shima, whose name furnishes a synonjmi for bokushi in the root 
2ira, denoting oracular utterance, as in ura-nai, to foretell, 
divine, ju'ognosticate, and in ora-hata, the prognostication or 
fortune told. The following shima is probably an old form of 
the verb sliimo^hi, to declare, publish. In Japanese history, 
Urashima, the tisherman, caught a large turtle in his nets which 
turned to a beautiful woman, and they went away together to the 
island of Fui-aisan.'^ A turtle in Japanese is kame, and a god, 
kami. The opening of the casket in the Manyoshiu story links 
it with that of Psyche, to whom Venus gave a box to take to 
Proserpina, which box Psyche opened, when vapours issued from 
it that landed her in sleep and forgetfulness. This is the Japan- 
ese version of the oft told tale : 

" When the days of s])riiig were hazy, 

I went fortli upon the beach of Suniinoe, 

And as I watched the fi.shins;-boats rock to and fro, 

I bethought nie of the tale of old : 

How the son of Urashima of Midzunoe, 

Proud of his skill in catching the katsuivo and tai. 

For seven days not even coming home, 

Rowed on beyond the bounds of the ocean, 

Where with a daughter of the god of the sea 

He chanced to meet as he rowed onwards. 

W^hen with mutual endearments their h)ve had been crowned, 

They plighted their troths and went to the immortal land, 

Where hand in hand both entered 

Into a stately mansion within the precinct 

Of the ])alace of the god of the sea, 

There to remain for everlasting, 

Never growing old, nor evei' dying. 

But this was the sjicech which was addressed to his spouse 

]5y the foolish man of this world : 
' For a little while 1 would return home, 

And sjieak to my fatlier and my mother : 

To-morrow I will come l)ack.' 

When he had said so, this was the si)eech of his sjjouse : 
' If thou ait to retmii again to the inunortal land 

And Jivi- with ine as now, 

Open not this cuskft at all.' 

"' Titsingh, .\nnalcs. I'rashiina and l"'uraisan have l)een set forth as pi<ibalilf 
forms of Regeni ami C.'arc-hi'iiiish : they cannot be such and at the same time the 
ren'leriiig hen- given. 


Much did she impress this on him, 

But he, having returned to Suminoe, 

Though he looked for his house. 

No house could he see ; 

Though he looked for his native village. 

No village could he see. 
' This is strange,' said he : thereupon this was his thought : 
' In the space of three years since I came forth from my home. 

Can the house have vanished, without even the fence being left ? 

If I opened this casket and saw. 

Should my house exist as before ? ' r 

Opening a little the jewel casket, 

A white cloud came forth from it 

And sjiread away towards the immortal land. 

He ran, he shouted, he waved his sleeves. 

He rolled ujwn the earth and ground his feet together. 

Meanwhile of a sudden his vigor decayed and departed : 

His body that had been young grew wrinkled ; 

His hair too that had been black grew white ; 

Also his breath became feebler night by night ; 

Afterwards at last his life departed. 

And of the son of Urashima of Midzunoe 

The last resting ])lace I can see." ** 

This (juaiiit legend furnishes in the latter part the original of 
Washington Irving's Rip van Winkle, and of the story of the pious 
monk, Petrus Forschegrund, who, going into the sombre north- 
ern woods to meditate on God's blessed eternity, saw the scenery 
transformed with golden sunlight and summer zephyrs, with 
rippling streams and tiower bedecked meadows, with palms and 
myrtles and birds of paradise ; but, returning to his monas- 
tery, strange sights and voices ofreeted liim, and, as he fell beneath 
the weight of old age, he learned that his short hour of bliss had 
been a hundred years of time; The water maiden or sea goddess 
in Bi-itish story is Guinevere or Guanhumara, the faitliless wife 
of King Arthur, for she is Gwenhwyvar, the lady of the summit 
of the water. In one tradition she prefers Lancelot, the son of 
Ban of Kanwick, to her spouse ; in another, Modred, her husband's 
nephew. In the first Ban is the Indian Pani and Kenite 
Penue] : in the second Modred represents Mered the brother of 
.Jethci- and uncle of Jered or Arthur. But while Mered took 
away what was not his own, for such is often the meaning of 
Idkach, which the English version simply renders b}^ "took," it 

" Astou'.s Oramiiiai <if tlie Japanese written language, Ap])endix II., xvii. 


was not Jehudijali or Mabog, but Bithiah of whom he deprived 
another. Mr. Osborn find.s Pehnak as an Egyptian royal scribe 
contemporary with prince Mourhet or Mered, whose portrait 
from the monuments adorns his work ; and Lieblein mentions a 
Pehenuka, father of an otherwise unknown Ata,^ These are 
Egyptian Penuels. 

It is evident that the Egyptian alliance, originally formed by 
the marriage of Hareph to the daughter of Manahath, was fol- 
lowed by the entrance of some of his descendants into Egypt. 
There they found the native Pharaohs already in a subordinate 
position, for the Zerethite Ziph had established himself in Mem- 
phis, and was constructing the great pyramid in the neighbouring 
necropolis of (xizeh. Mered made a friend of this intruder and 
took his daughter Bithiah to wife, while Jether allied himself 
with the Horite Penuel by marrying his daughter Jehudijah. 
But Jether had no intention of fattening on the flesh-pots of 
Egypt. He carried his bride away from her home on the Medi- 
terranean shore of the delta, to his distant kingdom of Elam in the 
east, attended by his wild Centaurs or men of Gedor, and there 
in her honour he called himself no longer Jether, but Kudur 
Mabuk, Gedor of the excellent Oracle. He has left a brief 
inscription that has already been given. The memoi-ial of Ardu 
Sin is all too brief for the Erythras who named tlie Red Sea, the 
terrible Rudra of the Hindus, and the kingh' Arthur of the 
Round Table. His presence in Egyptian dynastic lists as 
Rathures seems to indicate that his horsemen were not unknown 
in the land of the Pharaohs, but to the polished dwellers of the 
Nile they were the cowboys of ancient days, and their princely 
leadtn* was the two-headed dog Orthos, sprung fi'om Typhon and 
Echidna that guarded the flocks of Geryon, in the l))erian island 
of Erythea. Nay, worse than this, Jered figured in their story 
as the Centaur Eurytion, a rough boor, wlio, invited to the mar- 
riag(.' festivities of Pirithous and Ilippodamia, diank to intoxica- 
tion, and gric\"ously insulted the bride, so that the Lapitlue 
hurried liiiii away fi"om tin- feast, cut off his nose and eai's. and 
sent him packing to his lawless domain, there to cherish deep 
hati'ed in his heart against these (|uondam hosts. But the San- 

' .MMtinijKiital History of Kgypt : Lichloiu, Hcchcrchcs, 2!). 


scrit scriptures redeem the King of Elam and his people from 
reproach, for the Rudras with their relatives, the Maruts of 
Mered, and Indra or Jether, the great progenitor of the former, 
are the principal deities of the oldest Veda. They are not idola- 
trous objects, thinks the eminent translator of the Rig Veda, but 
personifications of the eternal powers of nature through which 
the pious Brahman worshipped God. What the Brahman thought 
them to be when he picked up their story from Indian Gandharas 
and Mahrattas we cannot tell ; but, as he worshipped his ancestor 
Brahma, so did these tribes worship theirs, and such originally 
was all heathen cultus, the worship and service of the creature 
rather than the Creator who is blessed forever. 

" Father of the Maruts, may thy felicity extend to us : exclude us not from the light 

of the sun. 
Thou Rudra are the chiefest of beings in glory. Thou wielder of the thunderbolt, art 

the mightiest of the mighty. 
Where, Kiidra, is thy joy dispensing hand ? Firm, with strong limbs, assuming many 

forms, he shines with golden ornaments." 

Of Mered's descendants, the ancient poet sings as of a charge 
of the fierce Mahratta cavahy : 

" Thev make the rocks to tremble ; they tear asunder the kings of the forest, like Her- 
mes in his rage. 

liHuces gleam, Maruts, ujjon your shoulders, anklets on your feet, golden cuirasses 
on your bieasts, and pure waters shine on your chariots : lightnings blazing with 
tire glow in your hands, and golden tiaras are towering on your heads." i" 

Another hymn unites those who once dwelt in Syrian Aradus 
and Marathus with their brethren of Harnath : 

" When ye tlms fnjm afar cast forth j'our measure, like a blast of fire, throiigh whose 

wi.^ilom is it, through whose design ? To whom do you go, to whom, ye shakers 

<jf the earth ? 
May your weapons tje firm to attack, strong also to withstand ! May yours be the more 

glorious strength, not that of the deceitful mortal I 
When you overthrow what is firm, O ye men, and whirl aljout what is heavy, ye ]>ass 

through the trees of the earth, through the clefts of the rocks. 
Xo real foe of yours is known in heaven, nor in earth, ye devourers of enemies I May 

strength be yours, together with your race, O Rudras, to defy even now. 
Th<y make the rocks to tremble, they tear asunder the kings of the forest. Come on, 

Maruts, like madmen, ye gods, with your whole ti'ibe. 
Ye hav(! liarnessed the s))otted deer to your chariots, a red deer draws as leader. Kveii 

thi' caith listened at your a))proach, and men were frightened. 
<) Rudias, \\i- (|iiiekly de>ire your hel]i for our race. Come now to us with liel)), as of 

yiJt'-, thus fur th<' sake of the frightened Kanva." " 

'" Wilson, Kig \'<da a].. Cox, Aryan Mythology, ii. 222. 
II .M. Muller, I.eclun- on th(; Vedas, Chips, Vol. I. 


Kinlur Mabuk and his son Ardu Sin were lords of Martu, the 
western land supposed to mean Syria, and of Yannit-bal oi- Eiani, 
bearing the name of Hamath, the father of Ezra and Kecliab.^'^ 
With Jether and Mered their second cousin, Beeri, the head of 
the Beerothite line and father-in-law of Esau, was contemporary, 
and in Jered's time lived the unfortunate Bedad. This Bedad 
was contemporary with Jobab and Husham, the Temenite kings 
of Edom, who supplanted the Ethnanite Bela, son of Beor, the 
first to exorcise sovereignty in Gebalene, so that the southern 
parts of Palestine cannot have constituted the Martu over which 
the Elamites ruled. Yet tiie Niebelungen Lied, or song of the 
men of Nipur, of whom Gunther was the chief, has been found 
to represent the descendants of Ezra in opposition to tliose of 
Rechab and in a position of superiority to the Temenite Husham, 
who probably acknowledged the sway first wiehled by Chedor- 
laomer over the trans-Jordanic tribes. But a mightier power 
was rising in the east. At Ellas.ii' and Sippara on the lower 
Euphrates, Arioch the Zerethite had been a vassal of the Elamite. 
Of his descendant Jeiialeleel or Helel, son of Shachar, we know 
little. In a list of Babylonian kings, his predecessor is called 
Sunuiabi, a name that suyirests nothino-. He is himself called 
Sumulaihi, which leads one to doubt that SiinM is the cori-ect 
r(;ading in either case. He is said to have reigned for thirty-five 
years, and the Bascpie story of Lelo, the Graeco-Egyptian Linus, 
and the fragment of ancient poetry on the fall of Helel, son of 

'- The folic iwirif,' are the in.scription.s of Jered or Ardvi-Sin. 

" Anhi-Sin, the powerful iiuui, the liigh ruler, e.stablished by l>el, nourisher of 
I'r, kin;? of Larsa, king of Sumiraiid Akkad, sou of Kudur-Mabuk, the lord of VAum ; 
Cr the great he embellished, its .... he' established. I'r, my king, blessed 
me ; the great wall of Pfarris-galla to jirevent invasion, its circuit I raised, I Imilt, the 
city I encircled, the great tower of l.'r strongly I constructed."' 

" L'r, lord of s|iirits and angels .... my kinu', Ardu-Siu, iKiurisher of 
the temple, h.'ad ruler of iiit Xergal, the renowned man, lord of I'.it-1'arra, ini:kui of 
tncii-nt Eridu, who the n-ligious festivals keeps. I'it-llansa of /ii-gulla, its siti; he 
ri'.stoiid, its gr<'at ramjiarts his hands made. l"r and Samas .... to their 
plac<-s he restored. The prince his begetter Hit-Sania for his life estal)lished . . . 
in the servicr' of his lorii who marches befnre him, fm- the preser\ation of his lif(; he 
Ijuill his house, also lie restored its site, and the four houses of, for his pi'eser- 
vation and thi' pieservation nf Kndur .\laliuk, the fath<'r, his liegetter, the house with 
rejoicin^^r I'.ji 'I'nii^Mllie l.uilt. a -tatue befoie the liiHise he . . . ." (,'nir;/< Smith, 
Trnn.^. S,,r. /I, I,. Arch. I., ',:. 


Shachar, preserved by the prophet Isaiah, alike indicate his un- 
happy end. He is probably the Alorus whom Berosus makes 
the first Babylonian king, for by the common chanoe of I to r, 
his name descended not only as Alalia, but also as Aleria, and 
his descendants were known as Alaiodians, Illyrians, Ilergetes, 
Ilercaones, and Silures. Yet lie has no history either as iEolus 
the pious, dear to the immortal gods, or as Hellen the mythic 
ancestor of the Greeks, or even as Helius the drowned in the 
Eridanus. The nearest approach to history is the story of Halir- 
rothius, which by no means vindicates the character of the son of 
the morning. He is called the son of Poseidon, and is said to 
have wronged Alcippe, the daughter of Ares, whereupon the 
ottended fatlier killed him, and the high court of Areopagus was 
instituted to try the manslayer. But Poseidon was no relative of 
Jehaleleers,and Ma Reshah, the true Ares or Mars, was not upon 
the scene, so that this corru])ted narrative sheds no light upon 
the mysterious fate of the victim of Zara and Tota.'"' But two 
of his sons restored the gloiy of the Zerethite line, Ziph the 
eldest, and Asareel the youngest. In the Babylonian list the 
foi-iiH'r appears as the successor of Sumulailu under the name 
Zabu, with a reign of fourteen years. As the Egyptian Suphis, 
he is said by Manetho io have exercised sovereignty sixty-three 
years in Memphis. His reign marks the beginning of that wide 
extension of Zerethite empire that has been witnessed in part in 
the storv of the kinf-'s who reio-ned in Edom. The marriao-e of 
his sistei- Ziphah to Coz, the daughter of Ammon, gave Ziph the 
introduction to Egypt, of which he took foul ad\'antage. His 
alliance tliui'e with the Hepherite Mered did not serve his des- 
cendants long, for the Amenemes and Osortasens drove Sisyphus 
out, and vaiidy did he launch his Chei-ethite hosts against these 
bulwarks of the Nile valley, generation after generation ; oft on 
the lin'nk of conquest, the stone that was to carry all opposition 
before it sli})j'('(l from his grasp, and the Ziphite had to l)egin 
hi^^ \\ork anew. 

' .\iir (l.ics I'ritisli |]i,-ti>ry, to wliit'li the Silures cuiitributed, place us on solid 
t,'ri.uiii|, :ts fai- .-is tin- Silurian ancestor is concerned. He is the Leir whom iniuiMrtali/id. \\\i- fath.T of three dau^diters, of whom Cordelia, the liest of them, 
alone r'ficits tlic 'irij/inal story as in her name disirui>inLC Asareel. while her husband 
.\s,'anl|.|.M,, in hi^. i,n-s..nts that of Ann!) -r Caiiul), the son .if .lehaleleel's daucjhter, 
Ziphali. Karitia aN... tie- s.-it of Atrani|>|-us, is .lahaleleHl's own ret,Moii of /ereth. 


According to an inscription of Nabonidus, Zabu occupied 
Sippara, the ancient seat of the Nipurites of Elam, and built 
there the temples of Samas and Anunit, which the Babylonian 
king restored.^* He was succeeded by a descendant Heber, who 
in the Babylonian list is called Apil-sin, and in a Chaldean astro- 
logical treatise, Ibil-Sin, King of Ur. After Heber came Japhlet 
his son, called in the list Sin-Muballit ; and, in the Synchronous 
History of Assyria and Babylonia, where he is made an Assyrian 
monarch, he is Assur-Yupalladh. The Kenite genealogy places 
Asher and Boriah before Heber, and, in the Synchronous History, 
Assur Yupalladh is preceded b}' Assur-bil-nisisu and Buzur- 
Assur.^'^ The Assyrian and Babylonian lists present the same 
faults as the Egyptian, repeating royal names, making contem- 
poraneous dynasties successive, and exhausting one dynasty 
before introducing another, without reference to the point of 
time at which a member of the latter superseded a king of the 
former. Tiie Greeks unfortunately kept the Zerethite geneal- 
ogies more carelessly than any others, so that their legends throw 
little light upon the path of history. The chief guides in seeking 
to reconstruct the family line of Ziph or Zabu from Grecian 
sources, are the names Opheltes and Peneleus, by which they 
represent the Kenite Japhlet and his second son Bimhal. Pau- 
sanias has a Peneleus, son of Opheltes, who succeeded the Theban 
Thersander, and whose grandson was Damasichthou, the father 
of Ptolemy and grandfather of Xanthus. Another Opheltes was 
the son of Lycurgus of Xemea, whose father was Pheix'S, the son 
of Cretl'.eus, son of .Kt>lus. Here, undoubtedly, amid much con- 
fusion, Beriah, the father of the Kenite Heber, is recognized in 
Pheres as a Zeretliite in the line of Jehaleleel. Apollodorus has 
a Peneleus, son of Hi[)palnius, among the Argonauts, and he, in 
Diodorus, is Peneleus of Ilippaleimus, of Iton, of Bo'otus, of Arne, 
of /Eolus. Now Iton, Bo'otus and Arne iiave nothing to do with 
the gencalou-y, but Peneleus and Hippaleimus i-ightly go back to 
.Eolus oi- .Jelialcle(;l. Oj)lieltius and ( )pliele.stes are Trojan names 
in lioiner, and 0])lieltas Ix'longed to a 'i'liessalian king. Ephialtes 
and Hij)polytus wei'e giants that fought a,L;ainst .Iu]iiter, and 

'< K.-coi<i> ,,f th.- Fast. iii. >. 

'"' 1 Chf.ui., >.-(|.; K.;cunls of tin' Past, iii. -".. 


another Ephialtes was one of the Aloidae. Hippolochus, a dis- 
o-uised Yupalladh, was a son of Bellerophon, descended from 
Sisyphus, but Hahnus the son of that arch-deceiver represents 
Helem, Japhlet's younger brother. The connection rests on the 
authority of the Babylonian list, which places Apil-Sin and Sin 
Muballit after Zabu, and on that of the Synchronous History, 
which makes Mupallidhat Seruathe daughter of Assur Yupalladh, 
taken together with the facts that the Kenite list in which Japh- 
let or Yaphlet appears is headed by an Asher, and that Serah as 
the name of a woman occurs in the beginning of it. Then comes 
in the testimony of Gix-ek tradition, connecting the names 
Opheltes and Peneleus, and referring them to the ^olian line 
of Jehaleleel. Both the Synchronous History and the Kenite 
list recpiire the introduction of two monarchs between Zabu and 
Apil-Sin, or Ziph and Heber, but while the former calls these 
Assur-bil-nisisu and Buzur-Assur, the latter terms them Asher 
and Beriah. As the latter Egyptian Aahpeti was succeeded by 
his great-grandson Methosuphis, so Ziph, to whom Manetho 
ascribes a long reign, may have outlived his son Asher and grand- 
son Beriah, who acted as his deputies or viceroys in the east. 
Assur-bil-nisisu is recognized as the first Assyrian king ; he must 
therefore have been driven out of Sippara, in which his father 
Zabu reigned, into the north-east, there to refound the empire 
first established by Asshur, son of Shem. In it the two i-ivers 
Zab receive<l the ancesti'al name of Ziph ; and many other me- 
morials of ancient Zerethite empire were transpoi'ted to this new 
home of the i"ace. There the Egyptian monarchs found the 
Assumi, and near them their kindred of the K-utennu, descended 
from Asareel, One successor of Yupalladh is recorded in the 
Assyi-ian annals as reported by Mr. George Smith, namely, Bil 
Pasku, who is called " the origin of royalty," and he is Pasach, 
the eldest sow of Japhlet, a competitor with the Nairi Paseach, 
after whom Thapsacus was named. His brother Bimhal would 
.s(;(;m to have followed him, but as Assyi'ian names are at present 
read, it is hanlly worth while to tax the; reader's patience with 
(()miaris(jiis of his name with that which is variously called 
Biiilikliish, Bilnirai'i, Bellush, Bel Tanao-bal, and Ivalush. These 
strangit variations arise f)-oin the uncertainty whether a character 


should be read as a phonograph or as an ideograph. Between 
Yupalladh and Bellush, Professor Rawlinson inserts Bel-Sumili- 
Kapi, who may he Shonier, the brother of Japhlet, or his son 
Jechubbah. All of the family of Asher do not seem to have gone 
northward, for his grandson Malchiel is called the father of 
Birzavith, which is the Chaldean Borsippa. The Synchronous 
History makes Assur-bil-nisisu contemporary with Cara-Indas of 
Babylonia, or Gan-Duniyas, and Buzur-Assur with Burna-Buryas 
of the same. Now Burna-Buryas in the lists follows Ulam- 
Buryas, or Ulam son of Peresh, the Gileadite or Zimrite, with 
two reigns between them. Burna-Buryas is Akkadian, and is 
read in Assyrian Kidin-bel-matati, the Bel-matati representing 
the Akkadian Burya.s, but another king whose Assyrian name is 
Kidin-Bel is in Akkadian Bat-mu-ul-lil-la.^'' There is reason 
tiierefore to think that Burna should be Bedan, and that Bedan 
being the son of Ulam, Bedan-Buryas should follow Ulam-Buryas. 
This would place Buzur-Assur somewhat late in history, or in the 
time of Saul of Rehoboth. Assur- Yupalladh again had a daugh- 
ter Mupallidhat Serua, whose son, a Babylonian king called 
Cara-Murdas, was killed by his people, the Cassi, whereupon the 
Assyrians set a son of Burna-Buryas on the vacant throne. The 
missing names of the Assyrian avenger and the son of Burna- 
Buryas have been conjecturally restored, Itut it is better to ab- 
stain from conjecture until fuller evidence is forthcoming. The 
facts indicate that Bui'na-Buiyas belonged to a younger genera- 
tion than Assur- Yupalladh, and therefore suggest that Buzur- 
Assur i-epresents his son Pasacli rather than one of his predeces- 
sors. Mupallidhat Serua must be a Greek Hippolyte. One of 
these was the Amazon, wife of Theseus, and mother of Hip{)olytus 
whom Phaedra slandered ; and the other was the wife of Acastus, 
who slandered Peleus, the father of Achilles, in a similar way. 
Both of tli<'sj traditions connect the Heerothite family with a 
Hippolyte, for Theseus is Hadad. and Achilles the son of Peleus 
is Saul of Rehoboth. Butes of l^oreas again, who is Bedad the 
son of Beeri, carried off" Pancratis, the dau<rhter of Aheus, and 
sistf.-r of Kphialtes, tlius strengthening the evidence for a union 
of the Zerethit(i Ashei'ites and the royal line of Heeroth. 

" I'roc. Soc. I'.ih. Anil., .);iii. 11, ISSl, |,|.. ;iS, 11. 


Continuing the search for the prominent name Japhlet, or 
Yupalladh, it is found in Canaan as Japhleti, not, however, in the 
tribe of Asher, but in that of Benjamin, where Cherith and many- 
other names denoted Zerethite occupation at the time when 
Zereth Shachar was at the height of its prosperity.^' In the 
Moabite region, where these Zerethites exercised for a time almost 
undivided sway, the name became Diblath, and down in the 
Sinaitic peninsula it was reduced to Tophel.^^ In an inscription 
of Sennacherib a river of Assyria is called the Tibilti, in honour of 
the ancient king who had reigned over its Gordyeans, or Cardu- 
chi.''' But in the centre of the Caucasus dwelt in old Assyrian 
days and dwell now, the Iberians, of Kartu-el, who bear the name 
of Japhlet's fatlier Heber, but whom the Assyrian monarchs did 
not call Iberians, although such is the name they still arrogate to 
themselves. The Assyrians termed these Iberians Tabalu or 
Tubalai, and the prophet Ezekiel associates them with Rosh and 
Meshech as the people of Tubal .'^ At the present time the 
Iberian capital is Tibelisi, or Tiflis. The American Zerethites, 
western l^ardanians, whose lack of the li(iuid r compelled them 
to call themselves Toltecs, preserved the name of Japhlet as a title 
of honour, Topiltzin, the prince, which was borne by the first 
Toltec kinij as distinguished from mere chiefs of tribes, Nau- 
hv<jt].'-' Followinfj the analoo-v of Nahuatl in transliteration, 
this king's name would be Navyar, so that it furnishes a nun- 
nated HeV)er, the name of the father of that Japhlet who was 
really the first to assume the royal title. In Aztec the word 
pilfir means a man of gentle birth, a nobleman. It is possible 
that the very different looking Japanese word samurai, which 
lias till.' same mean'iig, is of the same origin. The Japhleti of the 
Georgians, designating a division of their country, is now Imeretia, 
the laliial jili being changed to rii, and the I being replaced by its 
coi-res])()n(ling licjuid v. Imeretia is to Japhleti as sainihrai is to 
Tubalai. In Italy Tiphlat, oi- Diblath, was known as Tiburtus, 
the iiaiiiei- of the Tiber, whose descent from Amphiaraus was 

' .liislMia, \\\. '.\. 

'" Nuiiili. .wxiii. M\ : .[(nciii. xlviii. 2^1 ; Kzt-k. \i. 14 ; Dent, i, 1. 

'' U >nl> (pf th.- Past, i. .m 

'" V./.i-k. xwii. "iO, xxxviii. 2, xxxix. 1. 

'' !'. '!' Il'iurl)!)!!!-^'-, Nations civilist'cs, i. 222. 


assumed by the Romans from a misunderstood tradition of the 
Etruscans, whose Heber was unknown to them ; and he is the 
same as Tiberinus, the king of Alba Longa, in whose family the 
names Capys, Capetus, Procas, Amulius, and Aventinus represent 
the Zerethite Ziph, Zophah, Berigah, Amal, and Jephunneh. The 
union of tliis line with Alba began in the Caucasus, where Iberi- 
ans and Albanians dwelt side by side ; it continued on the eastern 
coast of the Adriatic, where Illyria lay to the north of Albania ; 
and extended even to Britain, where Zerethite Picts counted 
Alban among their ancestors, and shared the land with the 
Damnii Albani. 

Tt is not easy to indicate the process by which Pasach, the 
Pasku i)f the Assyrians, became in later times Pukud, Pact, and 
Pict. It may have been brought about by an unconscious har- 
monizing of tribal terminology with the famous names Zereth, 
Japhlet, Ashvath, Birzavith, and this is more natural than to 
attribute i*". to the tendency of children and uneducated people to 
add a linal t to such words as cliff and skiff. For almost every- 
where outside of Greece and the Grecian Islands the posterity of 
Pasach, son of Japhlet, were called Picts, while those of Paseach, 
son of Eshton, retained the Basque name. In the case of the 
latter there were no related names ending in t or tit, callinfj for 
harmonious modification of those which originally terminated 
with other sounds. In Zerethite nomenclature Jehaleleel presents 
analogy, for the descendants of the monarch so named were called 
Alaruil. or Alarodians. and llerda and Lerida were named after 
hini, as well as Iluro. Even the Arabian deity Alilat displays 
tlie same tendency. Herodotus mentions two nations of Pactyans, 
one of which was conterminous with the Armenian Alarodians, 
and whose habitat is marked by^da on the borders of Iberia 
and < "olchis : the other was in the Punjaub.-^ The former Pac- 
tyans may thus be identified with the Iberians, or Tubalai. But 
tlxjse of India must have gained their seat in the Punjaub from 
some otliei- part of the Assyrian empire. The prophet Jeremiah 
associates the Pekod with Merathaim and Babylon.-^ Tiglath 
Pilest-r II. also ])]aces them in Babylonia as the Pucjudu who dwelt 

--, t. iii. DH, Wl. 

' .I.T.-Hl. 1. L'l. 


in Lahiru, Idibirina, Hilimmu, and Pillutu, bordering on Elam.-^ 
Sargon calls them the nasikat of Pukud and makes them allies of 
the Marsanians.-^ Sennacherib mentions the Bukudu and sets 
them between the Lakhiru and the Gambuli, the last of whom 
lived in the marshes near the Persian Gulf.^^ It is fortunate that 
Tiglath Pileser has preserved the names of their cities, for Pillutu 
and Hilimmu identify Pukud with Pasach through his father 
Japhlet and uncle Helem, while Lahiru not only presents the 
Illyrian form of Jehaleleel, but enables us to point out the Indian 
home of the Pactyans as Lahore in the Punjaub. Not far to the 
east of the classical Lahora flowed the river Zaradrus, a memorial 
of tlie ancestral Zei^eth. At some future time it may be possible 
to tell the period w^ien the Zerethites divided into a northern, a 
central, and a southern famih^ and to account for the dispersion 
and enmity to Assyria of tribes so intimately associated with the 
foundation of that monarchy. At present all that is certainly 
known is that such a separation took place ; that it was subse- 
<[uent to the reign of Heber, or Apil Sin, who calls himself king- 
<f Ur, and probably to those of Japhlet and Pasach, since their 
names wei-e claimed alike by the Zerethites of the Caucasus and 
of Babylonia ; and that while the central division was the strengtli 
of the Assyrian kingdom proper, being represented by the Kurds 
of t(j-day, the northern and southern off-shoots were hostile to 
that monarchy. 

It wouM bo intei'esting to know the precise relation of Japhlet 
and his family to the Beerothite line. Already the daughter of 
Japhlet, or Yupalladh, has appeared in relation to that line as 
Ilippolyte, wife of Acastus, who slandered Peleus, the father of 
tliat Achilles who is well identified with Saul of Rehoboth. Again 
she is Hippolyte the Amazon, wife of Theseus and mother of 
Ifippolytus, the charioteer, who was slandered in the same 
way by Phaedra : and Theseus and Hippolytus ai-e Greek 
representatives of Ha<lad and Rehoboth. Once more the 
'onuectiun appears in Butes, son of Boreas, who is Hadad's 
father Bedad, the son of Beeri, that carried off Pancratis, 

-< Hcconis ..f thr r.'ist, V. 102. 
-" li.'cords (,f th.- Past, vii. l.S. 
-' K.-f^ords (.f tli<- I'ast, i. 21), 47. 


the sister of Epliialtes. The confirmation of these traditions is 
found in the Mexican story of Quetzalcoatl, who is also Saul of 
Rehoboth. As a Toltec monarch, although an intruder and not 
of the royal Toltec line, he nevertheless bore the Toltec title 
Topiltzin, first borne by .Taphlefc, and is called Topiltzin Acxitl 
Quetzalcoatl.-'' The medial Acxitl is probably an Aztec version 
of Assur, as Japhlet called himself Assur Yupalladh. Reckoning 
by generations from the time of Ziph, and allowing the three 
names, Asher, Beriffah, and Heber, to intervene between him and 
Japhlet, Rehob or Rehoboth will be his contemporary, for 
J ether, the nephew^ of Rechab, married Ziph's daughter Bithiah, 
and between Rechab and Rehob are Beeri, Bedad and Hadad. 
This reckoning, however, is most precarious, for generations are 
of very unequal lengths. Nevertheless, there is nothing improb- 
able in the union of Rehob with a daughter of Japhlet, which 
would entitle their descendant Saul to bear the name Tiphlat, or 
Topiltzin. In the inscriptions of, or in honour of, Zur-Sin, who 
has been taken to represent Saul, there is one, the last word of 
which has not been translated : 

" Ningal, mother of Ur, delight of the heart 
of the arreat o-od of Dur, he built tuhelini.'"^^ 
The Ur in which Zur-Sin was honoured is the city of which 
Apil Sin, the father of Yupalladh, was king. If Zur-sin, or Saul, 
built Tubelini, it must have been to commemorate his ancestress, 
the daughter of Japhlet, from whom the Tubalai received their 
name. It may thus be Tophel in Arabia Petraea, or Diblath in 
the land of Moab. Tubelini is the same word as Dublin, the 
ancient name of which was Eblana ; and Merlin, in his famous 
prophecy, mentions a British Kaer Dubalem, out of which a fox 
was to issue to destroy the lion of Gloucester, or GlevunL^** The 
following from the Synchronous History of As.syria and Baby- 
lonia is to be reconciled with the traditional connection of Japhlet 
and Rehob : 
" In the time of Assur Yupalladh, king of Assyria, Cara-Murdas, 

'" 15. fl<' Jjourhourg. 
-'^ J'foordH of the Past, iii. 17. 

'"* The fox ,suf,'),'ests, in coniH^ctioii witli Saul, tlif llazar Shual (jr village of the fox 
ill Southern I'alcstinc. 


king of Gan-Duniyas, son of Mupallidhat-Serua, 

the daughter of Assur Yupalladh, men of the Cassi 

revolted against and slew him. Nazi-bugas, 

a man of low parentage, to the kingdom to be over them they 

exact satisfaction 
to Gan-Duniyas went 
he slew 
Mr. George Smith calls the murdered king Cara-Hardas. His 
predecessor, Cara-Indas, was king of Babylon, of Sumir and 
Akkad, of Kassu and of Kara-Duniyas. Burna-Buryas was 
also King of Gan-or Kara-Duniyas, and he belonged to the 
Zimrite or Sumir family, which was allied with the Zerethites 
and with the Temenites of Karrak. Yet no such names appear 
among the Zimrites, Temenites, or Ethnanites, as Cara Indas and 
Cara-Murdus, or Hardas. As for the Cassi, Kassu, or Coss-aeans, 
they may have been Hushamites, seeing that Husham may be 
read Chusham, or Ammonites of the fainily of Coz. Now the 
only early monai'ch that ruled over either or both of these, and 
whose name at all answers to Cara-Indas, is Hadad, who might 
be called Indas by the application of the phonetic law that made 
his father Bedad a Pandu, or Pandion. This being the case, the 
preceding Cara answers to Ezer, so that Cara-Indas is an inver- 
sion of Hailad-ezer, who otherwise does not appear in the ancient 
records of Babylonia. After his death Samlah reigned in Edom 
and Jabez in Egypt. Professor Saycc is right in calling his suc- 
cessor Cara-Murdas. One of the chief places of the Dimetae, 
wh(j inhaljited Dyved or Demetia in South Wales, was Mai'i- 
dunum, or diov Marthen. The name is old, for it occurs in the 
Eugubiiie inscriptions as Kara Maratuno, denoting what is now 
Martinengo, south-east of Bergamo, in northern Italy. '^^ In Gre- 
cian story Murdas is called . Myrtilus, and it is related that he 
betrayed (Euomaus, whose charioteer he was, for the love of his 
daughter Hijjpodamia, but Pelops took her from him and thi'ew 
him into the sea, just as Lycomedes of Scyros threw Theseus. 

'" I{.c.,ids .if tho ]^l^,t, iii. 2!t, 30. 

-I Trans. Celtic Socy. of -Montreal, 1.SH7, ]). L'Ofi, note t)> 


Plutarch, however, has a Marathon who accompanied the Tyn- 
daridae in the quest of Helen. The name Myrtilus is derived 
from myrfos, the myrtle ; accordingly, the tomb of Hippolytus 
was placed under a myrtle, and to account for the transparent 
dots characteristic of the leaves of the myrtle family, it is reported 
that Phaedra, in her agitation on beholding Hippolytus, pierced 
them with her bodkin.^- Again he is Immaradus, called a son of 
Eumolpus, together with Ismarus. Eumolpus and Ismarus have 
already been identified with Beth Rapha and his descendant 
Samlah. Immaradus, v\'ho fell in battle with the Athenians, is, 
therefore, the unhappy Murdas, who leaves Saul in the care of 
Samlah. The Persian historians represent Zaul as tributary king 
over Ximruz, or Nimrod. Between the Colchian .'Eetes, in whom 
Hadad has been found, and his descendant Saulaces, the Argon- 
autic writers place Absyrtus, whose body was cut to pieces by 
his sister Medea as she Hed with Jason ovet the Black Sea. An 
equally tragic story is that of Rechab, called Leucippus, and 
wronfjlv made a son of the G^nomaus whose dauii'hter was 
sought by Myrtilus. In love with Daphne, he disguised himself 
as a woman that he might follow her in the chase, but, being 
detected at the river Ladon, the companions of the fair huntress 
despatched him with their darts. Diodorus makes the Naxian 
Leucippus the father of Smardius and places before him in 
Naxos, though in different families, Otus and Ephialtes, who fol- 
low Agassamenus, the successor of Butes,son of Boreas. Taking 
out Agassamenus or Ciiushaui, there remain in regular order 
Beeri, Bedad, Hadad contemporary with Japhlet, RehoV) and 
Murdas. This seems to be the historical order, so that Reiiob 
must have been the husband of Mupallidhat Serua, the daughter 
of Assur Yupalladh, and the father of hei' son Cara-Murdas, whose 
evil fate overtook him in Egypt, his murderers being the Cassi, 
or CJozites, under some successor of Anul>. tin.' (Knomaus of the 
(jircek story. 

As representing tlic Bccrijthito family in IJa'tiylonia, the 
name Zur-Sin, king of" the foui- regions, who Ituilt Tubelini, 
should follow that of ( "ara-Murdas. Of Hadar, the successor of 
Zur-Sin, ov Saul, no inscriptions have yet been publish*;d in which 

'- I ';i 11 sail i as, ii. 32. 


his name can be detected, but in a so-called Cassite list there are 
several Babylonian kings whose names, if Semitic, are readEtiru, 
if Turanian, Numgirabi. This Cassite list is headed with the 
name Ulam-Girbat, which marks its contents as partly Zimrite, or 
Sumerian. for Ulam was the almost exclusive property of the 
Zinu'ites. But Shimon, the son of Hadarand Mehetabel, married 
Taia. the daughter of Bedan, who has been compared with Burna- 
Buryas as being the son of Ulam, or Ulam-Buryas. The inser- 
tion of ancestors of intruding lines was a common practice on the 
banks of the Euphrates, as well as on those of the Nile, so that 
Etiru. although no descendant or connection of the Zimrites, 
might easily appear in th.e dynasty and denote Hadar. His suc- 
cessor. Etiru-Samas, mav be Shimon, son of Hadar, but the fol- 
lowing Etiru-Bel Matati looks very like Hadar's consort and 
Shimon's mother, Meheta-Bel. The successor of Shimon was 
Amnon, who-e name first appears denoting a country or people 
as Amnanu in the insci'iptions of Sin-Gasit, of Urukh. In this 
foi-m Sin-Gasit. or in that propo.sed by Sir Henry Rawlinson, 
Sinsada, the name cannot be reconciled vVith the Kenite genealogy, 
yet, as the son of a queen, whose name is doubtfully i-ead Belat- 
Sunat, and as the builder and ncnirisher of Bitanna, as well as 
the king of Amnanu, the person so called can hardly be other 
than Amnon himself, the son of Shimon and Taia, Bedan's 
daughter, ^bjre solid ground is reached in the inscriptions of 
Ismi-dagan and his son Gungunu, which have been found to set 
foi'th Sheniidag, the son of Amnon, and his son Achian. At this 
point the guidance of the Kenite list fails, and ti-adition must 
associate with th<,' Beerothite line Chushan Rishathaim, the 
Mesopotamian enslaver of Israel. 



The HiTTiTES at the Tigris and Euphrates (Continued). 

Returning to the Zerethite family in its Babylonian connec- 
tions, the oldest name on the monuments is that of Urukli, a 
second Arioch of Ellasar. Several brief inscriptions of this king 
have been found at Mucfheir, Erech, Larsa, Nipur, and Zerghul. 
They are individually uninteresting, but atibrd the information 
that he was king of Ur and of Sumir and Accad, and that he built 
and restored the temples of the Moon, Bit Timgal, and Bit Sareser 
in Ur, of the Sun in Larsa, of Bit Anna in Erech, of Bel in Nipur, 
and of Sarili in Zirgulla. It is by the last of these that his con- 
nection with Asareel, the youngest soil of Jehaleleel,is indicated : 
" To Sarili, his king Urukh, king of Ur, in Zirgulla built."^ Ovid 
has preserved some particulars of Uriikh's history. He calls 
him Orchamus, the seventh from Belus, and makes him a Persian 
king, giving him Eurynome for wife and Leucothoe for daughter. 
The circumstance celebrated by the poet is the love of Apollo for 
Leucothoe, and the conse(|uent uidiappy fate of the maiden, who 
was buried alive by her father's orders.'- Pausanias describes 
Eurynome as a woman in the upper, and a tish in the lower part 
of her body, thus identifying her with Derceto, or Atargatis, who 
is Jerigoth.-^ As the namer of the Kenite Tirathites, or Tirgathi, 
she must belong to the family of Ezra, being the (hiughter of that 
Kenite patriarch, or of his son Jether. As for Urukh, he is 
simply called Hur in the Kenite genealogy, which is much con- 
fused by the introduction of the impossible Caleb, s(hi oi 
Hf/.ron.'' So fr<'(|U('ntly does this Caleb enter into the Li'encaloyy, 
that it seems as if it should l)e translated, tlu^ dog, expressiuLj' the 
couteiiipt of tlie editor for the ( Jeutile kings ;ind pi-iiiees whose 

1 H.-r:..,,iw,f tlif Past, iii. 10. 
'' .M't;mii>r|ihc)s's, iv. 
' I'.ius.'iiiias, viii. 11. 
1 ("lir.iii. ii. 1- 


families he chronicles. As Hur, he is the first born of Ephrath, 
or Ephratah, who is the Greek Aphrodite and Norse Frodi, the 
goddess of love and mother of Eros. This Ephratah belonged to 
the family of Bethlehem, the father of which was Sal ma, the son 
of Chedorlaomer, and grandson of Hareph.^ Asareel, therefore, 
must have been the husband of Ephrath. It has already been 
shown that the Tirgathi included the line of Arba and Anak, the 
former of whom is Arpoxais, called the son of the Scythian 
Targitaus. In Latin story Capys, or Zipli, is falsely made the 
son of Assaracus, or Asareel, but the true descent is found in 
Anchises, or Anak, who is the son of Capys. A reason for the 
confusion is ilhistrated in the story of Ovid, who terms the king- 
dom of Orchamus that of Saba. Ziph having left Babylonia for 
Egypt, his younger brother became his virtual successor, and, it 
may be, the very Assur from whom Ziph's descendant, Assur 
Yupalladh, took his title. The connection of Asareel with Salma 
of Bethlehem is shown in the tradition that Saracon was the son 
of Salamis, the daughter of Asopus. Pausanias inverts the order 
and represents Salamis, the mother of Asopus, as calling the island 
wliich afterwards bore her name, Cychneus. He connects the 
islan<l with Telamon, or Talmai,the third son of Anak, and at the 
same place mentions a gigantic skeleton found in Lydia, which 
some attributed to Anax, but others to Geryon, the son of 
Ciirysaor and Callirhoe, and others again to Hyllus.*^' Here Hyllus 
and Callirhoe alike denote Jehaleleel, and Geryon is Asareel. 
There is not much visil)le resemblance in the two words Asareel 
and Geryon, but the process by which the one was changed into the 
other is exemplified in the cognate word Jezi-eel, which is the 
Zeraheon of tlu' Arabs and the Gerineum of the Crusaders, 
(ieryou. whose father Chrysaor is probabh' a repetition of 
liis own name, kept his herds in Iberia, or Erythea, or Acarnania, 
and liiul for their safekeeping a herdsman, Eurytion, and the do^ 
( i-t1ios the progenj^ of Typhon. Now as Eurytion and Orthos 
i-i-pri'seiit JethiM- and Jered, it would seem that Asareel had 
!if(|nir'd supremacy over the Elamite (xedors. Acarnan, who also 
r'prfSfiits Asareel, and wiio is also called Acarnas, was the son 

' I ClirMii, ii, 50. 
' I 'all-., i. ;<5. 


of Alcmaeon and Callirhoe, thus uniting the lines of Lechem or 
Bethlechem and Jehaleleel, which could only be by his marriage 
with Ephratah. In the Teutonic story of Gudjun, that princess 
becomes as the wife of King Jonakr the mother of Saurli, Ham- 
dir, and Erp, thus whimsically associating Asareel with Haniath 
and Hareph. In Greek tradition Callirhoe is the wife of Tros 
Chrj'saor, Geryon, and Alcmaeon, which is a symbolical way of 
connectinor these names with that of Jehaleleel. Returningf to 
Ephratah, or Aphrodite, the mother of Hur, or Urukh, we find 
her connection with the latter set forth, not merely as the mother 
of Eros or Cupid, but also by her being called the daughter of 
Aphros and Eurynome. or according to Epimenidcs, of Cronus and 
Eronyme, as well as by her epithets Erycina and Argynnis, and 
her Assyrian name Architis, quoted by Macrobius. All of these 
names have reference to the wife of her son Hur, namely, Jeri- 
goth, called, as the wife of Orchamus, by the name Eurynome and 
identified with Atargatis or Derceto, the Syrian Aphrodite. 
Through her again Asareel is made the ancestor of the family of 
the Venuses in the Indian mythology, which gives to her as 
Durga the name Karali. Her son Eros is counted to Beth- 
Lechem. in the statement that Orus was the son of Lycaon. But 
in Sanchoniatho she is called Berutli and made the consort of 
Elioun and tlip mother of the Phoenician Uranus. The name of 
Asareel is inverted to name the cannibal Laestrygones, whose 
ancestor was Lamus or Lechem, and in whose number Antiphates 
or Netophath appears. Now Netophath is of Salma, and among 
tlie sons of Sarpedon, or Hareph, there is an Antiphates. Asareel 
is represented in Pausanias by Lycurgus, who was a son with 
(,'ephfus of AI(!US of Tegea. According to this authoi", he did 
notliing of impoi'tance beyond cutting off a wai-rifu' named 
Ai-('thus, a fact mentioned in the Iliad. His sons Ancacus and 
Epochus <lied, and he was succeeded by Echenius, son of yKropus, 
of ('<'jh('us, of Aleus. Here again Zij)h is the father of Arba, 
wl'.o was the grandfather of Achiinan, yet Agapenor, the son of 
AneaiMis and grandson of Lycurgus, ])uilt a temple to Aphrodite 
in till' (!y])riaii Paphos. P>y a siiuihir iii\fi"sion Asai-ecl is callrd 
liVr-otlit'i-scs of Illyria, who iiiai'ricd Aga\'c, daughter of Cadiinis. 
And hi' is another Lycurgus, the fathin- of ()j)h('ltes, but Aj)ollo- 


dorus makes Eurynome the wife of Lycurgus, son of Aleus. Amid 
the confusion that reigns in all these traditions, there is evidence 
that Asareel is the Sarili of Urukh's inscription, and that he is 
the father of Hur, the first born of Ephratah. 

Urukh built a temple to Belat, his lady, who may be Ephratah, 
his mother. His son Dungi calls his lady Ninmarki, the first 
part of which, nln, a fish, may translate the Circassian urge 
Bas([ue arraya, Yukahirian olloga, as the chief element in the 
name of Jerigoth, which entitled her to be made a fish goddess. 
But Dungi's own name is doubtful in the inscriptions, and does 
not appear in the Kenite list, although Dione, a name of Venus 
or Aphrodite, may have arisen out of it. The three sons of Jeri- 
goth were Jesher, Shobab, and Ardon, the first of whom gave 
name to the Geshurites, who at one time occupied the southern 
border of Canaan, but in the days of Joshua dwelt with the 
Maachathites to the north of Gilead and Bashan. Ai-don again 
was the namer of the Rutennu of Mesopotamia and Assyria, and 
at the same time the Duryodhana of the Mahabharata, who was 
the determined enemy of Yudisthira, or Hadad, the son of Bedad. 
In the time of Joshua, when all southern Palestine was in the 
hands of Amorites and Philistines, three Hittite princes of this 
line of Asareel held Hebron. These were Sheshai, Ahiman and 
Talmai." They were doubtless Geshurites, for the only other 
Talmai was a king of Gesshur, and father of Maacah, the mother 
of Ab.salom.^ That rebellious son of David named one of his 
daughters after his mother, and she became the wife of Rehoboam. 
This old woman, for she was queen dowager in the reign of her 
grandson Asa, introduced into Judah the worship of the Zerethite 
goddess Miphletzeth, the Muballidhat Serua, daughter of Yupall- 
adli, whom tlie Beerothite Rehob married, and for this was 
removed fi'om being (jueen by the i-eforming monarch of the 
Jews.'' 'i'lio father of the three princes of Hebron was Anak. the 
son of Arba, and between Arba and Jesher in ascending oi-der, 
must bo ])laced Jair and Segub, whose father had married int(> 
the Gile-adite family descended from Zinn-an.'" There had been, 

" Joshua XV. 14. 

2 Sam. iii. 8. 

" 1 Kind's XV. 13. 

' 1 Chn.ii. ii. L'l, 22. 


however, an earlier alliance of this kind, for Urukh calls himself 
kino- of Sumir and Akkad, as does his son Dungi. Zimran may 
have placed himself and his servants under the rule of Urukh, 
whom he cannot have preceded by many years. In an inscrip- 
tion on a signet cylinder these words are read : 

" To Urukh, the powerful man, king of Ur, Hassimir, viceroy 
of Isbawufi-Bel, thv servant." ^^ 

The name Isbaggi is that of one of Abraham's sons by 
Keturah, namely Ishbak, who seems thus to have been Urukh's 
contemporary and tributary.^- It remains to be explained how 
Urukh and Dungi arrogated to themselves the title of kings of 

The tirst king of Akkad or Agade was Sai'gon. He tells the 
story of his infancy in the following words : 

'' Sargina, the powerful king, king of Agade am I. 

My mother was enceinte, my father knew not of it. 

My father's brother oppressed the country. 

In the city of Azupirani, which by the side 

of the Euphrates is situated, she conceived me ; 

my mother was enceinte and in a grove brought me forth 

she placed me in a cradle of wicker, 

with bitumen my exit she closed, and launched me 

i)n the i-iver, which away from her carried me. 

The river to Akki the Al)al floated me. 

Akki the Abal in tenderness of bowels lifted me; 

Akki the Abal as his child brought me up ; 

Akki the Abal as his liusl)andman placed me, 

and in my husbandry Ishtar prospered me."'-^ 
A similar story is told by /Elian of Tilgamus, a Chaldean 
name, answering perfectly to the Assyrian Sargon. Sacchoris, 
king ot" Baljylon, being informed by an oracle that a son of his 
daui^hter would take possession of his kingdom, shut her up in 
oli>>f c(jnttn('inent in a tower, to which, however, some obscure 
man uaim-d acc(;ss and won the prisonei-'s atleetion. When her 
son was 1m>i'ii, the custodians, fearing the wratii of the king, threw 

'1 K.-.-,.i~ ,,f tli<- Past, iii. 10. 
'' < ;<-iii--is x\\ . 2. 

1"' }t>T..r.i- of til.- I'ast, V. :(, ;-,(;. 


him out of a window in the tower and he would have perished had 
not an eagle received the child on its outspread wings. The 
sagacious and benevolent bird deposited the infant in a garden, 
the owner of w hich took care of the eagle's charge and called the 
boy Tilgamus. When the child came to manhood he took pos- 
session of the kingdom of Babylon.^* In Greek story the inci- 
dents of Sargon's account of his infancy are transferred to Perseus 
and his mother Danae, and somewhat similar is the legend of 
Auge and her son Telephus. But in Welsh tradition the infancy 
of Taliesin answers perfectly to that of Sargon, for he was 
exposed by his mother in a coracle which was drifted to the fish- 
ing weir of Gwyddno Garanhir; a petty king of Cardigan, whose 
son Elfin became the protector of the child. But Taliesin, 
althouofh his name agrees witli that of Tilgamus, was no con- 
(jueror save in bardic contests. It is a coincidence, also, that 
Acca Larentia, the wife of Faustulus, who was the herdsman of 
King Numitor, was the foster mother of the twins, Romulus and 
Remus, whom Amulius, the brother of Numitor and usurper of 
his kingdom, had exposed in a basket on the Tiber. The basket 
drifted into shore, and a she wolf suckled the children, as in the 
story of Telephus a hind is said to have done. Then Faustulus 
brought the twins home to Acca. Coming to years of manhood 
they were recognized by their grandfather Numitor, whom they 
restored to the kingdom, from which they expelled the perfidious 
Amulius. The Latin story contains part of the tradition of 
Grchamus and his daughter Leucothoe, for when Amulius 
exposed the children in tiie Tiber, he at the same time caused 
their mother Rhea Sylvia to be buried alive. The nominal con- 
nection of the stories of Sargon and Romulus is found in Sargon's 
son called Naram-Sin or Rim-Agu, but who in the Kenite list is 
Harum. Still ancjthor story is that of Telegonus, whose name 
correspon<ls to that of Tilganms. He was born to Odysseus of 
Ithaca liy Circe, the enchantress of the island /Eaea, and was 
there deserted l)y his father. Hut Circe also bore two other sons 
named Agi'ins and Latinus. Once more our hero is the namer of 
the Telchiiis, wondei- woi'kers of Rhodes, who counted among 
tlifui Megalcsius, (Jnneiius, Niki)n, ami Simon, with Actaeus 
theif jcadi'i-. 

' I).^, xii. 21. 


All of tliese stories centre in Regem, the eldest son of Jahdai, 
who is a wise Odysseus born long before his time, an Actaeus 
father of Telchin, as was Odysseus of Telegonus, and an Akkad 
who stands at the head of the Akkadian line ; for the cuneiform 
languages accentuate the aspirate of Jahdai or Jachdai, which the 
Egyptian and Arabic drop in Aadtous and Adite. Sacchoris, the 
father of the deserted wife, is Seir or Segir, the Horite,and Akki 
the Abal, Acca Larentia, Auge, mother of Telephus, and ^aea. 
the abode of Circe, take their name from his father Ajah, the son 
of Zibeon and descendant of the Horite dux Ebal.^ ' The children 
of Seir were Lotan, who is the Latinus united with Telegonus, 
and Timna or Timnag. The Horites spoke a Semitic language 
and taught tlie same to Sargon of Agade. Now the meaning of 
Timna, according to Gesenius, is '" restrained from- intercourse 
with men," and certainly Gesenius never dreamt of connecting 
one whom he deemed an obscure Canaanitic woman with the 
story of Sacchoris and Tilgamus. This Timna became the concu- 
bine of Eliphaz, the eldest son of Esau and the mother of a junior 
Amalek.^'* This must have been subsequent to her desertion by 
Jahdai. But this second union explains the connection of Tele- 
phus and Auge, and the adoption of Taliesin by Elphin. We 
must refjai'd the tale of Saro-on as a true one, and all similar 
stories as imperfect co{)ie,s of the original. It appears, therefore, 
that Jahdai, who belonged to the Zuzim or Achuzamites, dwelling 
in what afterwards was the land of Annnon, while a young man 
travelled as an adventurer to a certain city on the Euphi'ates 
called Azui)irani, where Seir or Segii- the Horite reigned ; that 
he met Timna, the daughter of that king and sister of Lotan, and 
by her had a son named Rekem, whom he perfidiously deserted ; 
and that after his departure, Ajali, the grandfather of Tinnui, 
protected her cliild. Subse(|Uently Timna accepted the suit of 
Eliphaz, whose father Esau ha'l man-ied Aholibamali. the 
dau^diter of Anah, Ajali's brothei-. When Saigon says that his 
fathers lr(jthei- op])r('ssed the land we are unal)le to follow him, 
ti")r the i\enit<.' list does not mention his In-other. Thus Saiijon 
or Sai'-iiuykiii is Ilegeiii the sou of .Jachdai, 'I'ele^onus the son 

'' ('n. w.wi. 2(. 'Jl. 
'' ( i<n. xx.w i IL', 'Jl'. 


of Odysseus, Telchin the son of Actaeus, and Tilgamus the 
grandson of Sacchoris. Such is the story of the infancy of him 
who revolutionized for a time the history of the east and made 
liis influence felt in Egypt. Few names are more widely extended 
in the traditions of the world than that of Regem. To the Arabs 
he is known as Lokman ; to the Armenians and Georgians as 
Thargamos ; to the Hindus as Lakshman, Ulkhamukha, and 
Crishna. In their annals of Sicyon the Greeks repeated his 
name as Telchin and Thelxion ; in Italy he was Tarquin the 
Lucumo. Teutonic song preserves his memory as Regin the 
smith, and Irish history as Luighne of the line of Heremon. Even 
in America the Irocjuois Book of Rites acknowledges the primacy 
of Tekarihoken ; and the pagans of Guatemala adore Hurakan. 
Already in connection with the story of Jabez the tale of the 
Dispossessed Princes has been set forth. When Jahdai married 
tlie Ammonian Zobebah and thus became the second Amenemes, 
it was understood that the ci'own of Memphis should descend only 
to their joint offspring. Thus the infant Jabez gained the suc- 
cession, and Regem with his brothers Jotham, Geshan, Relet, 
Ephah, and Shaaph were excluded. Regem was in the Baby- 
lonian kingdom of >Seir the Horite, but Geshan and Relet seem 
to have accompanied their father to his new kingdom and to have 
settled on the north-eastern border of Egypt, Geshan in the land 
of Goshen named after him, and Relet in Beth Ralet to the north 
of the Arish or river of Egypt. Between these two domains lay 
the wilderness of Etam, to which part of the native royal family 
of Egypt had withdrawn, and with them Relet made alliance, 
maiTving either a daughter of Jezreel or his sister Zelelponi, who 
is the (ircck Persephone, daughter of Ceres, whom Pluto carried 
a\va\' to his realm of darknes.s. From this union sprang Maachah, 
thf; head of the Maachathites, who dwelt for a time with the 
( It'shurites in southei-n Palestine, but afterwards were driven to 
.Iczi-c<-] and Megiddo, south of Carmel, and finally sought refuge 
i"i-oin tlie Amorites in the north of Ba.shan.^" The whole family 
111' .Jalulai was i-cgarded as Plutonian, and its members were the 
gods of the uiidci- world. Jahdai himself was Hades ; Regem 
was Oi-cns oi- I'ragum : Jotham, Aidoneus : Geshan, Agesander ; 

'' 1 ''hiMii. ii. 4S, iii:ik<'s .Mauchuh u woman 1 


Pelet, Pluto, Plutus, Polydectes, and Polydeginon. So also in 
Egypt, Balot was the Elysium ; and in Assyria Bit-Hedi, the 
abode of the dead. This imagery will be found throughout the 
world, indicating that the Aadtous of the Egyptians were the 
inventors of the Funereal Ritual of that people and of the religi- 
ous system which it illustrates. The Arabs were better 
acquainted with the name of Pelet than with that of any other 
Adite king, except Regem or Lokman. Pelet they called Walid, 
but their accounts of him are fabulous in the extreme and con- 
tradictory. Walid is sometimes called a son of Ad, at others of 
Amalek, and it is related that before the time of Joseph he con- 
quered Lower Egypt and was the first to assume the name of 
Pharaoh. After a few generations his posterity was expelled by 
the native Egyptians and finally destroyed by Israel. ^'^ Riyan, 
the son of this Walid, was converted by Joseph to the worship of the 
true God. He was a most accomplished prince, for he conversed 
with his spiritual instructor and prime minister in no fewer than 
seventy languages. Some Arabian writers maintain that the 
same Pharaoh lived till the time of Moses, a case of longevity 
worthy of tiie Shah Nameh and Raja Tarangini, but the general 
opinion is that Al Walid, the Adite, before whom the Hebrew 
prophet wrought signs and wonders, was the son of Masab, the 
son of Riyan. Riyan may stand for Regem, or for his son 
Harum, but Masab, called the sou of Kabus, is undoubtedly Mez- 
aluib. " Abulfeda says tiiat Masab being one hundred and seventy' 
years old, and having no child, while he kept the herds (a strange 
occupation foi* a king), saw a cow calve, and heard her say at the 
same time, (J, Masab, l)e not grieved, for thou shalt have a wicked 
son, who will be at length cast into hell. And he accordingl}^ 
had tills Walid, who afterwards coming to be king of Egypt, 
proved to be an impious tyrant." In the C'rishna legends P(det 
occupies a subordinate position as J^ala<U'va, the faithful brother 
of tliat liero. In the Rainayana he is put in the place of Jabe/, 
as Bhai'at, by whose elevation Rama, Lakshman, and Sati'ugna 
we-re dispossess(;d ; but he is i-epcesented as a gcmerous brothel', 
hasteniiiL,'^ after Rjiiiia and \ainly seeking to indiK.-e him to accept 
the crown. In the (Ireek and Latin \-ersions of llittite tradition 


Pelet rises to the highest dignity, one of the twin brethren typifi- 
ing the whole Hittite race as the Dioscuri, for he is Polydeukes 
or Pollux, worthy to be ranked with Castor or the great 
Achashtari. Castor was slain by the sons of Aphareus, but the 
mighty Pollux avenged his brother's death and brought him to 
an intermittent life by sharing his immortality Avith him. This 
fable must relate to the wars of Seti Menephtah, or Zoheth, 
grandson of Ophrah, with the Achashtarite line of Ma Reshah on 
the Arish and Serbonian bog, and with the Maachathites farther 
north in Beth Palet, and may refer to the conditions of their 
league the Egyptian power, as involving alternate com- 
mand of the allied armies, generously consented to by the 
descendants of Pelet in spite of some signal weakening of the 
mi<dit of Ptosli. The Sanscrit records also recoofnize the iiuasi 
divinity (jf Pelet as Pulastya, the strong Yakcha, fathei* of Kuvera, 
who takes the place of Plutus as the god of riches, for Kuvera is 
Sheber, the eldest son of Maachah.^^ Unhappily the Greeks have 
preserved little or nothing of the history of Polydorus, son of 
Cadmus, or Getam, his father-in-law, who is said to have married 
Nycteis, a disguise of his son Maachah, the Macedo, son of Osiris 
of Diodorus, and to have been the fathei' of an impossible Lab- 
dacus. But northern Europe knows him well as Baldur, son of 
Odin : 

"I>aldiir the white Sun-god has departed, 
lieautiful as summer's dawn was he. 
Loved of gods and men, the royal hearted 
Baldur, the white Sun god, has dei)arted " 

He was the brother of Asa Thor, and came with the rest of the 
Aesir from AsganI in th(i far cast. Nothing could harm Baldur 
the good, the invulnerable son of Odin, it was thought, so that 
the Aesir amused themselves hurling their darts at his body and 
striking at him with sword, lance and battle-axe. But the mis- 
tl't<M', that belonged neither to earth, sea, nor sky, had taken no 
oath to leave him umiKjlested ; and the blind Hodur with no 
rliouuht of evil in his mind, obeyed the guiding hand of the 
tempter Loki, and launched the apparently feeble missile full at 
his l.i-others hi-fust, wlio fell to the gi'ouml piei-ced through and 

'' \'i-linu I'uiaiiH, UL'. 


through. HermoJer tiien undertook his perilous journey to 
Helheim to bring his brother back, but Hela held her own. Here 
Herinod, or Hermoder, is a historical personage, Harum the son 
of Regeni ; yet Pelet's wonderful story is wrapped in mystery 
which the light of future Egyptian studies may yet dispel. Once 
more Pelet is Pirithous, noblest of men and truest friend, who, 
hearing of the exploits of Theseus, invaded his land. The Athen- 
ian monarch came to repel the foe that already was carrying off 
his herds, but when Pirithous beheld him in all his manly beauty 
he forebore to tight, and stretching forth his hand cried: 'Be 
judge thyself; what satisfaction dost thou re(|uii"e?" "Thy 
friendship," answered Theseus, full of ecjual admiration ; and the 
heroes swore eternal fidelity. Together they fought the Centaurs, 
whom in the Teutonic tale Hodur represents, and in pleasant 
companionship they pursued the Calydonian boar, or the Gileadites 
of Zimri, who had foresworn allegiance to Akkad, and had ranged 
themselves on the side of the Zeretliites and the Gedors of Elam. 
But the happy days of friendship came to an end when Pirithous 
sought to carry off Persephone, for though his faithful friend 
Theseus, who had stuck by him to the last, was delivered by Her- 
cules from the bondage of the under world, that hero failed to 
rescue the Athenian's second self, for the earth quake'l beneath 
his feet as he extended his hand to the prisoner on the enchanted 
rock, and Pii'ithous was left there for ever. No one has a bad 
word for Pelet, but in every quarter his praises are sung. There 
must have been something singularly attractive in a character 
that receives such universal praise. Achashtari, or Castor, is but 
a shadowy vision in the distant })ast, but Pelet, or Pollux, is true 
tl(;sh and Ijlood, and that of earth's very best. 

Returning to Regem, we find him in Buddhist story as THka- 
niukha. tin- son of king Amba, or Okkaka, and his (|ueen Hasta, 
will) with his thi'ee tii'otliers was set aside that Janta, the son of 
a vouiig low-caste woman, might be set u[)on the throne. In 
tlif Raiiiayaiia lif is i-e;illy repi'csentfd \>y IJama, the eldt-st son 
of I )asai-atb;i, king of ()udt', or Ayodya, who is Harum, the son 
of It'-gfm, but his iioniiiial I'epresciitative is jjakshmaii. The 
tlu'iM- bi-otlnTs, Rama, L;iksliman, and Satrugna, were disinhfritid 
in fa\oui" of Bliarat, whose mothfi' had gainrd ascendancy o\rr 


the king. This pre-eminence of Bharat agrees with the Arabian 
exaltation of Walid, and seems to indicate a viceroyalty of Pelet 
under Jabez, which the magnanimous Bharat offered to resign to 
his elder brother ; but Rama and Lakshnian went fortli to seek 
their fortunes elsewhere, as did Ulkamukha and his brothers in 
the Buddliist tradition. They allied themselves with the Bharatas, 
but, as the chief supporters of Yudisthira, Regem appears under 
the name of Krishna, a Yadu, the son of Aditi, and father of 
Dharma. He was a fatal cliild, like Tilgamus and Romulus, and 
like the former was brought forth in a prison into which Kansa, 
a tyrant, had thrown his sister Devaki. He was reared b}- Nanda 
in the land of cows, and became a mighty warrior, the overthrower 
of numberless enemies, and the right arm of the Bharatas. Like 
Achilles, he was vulnerable in the heel, and in that part of his 
body, as he was one day reposing, a huntsman shot him so that 
h<' died. In the Arabian traditions Lokman was the only Adite 
of note who escaped when divine judgment fell on the nation for 
its idolatry. The prophet Hud had vainly sought the reforma- 
tion of the people ; a few only believed him. Then drought 
attticted the land, and the Adites, instead of turning to God, sent 
three envoys, of whom Lokman was one, to offer sacrifice at Mecca 
and pray for rain. One of the three ascended the mountain of the 
Amalekites and sacrificed the victims, when three clouds of vary- 
ing size and blackness appeared overhead, and a voice from heaven 
cried : " Choose for thy nation." The envoy chose the largest and 
darkest, when descending as a whirlwind it swept him away, and 
hastening to the Adite land involved the tribe in ruin. But those 
who had believed Hud lived, and Lokman ruled over them for a 
long time, after which they were changed into monkeys. Some 
say that lu; reigned a tluMisand years, after which Yarub, the son 
of Kalitan, eoiHjuered the Adites. Lokman was a gi'eat civilizer. 
In Mareb, the capital of Sheba, he made his capital, and the land 
altei'iiately desolated by droughts and inundated by mountain 
torrents, he tui-ned into a garden, by building the dyke of Arim, 
a ui'oat i-eservoir which I'eceived the surplus waters and gave them 
fiiitli ill time of drought. He was called ])hu L'nuscour, or the 
man of the vultui'es, and liis vultures liore the name of Lubad. 
I bii- is what the (Quiches of ( iuatemala say of the Adite calamity : 


" Such were the wooden men and pith women, such the children 
they generated, and whose descendants so multiplied that they 
sufficed to people the world. But fathers and children, from lack 
of intelligence, did not employ the tongues they had received to 
praise the benefit of their creation, and never dreamt of raising 
their eyes to glorify Hurakan. Then they were carried away 
with a flood. A rain of resin and pitch fell from heaven. A bird 
called Xecotcowatch tore out their eyes ; another called Camalotz 
cut oti' their heads ; and a beast named Cotzbalam ground their 
bones. Such was the end of these ungrateful men ; for they had 
failed to render thanks to their mother and their father, to the 
face of the Heart of Heaven, whose name is Hurakan. And 
because of them the earth was darkened and it rained night and 
day. And men went and came beside themselves, as if stricken 
with madness ; they sought to ascend to the roofs, and the houses 
crumbled beneath them ; they sought to climb the trees, and the 
trees shook them ofl' far from them. And when they went to 
caverns and grottos for refuge, immediately these shut them in. 
Such was their punishment and their destruction. But the 
creators preserved a small number of them as a memorial of the 
wooden men they had made ; these are the little beings that we call 
monkeys, and that dwell in oui" forests to-day." ''"^ In the Rama- 
yana tlie hero Rama is said to have been attended by an army of 
monkeys, under the guidance and command of Hanuman, the 
monkey king. Another monkey story is that of the Arimi, who 
mocked Jupiter when he asked their aid against the Titans, where- 
upon the ofl'ended deity changed them into apes. Some writers 
place the scene of this tran.sformation off the coast of Campania 
in Italy, where were the Pithecus-ae, or Monkey islands ; others 
situate it in Asia Minoi". But Strabo explains it when he sa^s 
that the Tyi'rhenians call apes ar'nn'i. If this name was in use 
among the Hittites to denote animals of the monkey tribe in 
ancient "lays, it must have cliangcd its sigm'ti cation, for the 
Georgian 'ircnt'i and lias(|ue oir'i n now denote a deer. In Pei'u- 
vian, how('V(;r, Ibinui, which seems to bo the same word, means 
beast in g<'neral : and in the same Quiclnia language an ex|)lana- 
tion is found f)f the name (J(,'reopes, applied t(j the apes that 

-'" 15. lie I'.ijurliiiiir^', N.'UiuiiH Civilist'-L-H, i. 55. 


infested Lydia in the time of Otnphale and Hercules, for cara- 
cJiupa-y, which must have originally been a name for a monkey 
now means that commoner creature of arboreal habits, the squirrel- 
It beino- o-ranted that ariin was a Hittite word for ape, the names 
of Naram Sin, son of Sargon ; Harum, son of Regem ; Rama 
brother of Lakshman ; and Arim, the dyke of Lokman, show how 
it came to be applied to a people. It is indeed the Armenian 
name, for Armenaeus in Moses of Chorene is the son of Haic, and 
grandson of Thargamos.'^ 

The Buddhist and Brahmanical stories of the dispossessed 
princes are in general narratives of fact, although incorrect in 
nuinejs and details. The same account is given in the Kagyur of 
the Tibetans : " To Ikshwaku succeeds his son, who.:e descendants 
Cone hundred) afterwards successively reign at Potala, the last of 
whom was Ikshwaku Videhaka. He has four sons. After the 
death of his first wife he marries again. He obtains the daughter 
of a king, under the condition that he shall give his throne to the 
s(m tiiat shall be born of that princess. By the contrivance of 
the chief officers to make room for the young prince to the suc- 
cession, he orders the expulsion of his four sons. The princes set 
out to .seek their fortune, and the narrative proceeds much in the 
same way as in the Singhalese legend. The descendants of Vide- 
jiaka, to the numl)er of 5.5,000, reigned at Kapilawastu." - The 
Singhalese legend here mentioned is that called the Buddhist 
story, and it tells how the princes came upon a famous ascetic, 
called Kapila, engaged in devotion in a forest near a lake, where, 
(twing to his piety, there was no strife, so that the timid hare 
found rest in it, and the destroyer w^as miraculously compelled to 
Ci-a^e destroying. There the dispossessed princes built a city and 
called it after the sage Kapila. There also, to preserve the purity 
of their i-ace, they married their sisters, a practice that prevailed 
in some IJuddhist countries and in Peru. The name Kapila is 
iiiipoi'tant, for it is the same as Al)al applied to that Akki who 
broiiLilit \\\) Sargon. It is the name of the Hoi-ite Ebal, which, 
iM't^iniiing with the letter I'/i/in, is called Gaibal in the Septuagint, 
and ffoni it the region of Gebalene, in which Seir oi- Mount Hor 

I ,M.,>rs f'iiun'iH'iisis, r.ih. i. 

'-' H:inly, .M:iini:tl cf 15u(Mlii>iin, ^'^2 imtt'. 


was situated, derived its name. If, however, Sargon's account of 
his infancy be true, and there is no reason to doubt it, Gebalene 
must have extended across the desert to the Euphrates, for on 
that river his bark was launched, and on its bank Akki the Abal 
found him. Ikshwaku is well determined as Coz the Ammonite 
and first Amenemes. In the Ramayana it is said ; " Ikshvaku 
was the son of Manu, and to him the prosperous earth was form- 
erly given by his father. Know that this Ikshvaku was the 
former king in Ayodhya." ^^ In the Singhalese story he is repre- 
sented by Okkaka, the gourd, and his son Amba takes the place 
of the Brahmanical Nabhaga to denote Anub, son of Coz. But 
the Tibetan account of the dispossessed princes rightly puts 
Videhaka in the place of Amba as their father. The Arabian and 
Quiche traditions of a great destruction of the Adites must refer 
to their expulsion from Egypt and subsequent dispersion. But 
the story of the dyke of Arim, although associated with the ruins 
of a great reservoir between two mountains in southern Arabia, 
is evidently a reminiscence of the great lake Moeris, constructed 
in Egypt under Jabez, or Amenemes III., when the power of the 
Aadtous was at its height. The name Sedd Mareb given to it 
probably contains a corruption of that of the P^gyptian Moeris 
Lubad, the name of Lokman's vultures, and Yarub, that of the 
conqueror of his Adites after his death, are both forms of Kapha, 
who married Sargon's widow and followed him on the throne, 
and the Quiche bird Camalotz is his successor Samlah of Masre- 
kah, the Persian Simurgh, and original of the Stymphalides. 
These particulars call for a fuller insight into the history of 

Tradition informs us that Regem or Sargon of Agadc married 
a (laugh tt.'r of Urukh. l)iod(M-us says that Lapithus, who is 
Rapha, iiiarrierl Orsinome, the daughter of Kurynome and widow 
of Arsinous. Now Eurynoine was tlie wife of Orchaiuus and the 
niotlicr of Loncothoe, and she lias been i<lentified as a tish goddess 
with Jerigoth oi" Derceto. Turning fi'om tradition, which I'ejM'e- 
sents Regem a.s Ar.sinous, to the Kenite list, the dauphter of llur 
ami Jerigotli ap])ears as vVzubuh oi- ( Jazul)ah. InOreek tradition 
she is niadt! as ( 'assie])e;i, the daughtei' oi" an Ai'alais instead of 

" Muir, Sanscrit 'I'.-xt.-i. 


his wife. But in the Babylonian list this princess immediately 
follows Sargon. In Assyrian her name is read Bauellit, but in 
Akkadian it is Azagbau.^'* Mr. George Smith calls her Ellatgula, 
and says : " Ellatgula was a queen ; she probably succeeded 
Naram-Sin, and was the last of the dynasty of Sargon. Nothing 
is known of her reign, and at its close Hammurabi, a foreign 
prince who was perhaps related to her by marriage, succeeded to 
the throne."-^ The three forms, Bauellit, Ellatgula and Azagbau 
represent part of the difficulty that lies in the way of him who 
would connect the ancient history of the east with that of the 
rest of the world. Nevertheless the Kenite and Babylonian lists 
agree with Greek tradition in making Sargon the husband of 
Azubah, a Zerethite princess of the line of Asareel, who, through 
her mother, was also connected with the Elamite Gedors. In 
Indian tradition Krishna is the husband of the Gopias. 

It is now clear how Urukh called himself king of Akkad, for 
by this union Sargon became for a time his tributary, and it 
doubtless pleased the Zerethite to call himself sovereign of a 
family that, in the person of Jahdai, sat upon Egypt's throne. 
Yet it is remarkable that Sargon's name is Assyrian, while that 
of his consort is Akkadian. His mother's influence, and that of 
her family, the Ebalian Horites, must have been responsible for 
this Semitizing influence, and it may appear in the story of Tar- 
([uin, originally called Lucumo, whose ambitious wife Tana(|uil 
incited him to assume the manners of the Tuscans and aim at 
royalty. Tanacjuil is Timnag, his mother, rather than his wife, 
yet the memory of Azubah or Gazubah niust have been fragrant 
in tlie estimation of Sargon's descendants, who, while they named 
the great centre of Hittite authority Carchemish or Ka-Rekem- 
ish, the enclosure of Regem, after him, gave the name of his 
spouse to Sazalje, the fortified camp of the imperial army. Azu- 
l)ah was the mothei* of Sargon's son Naram-Sin or Rim-Sin, who 
is the Kenit(; Harum, for in some traditions concerning this son 
he is connected, not with Regem, but with Hur, his mother's 
father. As Orion, for instance, he is called the son of Hyrieus 
arxl as Hcriiifs he is said to have been brou^jfht up bv the Hoi-ac 

* I'ri.c. Snc. Arch., .Jan. 11, 1S81, ]<. 37. 
-' R-cor(ls of tlie Past, V. C.}. 


The Semitic influence exerted by the Horite mothei- of Regem 
can only have lasted during his lifetime, for after his early death 
the Zerethite Jether, Shobab, and Ardon, brothers perhaps of Azu- 
bah, must have restored the Hittite language and customs in the 
Akkadian kingdom. 

The following are the inscriptions of Sargon, the tirst being a 
continuation of the story of the infanc}' : 

1. " Forty-five years the kingdom I took. 

The people of the dark races I ruled. 
I . . . . over difficult countries, 
in chariots of bronze I rode. I governed 
the upper countries (I rule) the kings 

of the lower countries 

titisallat I besieged a third time, 

Asmun submitted, Durankigal bowed .... 

I destroyed and 

When the king who arises after me in after (days) . . . 
the people of the dark races (shall rule) over, 
difficult countries in chariots of (bronze shall ride), 
shall govern the upper countries (and rule) the kings 
of the lower countries .... titisallat shall 
besiege the third time (Asmun submitting), 
Durankigal bowing . . . from my city Agane . 
The second inscription consists of ten paragraphs, each of 
which is headed by an account of the moon's position and the 
favourableness of the omen. Omitting these astrological nothings, 
it reads : 

2. "Sargon at this position to Elam marched and the Elamites 

Their overthrow he accomplished, thcii- limbs lie cut oti'. 
An omen for Sargina who to Syria marched and 
the Syrians destroyed : the foui* races his hand concjuered. 
An omen for Sargina, who at this position the whole of 

Babylonia subdued 
and the dust of the spoil of Babduna removed and . 

Akkad the city he liuilt . . /,/' its name ho 


in the midst he placed. 



who at this position to Syria 

^marched and the) four races his hand conquered 

. . arose and an equal or rival had not, his forces over 
(the countries of) the sea of the setting sun he crossed, and in 
the third year at the setting sun 

his hand conquered ; under one command he caused 
to be only fixed ; his image at the setting sun he set up ; 
their spoil in the countries of the sea he made to cross. 
An omen for Sargina, who his palace padi five bathu 

chief of the people established and Ekiam-izallak 
he called it. 
Kastubila of Kazalla revolted against him ; and to Kazalla 
he marched, and their men he fought against, their overthrow 

he accomplished, 
their great army he destroyed : Kazalla to mounds and ruins 

he reduced, 
the nests of the birds he swept away. 
The elders of the people revolted against him and in Akkad 

surrounded him and 
Sargina came out, and their men he fought against ; their 

overthrow he accomplished : 
their great army he destroyed. 
The encampment lie l>roke through. 
Subarti in its strength its people to the sword he subdued, 

Sargina their seats caused to occupy, and 
their men he fought against, their overthrow he accomplished, 
their gi-eat army 

the spoil he collected, into Akkad he caused to 
enter. ' -'' 
These unsatisfacto)'y documents set forth Sargon as a great 
warrioi" and oonciueror, and lead one to suspect that he was a 
tyrant as well and came to a tyrant's end. They are the inscrip- 
tions of a scltisli and vain-gloi'ious man. His chief wars were 
with the (;(;(l()rs of Elam oi' Subarti, wars in wliich he had the 


aid of Hadad the sou of Bedad, and his brother Pelet, for, as 

Krishna, his allies were Yudisthira and Baladeva, but he says not 

a word about these gallant warriors. Unless the statement that 

he conquered the whole of Babylonia includes the overthrow of 

the three sons of Urukh, his brothers-in-law, one of whom was 

the Duryodhana of the Mahabharata. the great contest between 

the Bharatas and Kurus is unmentioned. It is allowed in the 

Indian epic that Kri.shna, being related to both parties, at first 

was undecided, now favouring one side and now the other, but in 

the end he joined the Bharatas, and, fighting for them, was killed 

by a savage Bhil. It is clear that he did not subdue Gebalene, 

for after the fall of Hushani that country was- held by the strong 

hand of Hadad. But it- seems that he carried his arms into 

Galilee, whose Cliesulloth is his Kazalla, for Kastubila of Kazalla 

answers to Castabolum of Cilici.i in the country of the later 

Kue. the Goiui of Galilee, the Acha^ans or ^Egialeans of the 

Greeks. Thus the Japhetic allies of Chedorlaomer on the sea of 

the setting sun felt the power of the Akkadian king. Tradition 

adds very little to the story of Regem. As the Indian Krishna 

he is a profligate, strong and handsome, but with no moral 

excellence. As Lakshman in the Ramayana he is but a foil to 

the merits of Rama, called his l^rother, but who is really his son 

Haruin. As Tar([uinius Priscus he is a great conqueror and 

nothing more. In the Greek Telchin he appears as the patron of 

art and mystery ; and in Telegonus he is the slayer of his father 

Ody.s.seus. The Teutonic legends give him as Regin th(,' Smitli a 

very subordinate position, and even as the Scamlinavian Regnar 

Lodbrok he is a barbarian with a spice of savage poetry in him. 

Tlie media'val tale of Valentine and Orson contrasts liis rudeness 

with the culture of his polished brother Pelet. From the terror 

wliieh the warlike exploits of Regeni inspii'ed sprang the fable of 

the (iorgons. The ca])ital of the CJhorasmii, who dwelt in oi- to 

the noi'th ol" Hyrcaiiia, and are well identified with the men of 

(Jai-elieiiiish in eastwai'd migration, was (Jorgo, or nu)i-e ])i-obab]y 

(ioi-guin, which is now IJig'henx. The nioi'tai Medusa, whom 

Stlieno and Euryale sui'rendered to Perseus, denotes the Midiam'te 

alliance, and Euryale represents the ])ostei-ity of Aharlicd, the 

<rraiid.son of Reijeiii thr()ii<r|i Ifarum. The Goi-e'on name come.s 


from Ka Regetn, to which was added ish, the enclosure, thus con- 
stituting Carchemish the centre of Hittite authority, the conquest 
of which was the great achievement of the reign of Perseus, or 
the second Rameses. With this namer of dragons, krakens, and 
other monsters, the i-eptile tribe is always connected. Snakes 
swarmed around the Gorgon's head ; Krishna slew the thousand 
headed serpent, but another emerged just before his death from 
the throat of his brother Baladeva ; Fafnir the dragon is the 
brother of Regin the Smith ; and Regnar Lodbrok, slayer of the 
serpent that encircled the bower of Thora, also married Aslauga, 
daughter of Fafnisbana, and died in a dungeon full of vipers 
that killed him with their venom. An explanation of this 
appears in the early historj' of Japan, which states that Zinmou, 
the first king of Japan, was the son of Tamayori, the daughter of 
Riozin or the dragon god ; but other authorities make this prin- 
cess the daughter of the king of the Loo Choo Archipelago, the 
native name of which is Riukiu. " In ancient times the kings of 
the Loo Choo islands at their inauguration wore a crown in the 
shape of a dragon, a mark of distinction reserved for them and 
their family."-" In Japan also, as in China, a dragon is the 
emblem of imperial power. With Regem or Sargon this use of 
the dragon must have originated, and on the walls of his city of 
Akkad first floated the awe-inspiring banners bearing the strange 
device that afterwards waved over Carchemish, the dragfon's 
hold, aufl thence accompanied the Hittite exiles to manj^ distant 

The son of Regem and Azubah was Harum, the father of 
Ahariiel or Hercules. In Italy the glory of Tarquin eclipsed his, 
for lie is the mild and obscure son Aruns. In Greece he is the 
iiod Hermes oj- Mercur\', a master thief and the messeno-er of the 
gods, lirought up by tb.e Horae, who I'epresent the family of Ur 
(jr (Jrukh, rather than the Ebalian Horites. And he is Orion, tlie 
giant whom some ti-aditions make the son of Poseidon and 
Iviryuh,' : but Euryale, besides l;eing a Gorgon, denotes his son 
Abarliel. in another story he, as Hermes, assisted at his own 
Itii-tli, for that god witli Zeus and Poseidon sti'olled one day into 
Hyria in Bd'otia, v.bei-*; the aged Hyrieus hospitably entertained 

'' Tit-ititrti. -Atmalis, ]>. ]. 


them. His beloved wife was dead and he had no child, so the 
gods took the hide of his only ox which he had killed for their 
benefit, and buried it in the ground, where it underwent marvel- 
lous transformation and came forth a boy whom Hyrieus called 
Orion. Here Hyria and Hyrieus, like the Horae, denote Hur 
the father of Azubah. When the giant grew up he married Side, 
the pomegranate, of unknown parentage, who is probably the 
same as Mei'ope, the daughter of CEnopion, whom he met and 
loved in Chios. CEnopion and Orion quarrelled, however, and 
the blameless king made the giant drunk and then blinded him. 
To get back his sight he waded over the sea to Hephaestus at 
Lemnos, and the god of hre, unable to heal the blind man, gave 
him Kedalion for his guide, who led him to the gates of day. 
There the sun arose upon the sightless eyeballs and the giant saw 
once more. He went back to Chios to find CEnopion, but could 
not, for they had hidden him under ground, which probably 
means that he slept his last sleep in an Egyptian pyramid. Many 
are the legends of Orion's death. Artemis slew him with her 
darts ; Apollon induced her to shoot at his black head, which 
alone was visible as he waded in the sea, and which she did not 
recognize to be a part of him whom she loved ; and she and 
Latona sent a scorpion that stung him to death, because he 
boasted that he could kill anything that sprang from the earth. 
His connection with the family of CEnopion, son of Bacchus of 
Chios, is clear, for " Coz begat Anuband Zobebah and the families 
of Aharhol the son of Haruni."^'^ He died in Egypt, for Brugsch 
Pasha fcnind his tomb at Sakkara, on which his name is written 
Han^msaf Mcrenra ; and the same authority traces his descent 
from Khua and his wife Nobet on the mother's side. But Pepi 
Merira, as Jahdai is called, was no father of Harum, for Regem 
intervened. Haremsaf is identified with the constellation Orion 
and with Hariiiachis, but his muimiiy is not that of a giant. On 
the pyi'amid which contained this sarcophagus of Haremsaf is 
wi-itt(;n : 

'Thou hast made me to live, thou hast united thy bones, 
thou hast bi'ought hack what has swvun away from thee : thou 
hast regained what has been divided from thee, for F am Horus, 
the avenger of \\'i> fathei". 

'^^ 1 Cliroii. iv. H. 


" I have struck for thee : thou hast been struck. 1 have 
avenged my father, my father the Osiris H. M., from the on6 
doing ill to him. I have come to thee."-'^ 

Did he come into the land of Egypt from the Akkadian king- 
dom to avenge the death of his grandfather Jahdai, slain by 
assassins before his son Jabez was born ? It seems very like, 
for his son Acharchel is numbered among the Hycsosor Shepherd 
Kings, and must liave been a viceroy of the great Aahpeti. That 
he went into Egypt there is no doubt, for his inscriptions testify 
to liis conquests in that land. But first as Rim-agu he professed 
to descend from Kudur Mabuk or Jether, calling himself his son. 
The descent was through his mother Azubah, the daughter of 
Jerigoth, the daughter of Jethei; This was his title to Elam 
whicli his father Regem had conquered. Hence we find " Rim- 
agu, ruler of the lordship of Nipur, inizkin of ancient Eridu,"^" 
showing that Jered even was old in his day. He also calls him- 
self the nourisher of Ur, king of Larsa, and king of Sumir and 
Akkad, as well as the head ruler of the house of Nergal. the 
renowned man, and the builder of Harris-galla, to prevent 
invasion. Xergal is certainly his son Acharchel, and it is probable 
that Harris-galla was named after him. His great conquest was 
that of Karrak, the capital of the Amalekite Husham in the land 
of Moab. It was Rama then and not Krishna, Harum and not 
Regem. who fought with Midian, Amalek, and the Zerethites in 
the field of Moab and overthrew their supremacy for a while at 
Kurukshetra. He does not mention Ardon or Duryodhana, but 
the land of (ieshur named after Jesher, Ardon's elder brother, 
fell into his power : " Kissure he occupied and his powerful sol- 
diers Bel gave him in numbei-s." -''^ Again he is Naram-Sin, the 
son of Sai-gf)n, who went to Maganna, whicli is the most ancient 
cuneiform name of Egypt. 

" An omen for Naram-Sin 
who at this position to Apirak marched and 

i pi as It Ris-Vul, king of Apirak 

and Apirak his hand conquered 

'"' I'nic. Soc. I'.ih. .\icli., June 7, 1S81, p. Ill, seq. 
^ Kfconls .,f the F'ast, v. (\'>. 
Rcconis.if til.' I'ast, V. OS. 


An omen for Naram-Sin, who at this position 

(to Ma) ganna marched, and Maganna he captured, and 

king of Maganna his hand conquered. 

seven and one-half to after him 

may they not gather iba." ^^ 

M. Fresnel found a vase at Babylon on which was written : 
" Naram-Sin, king of the four races, conqueror of Apirak and 
Magan." There is no need for identifying Apirak with Karrak, 
as Mr. George Smith proposed to do. It was the border kingdom 
of Egypt, the Avaris where tlie Hycsos had their fortified camp 
situated near the Pelusiac mouth of the Nile, and, as a kingdom, 
extending to the Arish or river of Egypt. Ris-Vul, its king 
whom Naraiu-Sin does not say that he conquered, was Ma 
Reshah, the Egyptian Moerisor Mares, and the Phrygian Marsyas, 
friend of Cybebe and guardian of the youthful Sabazius. Who 
the enemies were whom Haruni met there and in Maganna or 
Egypt proper may yet be known. Ovid's dogs that tore Actaeon 
are many ; from Sparta, which means of Etam and Jezreel ; from 
Crete, the Zerethite descendants of Suphis or Ziph : from Cyprus, 
the line of Chepher in Mered's descendants ; from Gnossus, the 
Kenezzites of Paehnan and Staan, the Shepherds ; from Sicyon, 
the Chushamites of Amalek : and from Arcadia, the Jerachmeel- 
ites of On ; all these dogs tore the empire of Egypt among them.'''' 
The untranslated Iphisu before Ris-Vul suggests, Ibil or Apil-Sin, 
the descendant of Zabu or Ziph, the Cretan or Zerethite, as a 
usurper of the realm of Ma Reshah, which was known in latt'r 
ages as the coast of the Cherethites. But the descendants of 
Anub seem to be pointed out in tradition as the chief enemies of 
Harum as Oi'ion. Anub indeed appears in the list of Shepherd 
Kings, but so does the inimical Paehnan, Apachnas, or Kennz. 
His son Tola}-- is associated in ti'adition with (^res the kino- of 
Crete, and seems to have Iteen an outcast from the Ammoniaii 
fold. So far as tlie joint testimony of Babylonian and Egyptian 
monuments uocs, Harum was the aven<rer of his o-randfather 
Jahdai and th(; restorer of the land (jf Egypt to trancjuility and 
prosperity. Manetho recognizes his connection with the Phnraonic 

'2 R.-cordfi of til.- I'ast, V. 02. 
^' Mf t;uiinr]ihoscs, iii. 


line, but erroneously makes his Armais the same person as the 
Greek Danaus and the opponent of Egyptus. On the contrary, 
Harum appears as the opponent of the Dinhavites, whom the 
strength of his arm helped to drive southward into Elephantine. 
Harnm is the hero of an epic, the Ramayana, which tells the 
story of his exploits. Confounding him with his father Regem, 
it makes him the chief of the dispossessed princes, and turns his 
father into his companion Lakshman, after whom Lucknow in 
Oude was named. The name of Dasaratha is given to Jahdai. 
It is not a fictitious name, but one pertaining to the Zerethites, 
for in Illyria and with the Dardanii dwelt the people whom 
Pliny calls Dassaretae, and Strabo, Dasaretii. In form the word 
recalls the Egyptian Tosorthus, so that it is probably the ancestral 
Zereth in one of its protean disguises. Harum was a Zerethite 
through his mother Azubah, but Jahdai his grandfather had no 
connection with that family. Dasaratha is called the king of 
Kosala, which must denote Geshur, the Kisure occupied by Rim- 
Sin, rather than Kazalla which Sargon took from the Goim of 
Galilee. This Kozala i.s said to have been conterminous with 
Oude or Ayodya. In India, however, the true Geshur is Gujerat, 
but its reception of that name took place many ages after Rama. 
Regem, then, though living a fictitious life as Lakshman, was 
dead when the .story of Rama begins, for that prince is repre- 
sented as under the cai'e of the Zerethites, and notably of Jesher 
the elder brothei- of his mother Azubah. While he was still 
young, the great sage Visvamitra, an intangible personage living 
through the centuiies, came to Ayodya to get help against the 
tumultuary giants that continually interrupted the sacrifices on 
the banks of the Sone. Rama accompanied him and brought the 
giants into subjection, so that the sacrifice was safely performed. 
Tliis is the Egyptian campaign. While on this expedition he 
learned that the kino- (jf Mithila offered his dauo-hter in marriasfe 
to the i)rinee who should succeed in strinrjincr an enormous bow 
that had descended from a giant ancestor. This is the Greek 
story of <Eiiomaus. who promised Hippodamia to the man who 
should escape from his spear in a chariot race. Pausanias and 
Ayxjllodorus enuruei-atc tlie many suitors who fell at his hand, 
and among thcui tiaiiie luiiymachus and Euryalus, who are 


Haruin as Harmachis and his son Aharhel, for CEnomaus is 
another version of (Enopion. Mithila again is Metelis between 
Onuphis and Canopus in the Xoite kingdom. As Orion has 
Side for his bride, aud a daughter of Qi^nopion who, though 
called Merope, is the same woman, so Rama wins by his strength 
in snapping the bow in twain, Sita the daughter of Mithila's 
king. After the wedding Rama was to ascend tlie throne of 
Ayodya, but the mother of Bharat insists that her son shall 
reign and his brothers go into banishment. So Rama goes forth. 
a knight errant, performing everywhere deeds of chivalry. But, 
taking advantage of his absence, Ravana, the dark and gigantic 
king of Lanka in Ceylon, carries off the hero's bride. Rama 
starts in pursuit of the ravisher. On his way to the south he 
finds two kings, Bali and Sugriva, engaged in war. He takes 
the part of Sugriva and subdues Bali, in whom we see the 
Kenezzite descendants of Bela, son of Beor. Then Hanuman, 
Sugriva's sou, joins him with his monkey host and carries Rama 
and his followers safely over Adam's bridge into the kingdom of 
Ravana. The giant falls in battle and the hero wins back his 
bride. The Cecropian name Sugriva, which gives the Hebrew 
Gecrabbi aud such words as scorpion, scarabaeus, and crab, beUnigs 
to thii Japhetic Geker. head of the Ekronites or Gekronites 
who named Maaleh Aci'abbim, and were the scorpion men of 
Chaldean anticjuity. The legend that a scorpion stung Orion to 
death doubtless finds its explanation in the connection of Anub 
with this family of .Japhetic mercenaries. The c)ld Greek tradi- 
tions make Cecrops, the first Athenian king, a native of Sais in 
Egypt, which was close to Xois in the Delta. The worship of 
Zobebah in Ekron as Baal Zeljub, who as Zeus Apomyius, oi- the 
<lriver away of tiies. receivt.'d honours in Elis and elsewhere in 
Greece, but the wood foi' wliose sacrifice had to be broiiglit from 
the banks of the Acheron, shows that hei' brother Anul) must 
liavf; been in league with the Eki'onite family. As (Kiiomaus he 
married Stei-o])(,'. the Phnad ilaughtei- of Atlas, and this Atlas, also 
callecl Daedalus, is .lediael the son of .laiiiiii, i^^^ker's lu'otlier.'''^ 
Harninian then, called the son of Sugri\a, is Just the Greek 
(Enoinaus and (Knopioii, the Kenite .\iinb, taking the jilace of 

:" 1 r'hroii. vii. <;. 1(1. 11 : .uid ii. 27. 


Harum or Arimus as the chief of the monkeys. Thus the story 
of Rama defines the nature of the Egyptian struggle as one 
between the Kenezzites or Sekenens of Elephantine and the 
Ammono-Jahdaite family, of which the youthful Jabez was now 
the head. 

The Singhalese have a strange story about Harum. Priya, 
daughter of Amba the Okkaka, was stricken with white leprosy, 
on account of which she was carried out of the city of Kapilaand 
established in a large cave dug in the forest near a river, with 
provisions and fuel and other things necessary. Rama the king 
of Benares, beincr smitten with the same disease, withdrew from 
his kingdom, intending to die in some cavern, and by accident 
strayed into the forest in which Priya lived her lonely life. But 
the king, overtaken by hunger, ate voraciously of the fruit, and 
even of the leaves, bark and root of a tree, which made him free 
from the disease and " pure as a statue of gold." Life now be- 
came valuable, and to preserve it from the tigers that roamed 
abroad and made night hideous with their roaring, he made a 
ladder and climbed into a lofty kolom tree with a hollow trunk- 
There he dwelt, supporting himself with the remains of the forest 
animals slain l)y the tigers. One morning a tiger scented the 
princess in her cave and scratched the earth vigorously to get at 
her, whereupon she screamed and the tiger fled. Rama heard 
the cry from his tree, and descending, introduced himself and 
ottered to release the captive. When she declined to come forth 
on account of her disease, he brouo-ht her the healing" medicine 
from the tree that had cured him ; at once she was restored to 
health, and, leaving the cave, took up her abode in the kolom 
ti'ee. Then,' thii-ty-two children were born to them before Rama's 
son found his fathers abode and besought him to return to his 
kinu'dom of Benares. But Rama was pleased to stay where he 
was, so his son caused a city to be Vmilt in the forest which was 
called Koli fiftcr the kolom tree in which the exiled pair had 
liv(;d so long. When, however, the thirty-two sons of Rama 
s(;ught in mari'iagii the thirty-two princesses of Kapilawastu, 
thiir motlH'i-'s nii'ces. her ))j-others refused to allow their 
daughters to marry tree men and grossly insulted the Koli 
t'aniily. Nevertheless, the sons of Rama carried oti" the princesses 


on one occasion when thej'' went out of the city ostensibly to 
bathe, and the kings of Kapilawastu had to swallow their indig- 
nation as best they were able.^^ This legend is valuable, not 
only as linking Harum with a daughter of Anub, in Rama, hus- 
band of Amba's daughter Priya, but also in explaining the 
wooden men and pith women of the Quiche story of Hurakan, 
which shows double connection with the Arabian story of the 
Adites in the account of their destruction and of the transforma- 
tion of the survivors into monkeys. The Quiches, it is to be 
remembered, are the descendants of Coz through his son Anub 
or Hunab; The same association of the Adites with wood appears 
in the legend of Cybele, who changed her murdered lover Atys 
into a pine tree.^*" The explanation is philological, and appears 
in the Khitan words for tree and wood ; Lesghian, Ji/iieta ; Cir- 
ca.ssian, adj ; Basque, halts; Yeniseian, atsch ; Koriak, iitiit, 
uttiiit ; Kamtchatdale, uiida, utha ; Choctaw, iti ; and Aztec, 
quahuif. Thus the Jahdaites are wooden men or the men of the 

Harum's memorials are everywhere. He is the Ly dian 
king Hermon, who is said to have founded Adramyttium, and 
after whom the river Hermus was called. The Arabian dyke of 
Arim and gardens of Irem bear his name. The monkey and 
Typhonian Arimi of Asia Minor and Italy were originally his 
descendants. The Greeks made Rapha his father instead of his 
mother's second husband, and, calling him Hermion son of 
Europs, represented him as the builder of Hermione. As the 
head of the Armenian line after Thargamos, so highly vv^as he 
esteemed and so many achievements were related of him that he 
had to be repeated as Armenaeus, Aramaeus, Harnia, and Aramus, 
and his exploits were divided among these mythic ancestors of 
the royal family of Armenia.'^'' In Irish history he is well defined 
as Heremon the father of Irial, l)ut wrongly called the son of 
Milesius or Ma Reshah. Yet Heber, called his brother, is prob- 
ah)ly Hebron, Ma R(!shah's son. The story of the two Tullias 
appears in the Irish narrative v/ith variations. In the Latin 

a-'- Hanly, Manual of BudliiKtri, VA4. 
^ Ovid, MctaiiiorphoKf'K, x. 
^ MoHes Chon-rifiisi.s. 


story Servius Tullius married his ambitious daughter to the 
peaceful Aruns and his gentle one to the aspiring Lucius Tar- 
quinius. But, like drawing to like through love of power, the 
ajnbitious and turbulent ones put their mild tempered consorts to 
death, killed Servius, and filled the kingdom with strife and 
bloodshed. The Irish story is briefly summed up by the rhyming 
chronicler whose muse does not breathe Ossianic fire : 

" The royal princes, Heber and Heremon, 
With mutual consent and kind affection, 
The isle divided ; and they reigned in peace, 
Till the ambition of a woman's heart. 
The wife of Heber, urged them on to war. 
By i)ride o'ercome she thirsted to enjoy. 
And to be called the (^ueen of the Three Vales, 
The most delightful lands in all the isle. 
She vowed, and raging passionately, swore 
That she would never sleep on Irish ground 
Till she was mistress of those fruitful plains. 
A battle followed on Geisiol's fatal field. 
Where Heber Fionn fell a sacrifice 
To the ambition of a haughty wife."-* 

Heremon reigned fourteen years over all Ireland, fought unnum- 
bered battles and drove out the Picts, Brigantes, and Tuatha de 
Danans. His being made the son of that incomparable warrior 
Milesius or MaReshah.andhis appearing as Hermon and Arimus 
with Mele.'-: in Lydian history, as well as the mention of his name 
in the Persian annals as Aramin, brother of Arish, show that 
Naram-Sin did not concjuer Ris-Vul of Apirak or Avaris, but 
united his forces with those of Zobebah's faithful friend and 
warrior against the insurgent Zerethites, Kenites, Kenezzites, 
Amalekites, and tlie Horito princes of Egypt. 

* Keating, 147. 



The Hittites at the Tigris and Euphrates (Concluded). 

The history of Babylonia is somewhat intricate in the time of 
Harum. At the death of his father Regem, the widow of that 
monarch and mother of Harum married Beth-Rapha, the eldest 
son of the Achashtarite Eshton, who through her established a 
claim to the kingdom of her father Urukh. No monument ex- 
pressly states this fact, but many traditions imply it. The clue 
is given in the assertion of Diodorus that Lapithus, who has been 
shown to be this Rapha, married Orsinome or the widow of Ar- 
sinous, who was the daughter of Eurynome ; and Eurynome is 
Atarofatis or Jerigoth, the wife of Hur or Urukh, and mother of 
Azubah. In the Babylonian list, Azagbau immediately follows 
Sargon and immediately precedes Hammurabi ; hence Mr. George 
Smith supposed that, while Azagbau was the last of the line of 
Sargon, Hammurabi was related to her by marriage. In Arabian 
tradition Lokman has a vulture Lubad which recalls the Sim- 
urgh, descended as Samlah from Rapha, and whose name repro- 
duces Lapithus. It is the Harpy also, and Tarapyha, the chief 
god of the Esthonians, whose form was that of a gigantic 
l)ird.^ This vulture Lubad is the same as Yarub, called the son 
of Kahtan, instead of Eshton, who overthrew the line; of L(;kiiian. 
As Europs, he ci'roneously precedes Telchin in the Sicyonian list 
of royal names, and as erroneously yet suggestively is made the 
father of Hermion. The stoiy of Haiiiinurubi oi- Beth-Rapha has 
alrea<ly been sutKcit;ntly illustrated. The cliit'f event of his 
reign was a victory over his step-son Haruin : 
''' Month Sabadu 22nd ilay in the yvAV 

when Hammuralji the king in the service of Ann 

and Bel triumphantly marciied, 

and the |(^rd of Elam and King Uiui-agu lie overthrew." ' 

' Malt.- I'.niti, (;c(iK. vol. \i. 
^ R.-coifis (if tl:.' I',i-t, %. 7'l. 


This king made Dindur or Babili, that is Babylon, his capital, 
and there set up the worship of Baal Peer under the name of 
Merodach, thus allying himself with Beor's descendants, the 
Hittite kings of Elephantine in Egypt. Only ten years of his 
reign are recorded, but it must have been one of extraordinary 
activity in warlike expeditions, building, and improvement of the 
country. The following inscription illustrates the work per- 
formed by him : 

" Hammurabi the powerful king, king of Babylon, 

the king renowned through the four races, 

conqueror of the enemies of Maruduk, 

the ruler, the delight of the heart am I. 

When Anu and Bel the people of Sumir 

and Akkad to my dominion gave, 

powerful adversaries into my hand they delivered. 

The river Hammurabi the delight of men, 

flowing waters giving pleasure to the people 

of Sumir and Akkad I excavated. 

The whole of its banks to its course I restored ; 

the entire channel I filled, perennial waters 

for the people of Sumir and Akkad I established. 

The people of Sumir and Akkad 

their chief men I gathered, 

authority and possessions T established to them, 

delight and pleasure I spread out to them, 

in luxurious seats I seated them. 

Then I, Hannnui-abi, the powerful king 

ble^^sed by the great gods, 

with the powerful forces which Maruduk gave me. 

a great wall with much earth, 

its top like a mountain raised, 

along the river Hammurabi the delight of men I made."-' 
This aiic<!stoi- of the Lapps, and divine Rawa of all the northern 
Ugrians, was a man of much spirit, and, in some respects, of great 
enlightenment; but the proofs of his zeal in establishing one of 
tlic most ilctcstal)li' i<l()latri('s and in promoting human sacrifices 
arc SM indubitable, that his name must descend as that of an 

K.'C.rds of th.- I'ust, V. ?:-!. 


enemy of mankind, in spite of all the blandishments by which he 
souofht to win over the captive people of Sumir and Akkad to 
his sway. Of his successor Samsu Iluna, alread}'^ set forth as 
Samlah of Masrekah among the kings that reigned in Edom, 
nothing of any consequence is recorded. In Irish history, on the 
other hand, Orbha, called by mistake a son of Heber Fionn, and 
made a successor of Heremon, is dismissed in a single line, it 
being simply stated that he and three of his brothers were killed 
by Heremon's son Irial. But Samlah is called Conmaol, and 
made another son of Heber. He killed Eithrial the son of Irial, 
and governed Ireland thirty years, being the first absolute 
monarch of the line of Heber. He was engaged all these years 
in contests wMtli the descendants of Heremon, and at length lost 
his life by the hands of Heber the son of Tighermhas, wdio placed 
his father on the throne. The Irish annals mention a son of 
Conmaol, namely, Eochaidh Faobharglas, wdio made Albin tribu- 
tary, and had troubles with the Heremonians, by whom he was 
killed after a reign of twenty 3^ears. Eochaidh in the Kenite 
list is Ishhod or Aishhod, the son of Hammoleketh or the Queen, 
who was the sister of Gilead.^ By the union of Samlah with this 
queen, the line of Sumir or Zimri was allied with that of Kapha. 
In th(i lists of Ctesias his name may V)e found as Ascatades. while 
that of his youngest brother, Mahalah or Machalah, is i-epresented 
by Mancalius, and that of Machalah's eldest son Heman, by 
Amyntes. The second of the three brothers was Abiezer or 
Abigezer, whom the Arabs call Abou Gaj'ar, rightly making him 
the father of Maouna or Me)notbai.'' The old alliauee with the 
Ethnanites, Belaites, oi- Kenezzites, was ratified by his marriage 
with Hathath the daughter of Othniel, by wlu)ni he became the 
father of Meonothai. the first Amenhotep. Ophrali the son of 
Meonothai gave his name to a region in Canaan known as 
Ophrali of the Abii'zrites. (lideon. the judge f)f Israel, was an 
Alii<'Ziite, but whether liy rcsidcne*' or by descent remains to be 
determined. It is remarkable that the inscriptions relating to 
Sfunsn-iluna make no mention of this (|ueeJi. and that the Ii'ish 
annals ai'c silent i-egarding liei-. In Lydiun liistoi'v she is called 

' 1 Chiiiii. vii. Is. 
'I'.il.;.ri. IMO. 


Oraphale the daughter of Jardanes. Herodotus says that the 
Assyrians called Urania by the name Mylitta, but it is hard to 
determine the place of this queen in the cuneiform records.*^ Mole- 
keth should be a purely Babylonian divinity, for the male form 
of the name Melcartus was adored at the corresponding Byblus 
in Phoenicia. The Greeks preserved her name as Ino Leucothea 
and crave her a son Melicerta, but made her husband Athamas or 
the Kenite Etam, a relation which they intensified by calling her 
the daughter of Cadmus, who is the same Etam or Getam. Now 
there is no evidence that she was in any way connected with the 
Horite family of Etam ; but Mount Carmel, where her husband 
Samlah, the Lydian Tmolus or Carmanorius, was worshipped as 
Carmelus, was in the neighbourhood of Jezreel named after the 
son of Etam." Similar confusion reigns in the story of Meleager, 
who is another Melicerta and Melcartus. His mother Althaea 
may be taken as an Aly tta form of Mylittd, but his father Q^^neus 
is a myth, and Calydon, of which he was king, bears the name of 
Gilead the brother of Moleketh. As the wife of Samlah was 
Moleketh, he must have been known as Moloch, a god whose 
bloody sacrifices agree with the sanguinary rites that originated 
the stories of the Simurgh and Stymphalides. Thus the Ugrian 
Jumala and Arimionian Moloch are the same deity. 

Ctesias' mention of Ascatades, Mancaleus, and Amyntes a.s 
oriental monarchs in the line of Ninus and Belus, shows that, 
while Abiezer found a throne in Elephantine, his elder brother 
Ishhod and his younger brother Machalah reigned in Babylon, 
and that the latter was followed by his eldest son Heman, who is 
celebrated alono- with his brothers, Chalcol and Darda or Dardas: 
as only inferior to Solomon in point of wisdom.^ There is a 
strong temptation to identify Ishhod with Sin-Gasit, the Sin-Sada 
of Sir Henry Rawlinson, seeing that he had for mother Belat- 
Sunat, but the fact that he was the king of Amnanu, a name that 
does not appear until five generations after Abiezer, opposes the 
connection of the two names. In the Babylonian list Samsu- 
iluna is followed by Eljisum, Ammi-satana. Kimtum-kittum or 

H..nM|,,r. i. i:ii. 

It will yi-t :i|i|)<'ar her sdii Matuilali was rt-lat<'d to tlit- (Jctamites. 
1 KiiiLTs u . HI. 


Ainmi-saduga, and Samsu-satana. Buddhist tradition preserves 
the names, but in great confusion, for Upaehara or Abiezer is 
made the father of Chetiya or Ishhod, the builder of Hastipura 
and the first liar, and he again is made the father of Muchala or 
Machalah, who reig-ned in righteousness.''* The descendants of 
Abiezer are also well defined as the people of Abhisara, whom the 
Raja Tarangini always unites with those of Darva in the south 
of Cashmere. The classical geographers and Arrian mention the 
country of Abisarus situated in the same direction, thus oivin"' 
to tlie king the name of his people. In so-called Indian myth- 
ology the Abiezrites are the Apsaras-as, or water nymphs, to whom 
Urvasi, the wife of Paruravas, the Indian Orpheus or Rawa, 
belcjnged. Vasishtha was born from the soul of Urvasi, sat down 
by the Apsaras, and led the tribes of the Tritsus. In India the 
sons of Hammoleketh find solid ground, for Vasishtha is Ishhod, 
and the Tritsus are the descendants of Dardag, the youngest son 
(jf Mahol or Machalah, while their connection with the Apsaras 
and Urvasi completes their identification with the family of Beth 
Raplia.^'' In the west all the names of this family cluster about 
the Libya Palus in the Roman province of Africa, from Gemellae 
or Sandah to Tritonis or Dardag. Mr. Robert Brown, jr., has set 
forth the connection of Po Seidon, who is Eshton, the father of 
Rapha, with the water-loving Tritons that represent the Sanscrit 
Tritsus.^^ In Sanscrit story, Ishhod, whom Homer knew simply 
as that Melchizedek-like person, the old Aesyetes, is a personage 
of great importance. Yet it is hard to glean history from it, as 
it sets forth a caste of priestly poets and wise men rather than 
the life of an individual. The Rig V^eda contains the following 
passaire re2ardin<{ the Vasishthas : 

" The white robed priests, with hair knots on the right stimu- 
lating to devotion, have filled me with delight. Rising from the 
sacrificial I call to the men, ' Let not the \'asishtiuis stand 
too fur ort" to succour me.' By their libaticjn they brought Indra 
hither from afar across the Vaisanta, away frmii the powerful 
drauirht. Lidra preferre<l the Vasishthas to tlie s(.)nia ofiered by 

H;u(iy - Manu:il, 12S. 
Miiii- S.ui.scrit T.-xts. 
]',r"Ui]. I'lisciiidii. 


Pasadyumna, the son of Vayata. So, too, with them he crossed 
the river ; so, too, with them he slew Bheda ; so, too, in the battle 
of the ten kings, Indra delivered Sudas through your prayer, O 
Vasishthas. Through gratification, caused by the prayer of your 
fathers, O men, ye do not obstruct the undecaying axle since at 
the recitation of the Sakvari verses, with a loud voice ye have 
infused energy into Indra, O 'Vasishthas. Distressed when sur- 
rounded in the tight by the ten kings, they looked up like thirsty 
men to the sky. Indra heard Vasishtha when he uttered praise 
and opened up a wide space for the Tritsus. Like staves for 
drivinfif cattle, the contemptible Bharatas were lopped all round. 
Vasishtha marched in front and then the ti'ibes of the Tritsus 
were deployed. Three are the noble creatures whom light pre- 
cedes. Three tires attend the dawn. All these the Vasishthas 
know. Their lustre is like the full radiance of the sun : their 
greatness is like the depth of the ocean ; like the swiftness of the 
wind your hymn, Vasishthas, can be followed by no one else."^- 
The mention of the Bharatas in this hymn, as the enemies of 
Indra and of the Vasishthas and Tritsus, shows that the contest 
referred to is the one occupying the reign of Samlah of Masrekah, 
for then only were the men of Gedor, whose deity was Jether or 
Indra, in league with the house of Kapha against the Beerothite>. 
The white rolled priests are the Druids thus attired, who accom- 
panied to battle Gwenddoleu, the lord of the cannibal birds, and 
afterwards cursed the name of Gall Power, who put an end to 
their ravages. The very name Druid or Derwycid originated 
with Darda, the son of Mahalah. But what is still moi"e inter- 
esting is the fact vouched for by several traditions, that the 
Orphic family, to which Darda belono-ed, was one that srave birth 
to the most celebrated early poets claimed by the Greeks, includ- 
ing Homer, Hesiod, and Tyrtaeus. On their mother's side, 
Isldiod, Abiezer and Malialah, were Zimi'ites. The name of their 
ancestor, Zimi'an. is dei'ived from the Hebrew root, zarnar, to 
sing, tit name for a family of poets, anti this in Gaelic became 
nnih.rd, iiniJivan, a poem or song. These Zimri, Sumerians, or 
Andn-ans, were the Homeridae, who made their home in the 
island of ( 'liios. but dwelt also in Smyi-na, a Gimmerian city, 

'-' .\Iuii'- S:in>ciit T--xt>. 


that more perfectly retains the name of Zimran. There Homer 
is said to have been born, tlie son of Meles and Critlieis, at the 
time xthen Theseus, the son of Eumelus, reigned over the city. 
Hesiod is, in some traditions, made a relative of Homer, or a 
member of the same family, and his uncommon name marks him 
as pertaining to the line in which Ishhod appears, and as inherit- 
ing the traditions of the poetic Vasishtha. Of Tyrtaeus, the 
Aphidnian, who encouraged the Spartan army in its contest with 
Aristomenes of Messenia. no particulars have descended, but his 
name and office stamp him as one of the Tritsus, a Dardag 
descended from Mahol. By poets of the same race the Kalewala 
and Kalewipoeg must have been written. And it seems that the 
88th and S!)th Psalms were translations and adaptations of poems 
originally composed by the Orphic family, that included Heman 
and Ethan, or compositions by members of that family who had 
become converts to the Heltrew faith. The Semitic root sadial 
has the meaning of putting across as well as of instructing, so 
that the mysterious word Maschil, prefixed to many psalms, may 
denote a translation. The bards were not free from misfortune, 
for Meholah, the father of the wise Heman, Chalcol, and Dardag, 
gave his name to Abel .^leholah in the plain of Samaria and 
north-west of Abiezer.^'' This, like Abel Mizraim, in the south, 
was a place of mourning, the mourning of Meholah. A tragic 
story must have given rise to this name, and this story is the one 
with which the name of Tmolus is associated by Clytophon, and 
which was given in connection with the history of Sandali. A 
somewhat similar narrative is that of Milo of Epirus, who gave 
La(t<lamia, the last of the Epirote royal family, her death wound 
in the temple of Diana, whither she had tied as to an asylum. 
He was seized with matlness and, teai-ing out his own bowels, 
(lied in agony : and plagues fell upon the whole land. ^leilanion 
again and Atalanta, while lunitiiig in ("alydon, profaned the 
sacred enclosure of Jove, and were for this transformed into lions. 
Meilanion seems to ije the same pei'son us Meleager of Calydon 
whose history is linke<l with that of Atalanta. His motiiei', 
Althaea, burned the billet of wood on which his life depended, 
and he j)ei"ished umlei" her curse. The story of .Meihuiion and 


Atalanta answers perfect!}' to that of Melanippus, son of Ares 
and Tritia, and Coniaetho, the daughter of Pterelaus, the temple 
of Diana or Artemis taking the place of the enclosure o& Jove. 
A curse fell on the country, the guilty parties were immolated, 
and human sacrifices instituted to avert the anger of the goddess. 
Other persons named Jklelanippus were the sons of Hicetaon, 
Astacus, and Agrius. Meilichos, and other rivers similarly named, 
attend Melanippus and the characters identified with his tragic 
story, recalling the Nahar Malcha of Babylonia. 

The statement of Apollodorus that Coniaetho was the 
daughter of Pterelaus, taken along with the story of Melanippus 
in Pausanias, sheds light on Chaldean history, although it leaves 
us in doubt as to the precise calamity that culled for the 
mourning of Meholah. Pterelaus and Kurigalzu of the 
Babylonian records are the same name, originating in the word 
that furnishes the Babylonian geographical term, Zerghul. That 
word is Jezreel. or, as it may be read, Yezregel. I^ow Jezreel 
was the son of Etam, and he is the Athamas who is made the 
father of Meleager by Ino Leucothea, and, as Getam, the Cadmus 
who is the father of that princess. Atalanta, connected with 
Meilanion and Meleas^er and Camulus, was the daughter of 
Schoenus. the son of Athamas. Meilanion again is the son of 
Amphidamas or Abi Etam. Even Milo was the son of Diotimus. 
It thus appears that the Cadmonites of Etam had established 
themselves in Balylonia, and that the first Kurigalzu of the lists 
ami jn( liniments was Jezi-eel, the son of Etam, This family 
must, therefore, have left its seat in the wilderness of Etam, on 
the north-eastern border of Egypt, accompanying the allied 
Peletites to their wars on the baiik.sof the Euphrates; and Milisihu, 
son of Kurigulzu. must l)e Meholah, the son-in-law of Jezreel or 
Yetsreifel.^* The synchronism of the lines of Etam and Kapha 
is hard to estaljlish, for the latter married Regeni's widow, while 
Pelet. tilt' brotlier of Regem, married Zelelponi, the daughter of 
Etam. Thus Jezreel or Yetsregel is the Indian Satrugna, the 
eonteinpDi-aiy (jf Regem and Pelet, while Mahalah seems to be 
soiiif i,o'iu_'rations later. Yet Abiezer married Hathath, the 
(l;in'_diti'i- of (Jtliniel the Kenezzite, and after his death she was 

'' \i,l:.v<\^ ,,t till- I'ast, V. 7'.l. 


united to Mesha the son of Jabez With Jabez, Samlah must 
have been contemporary, for, among the Kings of Edom or 
Gebalene, he alone occurs between Hadad and Saul, and Saul, as 
Osortasen III., can only have taken possession of Lower Egypt 
at the death of the great worshipper of Sutekh. It is certain 
that Mahalah was allied with the family of Etam, for he only 
can be the Amyclas who occupies one of the most prominent 
places in the Spartan genealogies."^^ He is made the father of 
Harpalus, and grandfather of Deritus. But in Greece the homes 
of the aboriginal members of his family were traditionally, perhaps 
actually, Thessaly and Euboea. In the former, Hestiaeotis was 
named after Ishhod and inhabited by Perrhoebians. In Euboea 
which bore the name Ellopia, Histiaea was situated, and from 
that city Amphiclus is said to have migrated to Chios, there to 
reign after the sons of CEnopion.^^' Ishhod's name is also given 
as that of the Arcadian Hicetas, whose father, Aristocrates, was 
guilty of the same outrage as Tmolus, his victim being the 
virgin priestess of Artemis Hymnia. He was stoned to death 
for this crime, and a second Aristocrates, the son of Hicetas, met 
the same fate.^^ The name Aristocrates seems foreign to the 
history, but Hymnia connects with it in Heman, the eldest son 
of Mahalah. It is also evident that the words Hestiaeotis, 
Histiaea, Hicetas, are related to Hestia or Vesta, rendering it 
prolmVjle that the Vestals were instituted by Ishhod, the Sanscrit 
Vasishtha, and that the crime which led to the mourning of 
Meholah, was committed against a member of this new sister- 
hood. Such Vestals celebrated the rites of the Babylonian 
Mylitta or Sacti, who is Moleketh. They kept alive the sacred 
tire whicii was the only emblem of divinity in their round 
temples. Now the land of lire in the Zend A vesta is Suglula or 
SogdiMua, and Sughda is the Algomjuin ^hafi', tire. But the 
Algon(]uin dialects, by the use of prepositions and other gram- 
matical as well as lexical peculiarities, are si'parated from the 
Kiiitan languages propei-, althougli they in all respects show con- 
necti(jn with the Maya-<^)nich(j group of Central America, whose 

' T!i<- S|),ittiii, iir men sciwii hy Cadiiius, ;iri' tlu- .rezrccliin, <ir sown nf ('u><\. 
''' I':iu<;iiii;is. 
'" I'iiu-aiiia-. 


peculiarities, by the traditions of the Quiches, are proved to be 
the result of Semitic influence. The languages of the Old World, 
with which the preposing dialects of the New hav^e the closest 
afiinities, are those of the Mala}' Archipelago, and the very 
name Malacca is a memorial of Moleketh, the larger part of 
whose family in eastward migration followed the southern 
littoral and oceanic route taken by the descendants of Coz. The 
statement of Pausanias, that Amphiclus reigned in Chios after 
the sons of CEnopion, points to an ancient connection of the two 
families. The original Hittite word for fire seems to have been 
su, which is the present Basque and Lesghian form, but the 
Yeniseian is chott, the Iroquois otf^ia and ojista, the Shoshonese 
i<haicat, and the Peruvian Sapibocono cuati, which resembles the 
Algonquin skate. The Vestals allowed the sacred fire to die 
away at the end of the year, but, if extinguished at any other 
time, it portended evil to the city or state in which the worship 
was observed. The story of Althaea consuming the billet on 
which Meleager's life depended seems to have some connection 
with this law. The sisters of Meleager were transformed, on 
account of their mourning for his death, into meleagrides, guinea 
fowls or turkeys. The Algonquin Delawares or Lenni Lenape 
have a sub-tribe called Unalachtigo or the Turkey clan. 
Meleager and Unalachtigo are related to the Malayan marah, a 
peacock, and to malk, a common Malayo Polynesian name for a 
fowl. The oceanic route of the Lenni Lenape, Illinois, and other 
Algontjuins, who call themselves ilenni or men, is well marked in 
Borneo and the adjacent islands \)y the presence of the Illinoans. 
These semitized and oceanic Hittites seriously complicate the 
problem of Kliitan migration, and should properl}^ have a treatise 
for themselves. Many of their divinities and of their ti-aditions, 
(specially those glorifying the rabbit or hare, are tiie same as 
those of tlu- northern and continental Hittites of pure speech, 
but otlii'is are bori'owed like theii' language, or hav^e grown up, 
a^ has tlieii' conception of an insular heaven, out of their altered 
ciiiiijitions of life. Jn character, occupations and arts, there is a 
radical distinctit^n between the two Hittite streams which so 
iiiar\cllously converged in the New World. 

Seiniii, the eleventh Japanese emperor, placed his daughter 


under the name of Saikou at the head of a college of Vestals 
instituted by him.^^ The Natchez, who, like the Japanese and 
the Hurons, regarded their king or head chief as the son of the 
Sun, are said to hav^e had in ancient times a body of Vestals 
who kept up a perpetual fire in a round or oval temple.^^ That 
they did, in common with all the Mobilian tribes, maintain such 
a fire in such a temple is incontestible, but confirmatory eviaence 
of the existence of a class of virgin priestesses is wanting. 
Charlevoix and Chateaubriand luive, however, placed on record 
the fact that, b}' command of the Sun, the women of the Natchez 
were compelled at least once in their lives to prostitute them- 
selves, as Herodotus says the Babylonian women did in honour 
of Mylitta.-^' There were Vestals also in Mexico, part of whose 
duty it was to replenish the perpetual incense burner in the 
temple. Failing to keep their vow of chastity their fate was 
death. They seem first to have come into existence in the reign 
of Nauhyotl in Tollan. Wishing to supersede the worship of 
Quetzalcoatl, he established that of Matlalcueye, an aquatic 
goddess called the lady of the frogs, to whom human victims 
were ofiered. It is not stated that a company of Vestals was 
instituted in her honour, but a subsequent part of Mexican 
history attests that fact and points to the infamies of the Baby- 
lonian Mylitta : "The Tlamacazqui, violating the laws of con- 
tinence under which they were bound, proved foremost in vice, 
and tlit-^ Vestals, guardians of the sacred fire, became generally 
the first victims of their brutality. Matters came to such a pass 
that the princess Cihua(iua<|uil, chief pi'iestess of the goddess of 
the w;it(ji-s ('Matlalcu(!ye), having left Tollan on a pilgrimage to 
tlie temple' of Ce Acatl at Cliolullan, allowed herself to be sought 
publicly, even in the sanctuary, by the Tlachiach 'J'expolcalt/in, 
pontitioi' QuetzalcohuatI, and bound like her by inxiolable vows 
to sji.cer' iota! continence. ' -' ib'rson, Ichcatl, hecame the head 
of a iii-i'.flitary priest]if>od. 'J'his seems to l)e n vei'V ancient 
story, i' r the goddess .Matlalcueve, and the liei'editai'v jn-iest 

'- Tii-i'i-li. 

' C ' 1 it'-;uiliri,ii)(|, \'ny,'i;,'c.s en Ajiii-ri(|uc ct cti Italic. 

-' Il-i .'I'.t. i. llt'.t; Charl.'Vui.N, JIi,<t. (!< la Nouvrllr France, vi. IbL' : (/hatcau- 
Idi.aii'l, \''<y,i;.'i-,s, I'ari.s, lsi,'7, ii. ."."'). 

' I'. <ii- I'louilioiirK, .N'aticiiis Civilisi'-cs, i. I-STS. 


Ichcatl, look not unlike Molecheth ancMshhod, while the conduct 
of the priest and priestess corresponds with that set forth in the 
traditions illustrating the mourning of Meholah.and the universal 
licence it exemplihes agrees with the abominations of Babylon. 
The Peruvians also had Vestals who were called the brides of the 
Sun. In one convent in Cuzco there were a thousand virgins of 
royal blood. Their vows were perpetual, and if they broke them 
they were buried alive, yet if any had a child it was saved and 
devoted to the priesthood. Their chief work was the preparation 
of certain kinds of food for the Inca and his court and of royal 
and sacredotal raiment. It is not stated that they maintained 
the annual lire, although it is very probable that they did so, for 
the manner of lighting that fire at the vernal equinox by con- 
centrating the suns' rays, collected by a concave burnished metal 
mirror upon a heap of dry cotton, corresponds with that which 
Plutarch attributes to Numa Pompilius."- The Peruvians, like 
the Mexicans, oti'ered human victims to the Sun. In Italy, Numa 
Pompilius has the honour assigned him of establishing the 
worship of Vesta by the virgins, but another name connected 
with them is that of Caecilius Metellus, who is said to have 
precipitated himself, on the occasion of the burning of their 
temple, into the llames to save the sacred relics. So the Natchez 
preserved the names of certain women who, in a similar con- 
flagration, cast their children into the fire to appease the anger 
of the god."^^ The name of Caecilius Metellus is suspiciously 
like Chalcol of Mahalah. Sir Henry Rawlinson finds Khalk- 
halla, the complete form of Chalcol, as a name of the Assyrian 
god Ninip.-^ 

Returning to the Akkadian family whom Hammurabi had 
deprived of the kingdom, we find a contemporary of Naram-Sin 
or Harum in Sin-Idinna, the son of Gasin, who, according to Mr. 
George Smith, is hy the character of his legends closely connected 
with Riin-Agu.-"' The father, Gasin, is Geshan the brother of 
Regem, but his posterity is not mentioned in the Kenite list- 

I'tTuvian Aiitiipiitics, 1.5S. 

Ch.'irlfvi.ix, vi. 1>S. 

Ii;t\vliiis(in's Hermlotus, ajip. bk. 1, Essay 10. 

Il'Cortis (,f the Past, V. oA. 


Geshan was the name of Goshen in Egypt, and of a region 
similarly designated in southern Palestine.-" Sin-Idinna, then, 
must have been a son of the lord of Goshen who joined the 
fortunes of his uncle Regem in the east. He calls himself the 
nourisher of Ur, King of Larsa, and of Sumir and Akkad. Like 
Hammurabi, he excavated a river which he called Kibigana, and 
built Bit Parra. He also celebrated the festivals of Ur and 
"Samas in Bit Parra and Bit Nergal. The name of his river, 
Kibigana, is that o^ the Amorite family, Gibeon or Gibegon, the 
head of which, an Ebalian, was Zibeon or Zibegon, the father of 
that Ajah or Akki the Abal who took care of young Sargon, 
when his grand-daughter, Timna, deserted the child. Esau was 
connected with the same family, having married the daughter of 
Zibeon's second son, Anah, namely Aholibamah."-" The story of 
Esau's famil}' is found in many lands, on account of his relation 
by marriage with the Hittite, Horite, and Ishmaelite stocks. 
The mention of Bit Nergal as a place where Ur was worshipped 
brings forward the name of the .son of Harum, Rim-Acju. or 
Naram Sin, who was Acharchel, the original Hercules. The 
difficulties in the way of tracing the history of Aharhel are 
numerou.s. Transferred to difi'erent countries and transliterated 
in different lancfuages, the name Acharchel was confounded with 
those of Yetsregel and Asareel. In languages such as the 
Eg3'ptian, which make no distinction between I and /, and in 
others that, like the Japanese, have no I, or, like the Choctaw 
and Aztec, have no r, it is confounded with Chalcol and Karkar. 
In Greece the tendency was to attribute to Hercules the acts of 
every great warrior of the early days of the world's history, 
attriljuting to him among others those of his father Harum. In 
India, on the other hand, Rama was the favourite, absorbing 
into his romantic career the e.Kploits of his father, Regem. and 
his son, Aharhel. One thing that is certainly known regarding 
this hero is that he was counted among the Hycsos of Egypt, 
for in the two versions of Manetho's Shepherd Kings ho appears 
in immediate pro.ximity to Apophis. in one case preceding, and, 
in tlie otli(,'r, following tliat in(;narcli. The reconciliation of the 

-'" .lu-liuii X. 41. 

-" < Ji-m-siH WW i. 2, IH. 


. % . . 

discrepancy is to be found in the fact that this Archies lived in 
the reign of Jabez, but, as the latter was on the throne when he 
was born, his name preceded that of his second cousin, and, as 
he survived the hero, his name followed that of Archies. 
Manetho calls his ninth and tenth dynasties Heracieopolitan, but 
only mentions one name of a Pharaoh, that of Achthoes, who 
has been sufficienth" identified with the Hittite Jachdai. There 
were two Egyptian cities called Heracleopolis, one surnamed* 
Mao-na, to the south of Lake Moeris ; the other called Parva and 
Sethrum on the Mediterranean! coast near Avaris and Pelusium. 
Avaris was the Epirus of Homer where the cruel King Echetus 
cut off men's noses and ears. It marked the western boundary 
of the Lydian sub-kingdom of Mareshah, while the Arish 
limited it on the east. At the Arish was RhinoQolura, or the 
nose-docked, a city in which Diodorus says that Actisanes, whom 
Strabo calls some Ethiopian, settled the malefactors whose noses 
he had cut off, trusting that shame of their personal appearance 
would prevent their return to Egypt. It would appear, there- 
fore, that Aharhel exercised sovereignty over the region in the 
Sethroitic nome in which his great grandfather, Jachdai, had 
first established himself, the right of Regem as the eldest son of 
Jachdai being thus acknowledged. To the west of this domain 
was the Xoite kingdom founded by Coz, or his son Anub, 
Aharhel's maternal grandfather. And, in whichever Heracleopolis, 
the son of Harum made his abode, he was in the immediate 
vicinity of the fsimily of ^la Resha, repi'esented equalh' by the 
Arisli in the north-east, and by Lake Moeris in Central Egypt. 
That there was. therefore, an actual Lydian dynasty of the 
Heraclid;e is most probable. One would have expected the name 
of Acharchel to appear in the Armenian lists in connection with 
Arineuac, but Armenian history branches oH:" into the story of 
the dominant Egyptian line of Paiapis, Meesak and Manavazus.-'^ 
The Irish annals are clearest upon this line. 'J'hey make tlie 
ijiistakc; of repi'esenting Harum or Heremon as a son of Milesius, 
wh(j is Ma Reshah, and the husband of Tea, daughter of 
Luuhaidli, who is Lagadah or Laadah, Ma Reshah's fatlier, but 
tlii-si- ci'rors do not oiiscui'e the actual fact of a connection 

Kiiii^'s of Aiiiiciiia, 12, 20. 


between the Lydian family and that of Harum and Aharhel. 
They are right, however, in calling the sou of Heremon, Irial or 
Irial Faidh. He is said to have been a learned prince and a 
prophet who could foretell things to come. He overthrew Orbha 
and his brothers, who had basely taken away the lives of two of 
his elder brothers that died without issue. In his reign the land 
was cleared for cultivation, rivers were opened up, and seven 
royal palaces built. He gained four great victories ; the first 
was the battle of Ard Inmath at Teabtha, where Stirne, son of 
Duibh, sou of Fomhoir, was slain ; the second battle was Teanra- 
huiofhe, where Eichto-he, the leader of the Forahoraice, fell ; the 
third was Loch Muighe which witnessed the death of Lugrot, the 
son of Moghfeibhis ; and in the fourth at Cuill Martho he over- 
came the four sons of Heber. Eithrial, who succeeded Irial, 
being his son, who cleared more land, wrote history, was remark- 
able for his valour and military accomplishments, and was killed 
by Conmaol, is probably, almost certainly, a repetition of Irial.'^'^ 

The Greek story of the historical Hercules is altogether 
astray when it makes him a descendant of Perseus, as the son of 
Amphitryon and Alcmena. If that parentage suits any hero 
worthy the Herculean name it must be Shimon, the Sem Hercules 
perhaps of the Egyptians, the son of Hadar the Beerothite and 
Melietabel the sister of Beriah, in which case Amphitryon will 
Ije a corruption of the word Mithra, derived from the name of 
^bitred. Melietalers mother, and Electryon, the name of 
Alc-iuena's father, will go l)ack to Elgadah the father of Tahath II., 
Matrt'ils husband. Eurystheus, the son of Sthenelus. to 
whom Hercules was suV)ject, should be Beriah himself, but 
Stli(_'iielu<, the name of liis father, is a Greek transliteration (jf 
Otlinii/1 or Gothniel of the Elephantine kingilom, whose succi'ssor, 
Seti .Monephthali, drove out the family of Shimon. There is 
one nunie. however, connected with the story of the infancy of 
Ilercul'"- that do(.'S not Iti-long to the time of Shimon, aufl that is 
Ipliicif-. liy which his twin l)i"other of mortal |)arenta,ge is called. 
Wlii'ii Juno sent two sei'pents to .devour the children, and 
I])liic:f- alarmed the household with his cries, the infant Hercules 

" ' i<-ii/.T. Syiiiliolik : < ;ni;,''iii:iut, Iki'-!if,'iiiiis (li> rAiiti<|tiiti-. 


took one in each hand and strangled the monsters. This 
fabulous trait associates him with Krishna, who, when the demon 
Putana sought to kill the babe with her poisonous breast, drained 
her of life. Creuzer and Guigniaut have pointed out distinct 
connections of Hermes and Hercules in mythology, but these are 
apart from the traditional account of the latter hero. Diodorus, 
however, states that when Osiris went forth on his warlike 
expeditions, he left to Isis as her counsellor, Hermes, the wisest 
and most faithful of his friends, and, as the general of her troops, 
his relative, Hercules.^^ The two names were associated as 
Hermeracles, to denote the pillars of stone generally called by 
that of Hermes. The Latin Mercurius, taken to represent the 
Greek Hermes, really denoted his son, the Mehercules, invoked in 
Roman oaths, whose name became Mehercures or Mercury, for 
the initial Me is the honorific particle, meaning honourable and 
sublime. Mehercul answers also to the Chaldean Nergal, and 
explains such names as the Palestinian Maralah or Margalah, 
the Caucasian Marul, Mergul, and Mingrelia, and the Ligurian 
Merula. In the Synchronous History of Assyria and Babylonia 
the names of father and son are combined to form the geogra- 
phical term Arman-Agarsal.^^ Elsewhere Agarsal appears alone 
or with Istar, as in Car-Istar- Agarsal. The early dates of these 
names, and the mention of Bit Nergal in the inscriptions of Rim- 
Agu and Sin Idinna, indicate that Aharhel exercised sovereignty 
in Babylonia, l)ut the links that should associate him with 
Harum as Naram Sin and Rim Agu have not yet come to light. 
There is a Kurigalzu, who may represent him, but he calls 
himself the son of Burna-Buryas which Aharhel can hardly 
have been. His worship of Bel and Merodach is inconsistent 
with the prophetic character claimed for him in the Irish annals. 
Yet he was King of Sumir and Akkad and of the four races.^* 
After him a break occurs in Babylonian history. Ctesias places 
him early among his Assyrian Kings as Aralius, the son of Arius. 
In Persian history he is supplanted by Saul or Zaul, the son of 
Saum, the son of Nariman, which Nariman is Naram-Sin, and 

"1 Din.l. Sic. i. ], !. 

'- li.-cunis of th.' Past, iii. .SO. 

' liccoriis of th.' I'ast, v. 84. 


the same as the Persian Aramiu, brother of Kai Kous and Arish. 
The story of Aharhel receives some light from Lydian tradition 
which mentions the dynasty of the Heraclidae, taken in connec- 
tion with the Greek account of the historical Heraclidae, who 
reconquered Peloponnesus. 

According to Herodotus the first Heraclid monarch of Lydia 
was Agron, son of Ninus, of Belus, of Alcaeus. of Hercules.^* 
This is confusion worse confounded, for the Assyrian Ninus and 
Belus belong to the Ethnanites, and the mythic Alcaeus is made 
Hercules' grandfather. Yet Agron is a name of much import- 
ance, for it introduces an Aryan or Japhetic element into Hittite 
history. Agfron is the same word as the Hebrew Ekron, denoting 
the city of the Philistines named after Eker or Geker, who also 
gave his name to Acrabbi or Gecrabbi. Hence the Memphite 
Necherophis of Manetho, and Uchoreus, of Diodorus, the 
Athenian Cecrops, the Lydian Agron, and Indian Sugriva, are 
this ancient Eker, father of the Carians, known also as Agrius, 
Car, Carus, Carnus, and Caranus. Already his family has 
appeared in connection with the Cozites as borrowing from them 
the dfity Baal Zebub, who, as the god of Hies, was also 
worshipped in Gyrene named after Ekron, and in the Grecian 
Elis find Epirus, each of which possessed a river Acheron. "^^ 
Eker himself was a generation older than Chedorlaomer, and 
was thus the contemporary of Abram's early years. No history 
^ives a complete record of his family, but that family is well 
identitied with the Buzites, to whom Barachel, the father of 
Elihu, Job's friend, l)elonged.^'' He was of the kindred of Ram, 
for Ram was the father of Maaz, Jamin, and Eker, and the son 
of the ancestral Jerachmeel.^'' Nine generations from Eker are 
given in the Kenite record, the chief names in which are Buz the 
tirst and Abihail or Abichail the eighth, who is the fatlier of 
Micliael, Mcshullam, Shelja, Jorai, Jachan, Zia and Heber.-'"^ 
\Vlure\er in ancient geographical ncmienclature Geker, Buz, and 
Alijchail are found, there also Acharchel appears, and the 

H.i<.'l.>t. i. 7. 

Ill yaiit, Authfiiticity of the Scri|itnn'S : I'iUiSiUiias. 

.I..1, xxxii. 2. 

1 C'liioii. ii. 25. 

1 Cl.f.n. V. 13. 


connected Hariini. It is evident, therefore, that Acharchel must 
have married into the Carian line that furnished the Caphtorim 
of Jabez with their men of war, but the point in the genealogy 
at which this union took place is not intimated. Herraon or 
Arinms was a Lydiah king, but Greek and Indian traditions 
concur in giving him a daughter of Anub for a wife, and she 
seems to have been the mother of Acharchel. That hero must 
himself have espoused a Carian maiden, doubtless through his 
mother's influence, for she was of Japhetic descent and belonged 
to the kindred of Ram in the line of Jamin. Among the many 
consorts oiven to Hercules the most important is the mother of 
Hyllus, for that prince was the leader of the Heraclidae. The 
common repoi't is that Deianira, the daughter of (Eneus of 
Calydon, was his mother, but Apollonius of Rhodes mentions 
another Hyllus, son of Hercules, whose mother was Melite, the 
daughter of ^-Egeus. But Hercules also married Megara, 
daughter of Creon, King of Thebes, whom he afterwards gave to 
lolaus, the son of his brother Iphicles. Hyllus again married 
lole, the daughter of Eurytus. Iphicles was no brother of 
Acharchel, but a Buzite, the Abichail wdiose seven sons close the 
Kenite genealogy, and no such name as lolaus occurs among his 
sons. There is, however, a Joel, answering to lolaus and Hjdlus, 
whost.' posterity dwelt with the Buzites in Gilead, according to 
the Kenite record, and he must be the son of Acharchel. If 
Acharchel was the brother-in-law of Abichail or Iphicles, his 
wife was a daughter of Churi. No such name as Q^lneus occurs 
in the genealogies, but his Calydon is given in the name Gilead, 
and Michael furnishes a Megara. What tradition disguises, 
geographical nomenclature furnishes, uniting Byzantium, whose 
founder was Byzas, with Chalcedon as colonies of Megara, for 
Chalcedon is Gilead with the accentuated ayin as Gilgad. 

In Lyilian history the two families of the Heraclidae and the 
Mernniadae are represented as in opposition. The latter is the 
same as the Myrmidon family of Aegina and Thessaly, repre- 
sented ill the Kenite record by the Beerothite line of Saul, 
Iliidur, and Shinion. So in tlie story of the Heraclidae proper 
there is opposition from the family of Tisamenus, which has 
l^een ideiititied with that of Shimon. This contest was wa^ed in 


Egypt chiefly, for it was that in which Thebes finally fell into 
the hands of the Epigoni, with whom Adrastus or Hadar was 
associated. Creou, as King of Thebes, which bore the name of 
Calydnus from an ancient monarch, namely Gilead, must have 
been the author of that part of the hundred-gated city called 
Karnak, and a joint ruler with the Ammono Hittite King. The 
Ekronite Praetorian guards do indeed appear to have held sway 
during the troublous times following the death of Jabez, but 
Acharchel was, in all probability, not alive at that time. The 
names of Iphicles, Megara, and Calydon, associated with that of 
Hercules are simply indications that he married into the Carian 
or Ekronite line in which these names appear, and do not fix the 
epoch of his marriage. But tradition places Hercules under 
Eurystheus the son of Sthenelus. Othniel or Gothniel, who is 
this Sthenelus, had no such son, but his brother, Seraiah, had a 
grandson, Harash or Charash, who gave his name to Harosheth, 
supposed to have lain to the west of Hazor and Kadesh in 
northern Galilee, but whose earliest memorial was probably 
Korusko on the confines of Nubia. This Harash was the con- 
temporary of the first Amenhotop or ^leonothai, who, as 
Menoecius, is wrongly made the father of Creon in Greek story, 
and was, therefore, in the same generation with Zipli the grand- 
son of Jabez. If he, as Harosheth, be the Eurj^stheus of the 
Greeks, it is evident that an important part of Egyptian histor}' 
has yet to be told pertaining to the troublous period after the 
death of Jabez. Eurystheus persecuted the children of 
Hercules, and was killed with his five sons by Hyllus. This 
must have taken place in Egypt, and soon afterwards 
the Hei'aclidae, as part of Caphtorim, must have been expelled 
along with th(; Ekronite Philistines. While some of the latter 
took possession of Ekron, the main ])ody seems to have passed 
into (Jilead and Bashan, where the Heraclid line of Joel also 
established itself. It is said of the Buzitcs that '" tliey dwelt in 
Gilead in Bashan and in JK-r towns, and in all the suburbs of 
Sharon ujion their bordeis," or "upon their exodus."'*^ Thev 
must, tiiei'efore', lia\r occupie-d two distinct ic'gions ; the land of 
Gil('a<l, and all the sea coast north of Philistia up to the region 

' 1 Chr(*n. V. ]>;. 


of the Dorians and Acha^ans. With the former division the 
Heraclidae made common cause, extending their joint dominion 
from Aroer in the south of Moab to the Euphrates. What 
country the Heraclidae sought to regain is undetermined, but, as 
their ancestor Sargon was the first Akkadian king, it was pro- 
bably his ancient domain in Babylonia, over which the Beerothite 
Ismidagan or Shemidag ruled, towards which their efforts were 
directed. It is evident, however, that the invasion of that region 
took place neither in the time of the Heraclid Hyllus nor in that 
of the so-called Argive Tisamenus, for Joel and Shimon seem to 
have found their graves in Egypt. Orestes, w^ho is called the 
father of Tisamenus, is apparently the same person as Eurystheus, 
so that the families of Seraiah and Beeroth must have united in 
Shimon through his marriage with a daughter of Harash, as 
well as with the widow of Ishi. It must be left to the Assyrio- 
logists to show if any of the posterity of Acharchel sat on a 
Babylonian throne. 

It only remains to mention the Sumerian line which was not 
Hittite but Celtic, but the relations of which with the Hittites 
were of the most intimate nature. The oldest king of this family 
seems to be the one called by the Babylonian Nabonidus, wdio 
preserved one of his inscriptions. Saga Saltiyas.*^ He is pro- 
bably Gilead the brother of Moleketh. His inscription was 
found by the later Babylonian at Bit Ulmas, which commemor- 
ates Ulam, his grandson. His connection with the Zerethites is 
shown by his restoration of temples " which were from the time 
of Zabu in ancient days." After him should come his son Peresh, 
who may be Bui-na Burj-as, although this monarch is generally 
})lact'd after Ulam-Bur3'as, and the initial Burna is hard to 
account for. But TJlam-Buryas is certainly Ulam the son of 
Peresh, and father of Bedan.*^ The time of Gilead is well 
dot'ei'iiiined by hi.s sistei- Moleketh, the wife of Samlah, but his 
predecessors of the line of Zimran must have been in alliance 
with the Amalekites and Zerethites some generations before, as 
the Midianites were the great enemies of Hadad, the son of 
Ik'dad. The Kenite record of this family ceases with Bedan, 

'" lk-c..rd.s..f til.- Past, V. 80. 

" R.-f.)rd.s .,f the I', 82, 29 ; 1 Chron. vii. 17. 


and does not furnish the intermediate links between Gilead and 
Zimran. Manasseh the son of Joseph appears to have married 
into the line of Abraham and Keturah, for Zimrite nomenclature 
reigns amon^y his immediate descendants. Mirkhond says that 
the mother of Gurshasf, the brother or son of Zaub, was a 
daughtci; of the Israelite Benjamin.''- The only daughter of that 
patriarch mentioned in Scripture is Maachah, who is made the 
wife of Machir, the son of Manasseh. ^^ Zaub and Gurshasf look 
very like Joab the Kenezzite and his son Charash, for the Persian 
delights in final labials which are no part of the original words. 
There is no reconciling the two statements, but Benjamin, doubt- 
less, had other daughters than the one whom Machir married. 
To follow the fortunes of Hittites and Zimrites on the banks of 
the Tigris and Euphrates would be a long, arduous, and prosaic 
task, for the golden age of common song and story among the 
nations came to an end when the Pharaohs drove the poets out 
of the land in which the Kenite scribes collected the genealogies 
of the mighty dead ; and history henceforth became the story 
of dispersion. 

<- Mirkhond, 205. 

^ ' 1 Clirun. vii. IG ; Genesi.s xlvi. 21. 




The Hittites in Palestine and the Neighbouring Coun- 

During the time that Jahdai and his descendants reigned in 
Egypt, Canaan became ahnost altogether Hittite. The Horite 
Phoenicians kept the northern Mediterranean coast, and, to the 
south of them, Japhetic tribes, known later as Achaeans, Dorians 
and Pelasgians, held the shore down to Gaza. Then came a 
debatable land from Gaza to Pelusium, known as the coast of the 
Cherethites, not to be distinguished from the Geshurites who 
were of old the inhabitants of the land, for Jesher belonged to 
the junior division of the Zerethite nation. It was a debatable 
land, as the Hepherite Gezrites were there with a western Gedor, 
near the waters of Gaza, and the Peltite or Maachathite branch 
of the Jachdaites, with Beth Palet and Madmannah, and the 
family of MaReshah, with the Arish and Beth Tappuah, called 
after a son of Hebron. All of these were Hittites. East of these 
tribes towards Kerak in Moab extended the Amalekites of Temeni, 
who under Jobab and Husham ruled in Gebalene, until the 
Rechabite Hamathites, that, under Beeri, Esau's father-in-law, 
came into notice, in the third generation sent forth the warrior 
Hadad to overthrow their authority, and wrest from their hands 
the mineral treasures of the Sinaitic peninsula. Hebron, that 
ancient city, built seven years before the Egyptian Zoan, saw 
many changes. At first it was an Amorite foundation, and bore 
in the time of Abraham the name of Mamre. We are not told 
what it was called when Ephron the Zocharite dwelt there, nor 
do we know how long he remained in occupation of it. During 
the time of Zerethite supremacy in Southern Palestine, while 
Baalhanan was on the throne of Gebalene, it was taken possession 
of by Arba the Geshurite and called Kirjath Arba. At what 
point of time the posterity of MaReshah entered upon its occupa- 
tion is liard to decide. If it was after the overthrow of the 


Zerethites, they can have possessed it for but a short time, for the 
Amorites drove the Hittites northward not long before the exodus 
of Israel, and when Joshua entered Canaan it was in the hands 
of the Amorite king, Hoham. But the descendants of Arba dwelt 
near at hand in the plains of Hebron, and fell before the arms of 
the children of Judah.^ It is probable that the men of MaReshah, 
or Rosh, changed the name of the city to Hebron at an earlier 
period, and that the old name was restored by Israel, whose friends 
the lords of Rosh had been in Egypt, for Hebron was the son of 
MaReshah and viceroy of the great Aahpeti. Round about it 
were memorials of the Rosh in Tappuah, Maon and Beth-Zur, 
indicating the fact that settlements of the family had been exten- 
sively planted in southern Palestine. 

One Canaanitic city is invested with the mysterious, the city 
of Jerusalem. It is reported by the orientals that the Persian 
Feridun built the city in the year 1729, B.C., which, according to 
the Hebrew Scriptures, would be shortly before the death of 
Isaac- Feridun is probably the same person as the Indian 
Duryodhana, or Ardon, the son of Hur and Jerigoth, and it is 
veiy likely that he occupied himself in adding to a city esteemed 
sacred, and which afterwards fell to the descendants of his elder 
brother Jesher. But there is evidence that the royal line of 
Jerusalem, or Salem, continued to reign until the time of Israel's 
conquest. Melchizedek, who was king and priest in the days of 
Abraham, is called by Cedrenus and others the son of Sidos, but 
he is also said to have been a son of Heraclas and Astaroth.^ The 
Jebusites, to whose race he belonged, have no eponym given them, 
Ijut, from their position in the generations of the sons of Noah, 
they appear to have Vjeen the descendants of the tii-st historical 
son of Sidon. When Joshua entered Canaan, the Amorite king 
of Jerusalem was Adoni Zedek, whose name replaces Melclii, the 
king, by Adoni, the lord, and has Zedek in common with that of 
the ancient })riest monarch.^ As he is called an Amorite, his con- 
nection with the Sidonian, or Horite, line is esta})Iished, thus 

' .fn-lma X. 'A ; xiv. 15. 

'' DahiHt.iii, i. .50. 

' I>ariiiK-< loiil'i, L''g<-ii'ls <jf C)l(i 'l"cstu!in;iit Characters; ('cdrciius. 

Ci'U. xiv. l.S ; Joshtia x. 1. 


confirming the Sidonian ancestry of Melchizedek, which is also 
vouched for by the name of God employed by that king in bless- 
ing Abram, for Eliouh, the Highest, is the name of the chief 
divinity in Sanchoniatho's Phoenician History.^ But there is a 
later king, who is not, indeed, called the king of Jerusalem, but 
who was brought there to die after his thumbs and great toes had 
been cut off, a just recompense for thus mutilating seventy kings 
that gathered their food under his table ; and his name is Adoni 
Bezek.*^ There seem to have been two places called Bezek, the 
one in Samaria and the other south of Jerusalem." In the latter 
place the men of Judali and Simeon overcame Adoni Bezek, and 
the Canaanites and Perizzites that accompanied him. Their 
bringing the captive king to Jerusalem suggests that he was 
formerly ruler over that city, for it was not the practice of the 
Israelites to bring their royal prisoners to any central locality to 
suffer death. If he was such, the poetic justice would be complete. 
The Jebusites retained possession of the citadel of Jerusalem till 
the time of David, who di'ove them out with hard fighting. 
Already their taunt has been referred to, and the Pisechim and 
Giverim, whom they challenged David to drive out, have ])een 
explained to be worshippers of heathen deities rather than the 
lame and the blind, whom the king of Israel could have no reason 
for hating. With the prefix of the article Jta the Pisechim give 
a plural form of Paseach as Hubisega, a great god of the Akka- 
dians. Paseach means the lame or limping, and this word, by a 
change common in the Semitic languages, such as the Chaldee and 
Arabic as compared with the Hebrew, became Pateach. He was 
thus the deformed Pthah, the Vulcan of Memphis, whose images 
(Jambyses derided and which Herodotus likened to the Pataeci, 
pigmy bow-legged figures placed on the prows of Phoenician ships. 
Sii" Gardner Wilkinson has collected many etymologies given by 
Bochart and others for the word Pataeci, but none of the etymo- 
logists s(;em to have dreamt of deriving the f form from one 
in ^.'' Vet the learned Egyptologist allows that the deformed figure 

fluiiiljinlaiiil's S,'inchi)iiiatlin. 

.Iiid^'cs i. 7. 

. I mitres i. 7 ; 1 .Sam. xi. S ; Kitto's Bible Atlas 

Rawlinson's lifrndotus, l)k. iii. 87, note. 


of Pthah gave rise to the story of the lameness of the Greek 
Hephaestus, who, like Pthah, was Vulcan, the god of fire. The 
deformed mannikin became to the Greeks a kind of missing link, 
so that his name as Pithecus -was given to the ape. Pithecus also 
and Pataecion equally denoted a trickster. When the Egyptians 
refer to the family, or the foundation of Paseach at Thapsacus 
or Khupuscia, they call it Patasu ; and the Greeks termed the 
abode of the Paseachites in Mysia Pedasus. The Hebrew Paseach, 
therefore, is the Egyptian Pthah, the Phtenician Pataecus, and 
the Greek Pithecus, while, with the article, Hapisech is the 
Akkadian Hubisega, and the Greek Hephaestus, the limping fire 
god. How did he. find his way into Jei-usalem and become a 
chief divinity of the Jebusites ? It must have been at a time 
when the family of Beth Kapha, or Hammurabi, the brother of 
Paseach, was powerful in the land, and that was when Samlah 
was king of Gebalene. Then the Jebusites, who in the time of 
Isaac must still have professed the true faith, for Rebekah went 
to Jerusalem to enquire of the Lord concerning the children that 
she was to bear, having abandoned the worship of the Most High 
God, adopted that of Hapisech and the Giverim that probably 
represent the Cabiri, who were the attendants of Pthah.'' The 
word Bezek, save in sound, is quite different from Paseach. but 
its meaning, lightning, is more dignified than the limper, and 
would not be inappropriate to a fire god. It is, therefore, possible 
that Bezek was a complimentary appellation of Vulcan, retaining 
at the same time a sound generally resembling that of the Hittite 
deity's name. Hephaestus and the Cabiri might well be hated of 
David's soul. 

Pthah was adoi'ed at Memphis, where the Hycsos ruled l)efore 
Thebes rose to fame, and where the Piaetorian guards of the line 
of Eker had a (juarter of their own.^" That (juarter bore the name 
Sakkara, which now denotes the Mcmphite necropolis. The Sak- 
kai'ans were the men of Gekron, or (n'ker, whose anc(!stoi* was 
kn(jwn to thii (ireeks as (Jecrops, to the Indians as Sugriva. Now 
Ptliah boi-(,- the epithet Sokari, which came to Paseach through 
an alliance with tlu; Sakkai-uns. 'I'his is further vouched for by 

' (liu. x\v. "J'J ; I |iTij(l<it. iii. ;<7. 
'" Kawlinsiiti's llrrod'.tu-, bk. ii. ir,L', Sir(;. W.s iidtc .5. 


the Indian story of the young- Brahman Visakha. He wandered 
one day into the beautiful garden grounds of the Naga Susravas, 
and by the side of a lake which adorned them, saw two fair young 
women eating, in the midst of the greatest profusion of fruit, the 
tender tops and grains of the grasses that grew on the banks. 
To them he respectfully offered ground rice and water, of which 
they partook, referring him to their father for an explanation of 
their conduct. Visakha sought the Naga and learned that he and 
his people were under the sway of certain fasting Brahmans, who, 
so long as they abstained from eating new rice, had the power to 
hinder others from touching the abundant produce of the fields 
and orchards, which they could no more partake of " than a dead 
man could enjoy the water of a river." Visakha found out the 
guardian Brahmatchari, with a single tuft of hair on the top of 
his head, and, after much waiting, managed to smuggle some new 
rice into the vessel in which he was cooking his dinner. At once 
the embargo was taken off the fruitful grounds, and, as a reward, 
Susravas gave his daughter Chandralekha in marriage to his 
deliverer. But the king of Cashmere, Nara, son of Vibhichana 
and grandson of Ravana, who was also called Kinnara, was in 
love with Chandralekha, and sought to take her from her husband. 
Unable to withstand the kino- Visakha fled with his wife to the 
protection of his father-in-law. Susravas, rising in his might, 
])urst as a storm upon iS'ara, involving him and his Kinnaras in 
utter destruction, while his sister Ramani, arriving too late to 
help her brother, buried the villages of the impious monarch 
under a shower of .stones.^^ This remarkable story points to a 
change of creed, introduced by Paseach as Visakha, and to his 
alliance with the family of Eker, sot forth by Susravas. The con- 
nection of Nara with Ravana and the Kinnaras seems to make 
him of the Rapha family of Abiezer, who married the Kenezzite 
fiathath. Pthah Sokari has of fcen been compared with the Indian 
Budha Sukra; they are the same person.^^ The Sanscrit tradi- 
tion is as confused as the Greek story of the Dardanians, but it 
contains all the elements. Tara, the wife of Brihaspati, was 
carried ofl' bv Soma, and to them was born Budha. The son of 

KaJH Taraiij^niii, L. i. si. '204, .swj. 
(iui;^'iiiaut, I'ocockf, etc. 


Budha and Ila, the daughter of Manu, who was also his son 
Sudyumna, was Pururavas. This Pururavas has been thoroughly- 
identified with Kapha the brother of Paseach, but the Sanscrit 
writings still further confuse the genealogy by making Yasishtha, 
or Ishhod, of Kapha's family, the father of Sukra and of an 
Anagha, who occupies an important place in the line of Paseach. ^^ 
In Greek mythology Paseach is Bias, the brother of Melampus. 
It was the wish of Bias to marr}'' Pero, daughter of Neleus, that 
led Melampus to undertake the expedition to Phylace, to bring 
back from thence the cows that had anciently belonged to Tyro, 
the mother of Neleus, which Iphiclus kept. The brothers are said 
to have shared the throne of Argos and Mycenae with Acrisius the 
son of Abas, but, ns Kapha was the contemporary of Regem, or 
Sargon of Agade, it is evident that tradition has imputed to the 
founders of the Rephaim and Paseachite families that which was 
true only of their descendants. 

The contradictions of Greek tradition are well illustrated in 
the story of Bias. He is called the son of Amythaon, who was 
the brother of Pelias and Neleus, but, while he marries Pero, the 
daughter of Neleus, Pelias marries his daughter Anaxibia. The 
name Anaxabia, however, brings light into the Paseachite genea- 
logy, although the Kenites did not preserve it in that form. In 
early Egyptian history there appears among prophetic and priestly 
names that of Anxhapis. It is the name of a man, not of a woman 
as is Anaxibia. Anxhapis was the son of Imhotep, a pei'son of 
note, celebrated in the Festal Dirge of the Egyptians. 
' I have heard the words of Imhotep and Hartatef. 

It is said in their sayings ; 

After all what is prosperity ? 

Their fenced walls are dilapidated. 

Their houses are as that wliich has ne\'er existed, 

No man comes from tlu^nce. 

Who tells of their sayings, 

Who tells of their atfaii's, 

Who cncoui'agc.'s our hearts. 

V(. go 

to thf placr whcnci' they rrtuiii not."" 

1- Muii-, .Saii.-crit Tt-xt.s. 

I' It-c.nNof 111.- I';ist, i\. 117. 


Imhotep was the son of Pthah, so that he conies between Anxhapis 
and Paseach, or Bias, called the father of Anaxibia. There was 
another writer among the Egyptians called Pthah Hotep, who 
compiled a book of Moral Precepts in the reign of Assa Tatkara 
of the fifth dynasty.^^ His name shows that the family of Pthah 
was associated by the Egyptians with ethical compositions. In 
Eratosthenes' table of Upper Egyptian kings, one called Choma 
Ephta follows ]\jeres Philosophus, and is succeeded by Anchunius 
Ochy ; and, lower down, after Maris, who seems to be a repetition 
of Meres, comes Siphoas Hermes. Cicero calls the Egyptian 
Vulcan not Pthah but Opas, and Pliny says that the son of Vul- 
can was ^Ethiops.^'^ Bryant connects these names with the city 
on the Tigris called Opis, and Sir Henry Rawlinson, recognizing 
the site of that city on the Physcus, a tributary of the Tigris, 
derives the word Physcus from the Assyrian Hupuska.^'^ The 
island of Rhodes was called Ophiussa ; it contained a Physcus 
portus, and Physcus of Caria was under its jurisdiction. The 
Opici inhabited Vescia in Campania, and the neighbouring island 
Pithecusa was famous for its mountain, Epopeus. According to 
Macrobius, Cecrops was the first to introduce the worship of Opis 
into Greece. ^^ For once Bryant has found the truth in his 
laboured etymologizing. He connects with these names the place 
called Oboth, which w'as a stage in the wanderings of Israel some 
distance to the south-east of the Dead Sea, on the borders of the 
two Arabias, Petraea and Felix. ^^ This is where Ptolemy places 
the Ausitae, and the prophet Jeremiah i-epresents the Edomites 
as dwelling in the land of Uz.-'^ The name of Uz, son of Aram, 
has led many Biblical critics to look for the home of Job in the 
Hauran east of Bashan, but there was another Uz, the son of 
Dishan the Horite, who gave his name to the country east of 
Mount Hor, or the Idumean range. ^^ Oboth is a compound of 
the word Ob, denoting first a bottle, but, secondarily and chiefly, 

''' LeiK.rmant, Manual, i. 209. 

"' Cicf'io, Df- Xatiua Deoriim, iii. 22; Pliny, H.N. vi. 35. 

'' IJryant, Analysis (jf Mythology, ii. 203 ; Rawlinson's Herodotus, bk. i. 189, 
note H. 

'** Macroliius. Satui-nalia, i. 10. 

'' Analysis, ii. 21.5 ; Xunib(;rs xxxiv. 43. 

-'J liarncntations iv. 21. 

-I Ci-n. xxxvi. 2S. 


a soothsayer, magician, necromancer, one that has a familiar spirit. 
It is the root also of the name Job, from which it differs only in 
Hebrew by the insertion of the letter yod. When Elihu, the son 
of Barachel the Buzite, said he was ready to burst like new bottles, 
or ohoth, he may have been in all seriousness making a play upon 
the name of the afflicted Job whom he pretended to answer. 
Bryant has not associated the patriarch with the name Oboth, 
but he has rightly shown the signification of that name to be 
python, daemon, and has indicated the divine enactments forbid- 
ding the Israelites to have recourse to Ob, and the fact that the 
witch of Endor was an Ob, or Pythoness. The name is of frequent 
occurrence in the Old Testament. Few things could be more 
unexpected than the relationship of the Vulcan of many lands 
with the patriarch Job. The tradition which, taken from the 
Syriac, is appended to the Septuagint version of the Book ol Job, 
identifies him with Jobab, the son of Zerah of Bozrali, and this 
mischievous piece of fable has had the effect of obscuring the 
whole history of the kings that reigned in Edom, and of turning 
the pious Hittite sage into an Edomite. It is, however, interest- 
ing to find that the Seventy translated the name of Job's third 
daughter, Kerenhappuch, by Amalthaias-kei'as, or the Horn of 
Amalthaea, which is the same as the Cornucoj)iae of the Latins, 
a word that, in form if not in signification, more perfectly rendei's 
the original. This horn of plenty was given by Jupiter to the 
nymph Adrastea, when he had broken it from the liead of tlie 
goat Amalthaea which had suckled him, and tilk-d it with a pi'o- 
fusion of good things. The name Amalthat'a belongs to Mylitta, 
or Moleketh, but it seems to have become in some way tin- pro- 
perty of the line of Paseach, for it denotes a Sibyl of Cyme in 
Asia Minor, who was also called Demophilc and Ik'i'ophilt', and 
who by her own account came from "a counti'v saei-ed to the 
mighty Oj)S."-- Another Sibyl was Demo, who belonged to 
Cumae, a city of the Opici in CampanifT : and another, Sablie, 
whom the Hebrews beyond Pliilistia say was the daughter of 
Bei"osus and Ei-ynianthe.'--'' 'J'licre was also a Samian Sibyl, and 
a Plii'VLjian, who proj)hesie(l at Aiicyi'a. ( 'vine, ( "umae, and Samos 

'-'-' l':ius;iiiias. 
-' I'aiisaiiias. 


were all named after Shema, or Shemaiah, a member of the family 
of Paseach. Trading on the reputation of Job as a prophet, his 
descendants, when they fell away into idolatry, pretended to have 
inherited his spirit, and so disgraced the name of their ancestor 
that it came to be synonymous with necromancy, just as that of 
his great father Paseach has descended, through the Phoenician 
Pataeci, to the modern fetish. The Hapisechim of Jerusalem were 
thus Obim, or necromancers. 

In Sanscrit tradition Job is known as Kapi or Kavi who is 
united with Paseach, as Puskarin, and with the Sankritis who 
represent Sukra or Eker.-^ Through the alliance of the Kavyas 
witii the latter family they became Brahmans of Kshattriya race. 
These Kavyas or Kavis were men of great wisdom, priests and 
composers of hymns, and the name Kavi denotes a poet inspired 
by divinity. The Mahabharata contains a remarkable story in 
which Kavi figures as the father of Sukra Usana, head of the 
Asuras. The Suras under Brihaspati, son of Angiras, fought 
with the Asuras, but with the disadvantage that, while Kavi 
could resuscitate his slain, Brihaspati could not. Therefore the 
Suras sent Katcha, the eldest son of Brihaspati, to Sukra, son of 
Kavi, to learn l\is secret. Katcha was well received by the son 
of Kavi and won the affection of his daughter, Devayani, but 
the Danavas, who hated Brihaspati and feared lest Katcha 
should acquire the wisdom of Sukra, killed him and threw him 
to the jackals. Sukra, at the request of his daughter, restored 
him to life, but a second time the Danavas put him to death, 
and, cutting his body into pieces, threw them into the sea. Once 
more the Kavi revived Katcha. The third time, however, the 
Danavas made away with the Sura prince by burning his body 
to ashes and making Sukra drink the beverage into which they 
tlii'ew them. Then Katcha, wl^en revived by Sukra's magic, 
answered the sage from the recesses of his own person. There 
was no way to restore 'the son of Brihaspati to the world but by 
he sacrifice of himself. Sukra made this sacrifice, and Katcha 
Came forth from the I'cnt body of his teacher, a beino; of celestial 
beauty and endowed with all the dead sage's knowledge. Katcha 
Iwi'] learned his lesson wi'li, and, at once forgetting the hostile 

- Mnii, Sruiscrit Texts. 


mission on which he had come, in gratitude for Sukra's self- 
devotion, restored the son of Kavi to life and honour. ^^ The 
story is apparently full of contradictions, but its important 
feature is the placing of Kavi in the same relation as Budha 
towards Sukra or the Brahmanical family of Eker. In the 
legends of the first Budha, the son of Pururavas called Ayus 
seems to take the place of Kavi. As a Hittite vt^ord, Job is the 
Basque auba, the mouth, but the commoner form is ao or aho, 
and the Iroquois is osa, but in Yenisian, which is Siberian 
Iroquois, the word for mouth is hohii, choboi, and hohui. It is 
remarkable that the Latin os and Iroquois osa should be found 
to designate the same member. 

Job is said to have been the greatest of all the men 
of the East, a statement that at once lifts him out of obscurity 
and demands his recognition among the princes of the time of 
Jabez.-^ His father, Paseach, was the contemporary of Regem, 
whose widow was married by his brother Rapha. If Regem's 
reign came to an end at the same time as that of his father, 
Jachdai, Jabez would be on the throne during Paseach's lifetime. 
Paseach himself was, in all probability, a worshipper of the true 
God, for as the first Budha he seems to have set that example of 
peacefulness which Gautama or Siddharta followed in the sixth 
century before Christ. He belongs, therefore, to the same 
category as the later Saul of Rehoboth, but whether like him he 
was infiu(mced by the practice of Jabez and his prime minister 
Joseph, or l)y the teaching of some true king of Salem, the city 
with whicli his name was afterwards associated, canjiot yet be 
decided. The honour which Pthah received in Egypt must have 
originated in Hycsos' days, at the time when his brothei* Rapha 
adopted the abominations of Baal Peor and allied himself with 
Bela's fh'scendants, the Kcnezzitcs of the Elephantine kingdom. 
The story of Visakh;L in the Raja Tarangini represents him in a 
li;4U)"ativ(' way as a missionary to the JajJietic li^kroiiites, who 
wiTf the gua)'(lians of the throne of the Amenenies. In Irish 
history he is known as h'iachadh, a name somewhat I'esenibling 
tlie (ireek- lie Plia(;stus, l)iit his son Job is passecj o\'er, and 

' .\I;ili;tl)li;uat.'i. AiUiip.-irv.'i, 
- .lol, i. :',. 


Aongus is made his successor.-^ Fiachadh is improperly made 'a 
descendant of Irial, and his father is called Smiorgioll, a name 
which recalls the Simurgh of the Persians. When Buddhism 
was revived in India in the sixth century, B.C., it was invested 
with the historical incidents that pertained to the original 
Budha, Pthah, or Paseach. Among the ancestors of Buddha 
were ranked Chetiya, Upachara, and Muchala, who represent 
Vasishtha, Apsaras, and the father of the Tritsus, in Brahmanical 
tradition. But their ancestor Eshton, of the Kenite list, who is 
the father of Paseach, is the same person as Sudhodana, the 
father of Buddha.-^ As in the story of Visakha the great enemy 
was Nara, so in that of Buddha the demon Mara strives to 
destroy the sage. There seems to have been a revival of Budd- 
hism in the west as well as in the east, preceding that of 
Gautama Buddha b}' fifty years or more. Three names that are 
well authenticated as those of philosophers, who flourished 
between the middle of the seventh and the end of the sixth 
century, B.C., are associated with statements that belong 
properly to the original teacher whose names under different 
disguises they bore.-'-' One of these is Bias of Priene, whose 
name is identical with that of the brother of Melampus. He 
was a just judge and reputed the chief of the seven sages. 
Another is Pittacus, of Mytilene, in Lesbos, who overthrew 
Melanchrus. the tyrant of that island, and gained a victory by 
stratagem over the Athenian commander Phrynon, whom he 
caught in a net. Alcaeus, the poet, with whom he fought against 
xVIelanchrus, afterwards turned against him, reviling his quondam 
friend as 'physcon. the fat and sarapous, the splay-footed. But 
the chief name is that of Pythagoras. Already he has appeared 
in connection with Hittite history as the owner of the slave 
Zamolxis, and as the son of Mnesarchus, two names that set 
forth Samlah of Masrekah. He was a native of Samos, and his 
daughter ])amo, wIkj inherited her father's wisdom, recalls Demo 
the SiV)yl of Cuniae. What is more startling is the statement 
of ])iog<;ncs Laertius that IVthagoras carried geometry to 

-'' K'-atiiip. 

-'* IfardyV Manual. 

-"' l)i()L"-ii<'s I^aertiu.s. 


perfection after Moeris had discovered the elements of the science ; 
for it has been indicated that Eratosthenes places Choma Ephtha 
after Meres Philosophus. His sayings were regarded as the 
oracles of God. He prohibited the taking away of life, offered 
unbloody sacrifices, and taught the doctrine of metempsychosis, 
in all of which respects he resembled Buddha. 

The traditions of the Huron -Iroquois tribes are not numerous, 
but they shed some light upon the history of Paseach and his 
son Job. According to Charlevoix the primitive Huron divinity 
was a woman, Atahentsik, who, being thrown from the sky, was 
received on the back of a turtle. Her grandchildren, the sons of 
her nameless daughter, were Jouskeka and Thawitsaron. Jous- 
keka killed his brother and received from his grandmother the 
government of the world.^ This Jouskeka, or Jouskeha as he 
is sometimes called, is as near as the Hurons can come to Paseach 
or Hubisega, as they are destitute of labials. They call them- 
selves Yendots or Wyandotts, which is the same word as the 
Basque yende, meaning people,although the Basque lexicographers 
derive it from the Latin gen-'i.^^ The Achashtarite origin of the 
Hurons is well vouched for by the name Ahatsistari, the fearless 
man, which is almost hereditary in the line of Huron chiefs.-^'^ 
They also adore the chief person in the junior Achashtarite line, 
namely, Ma Reshah, the namer of the Arish, whom they call 
Areskoui and recognize as the god of war. But the good genius 
of the Hurons is the evil one of the Iroquois, who term him 
Tawiskano, Tawiscara, Saiewiskerat, and also Tehofcennhiaron.^^ 
Tawiscara is the Puskara of the Sanscrit traditions. He persist- 
ently opposed the work of Tharonhiawakon, the holder of the 
heavens, who represents Beth Zur, the namer of Saravene, and 
the Zervan or Zerouane of Persian .story. This Beth Zur was of 
the line of Ma Reshah, the Iro(|uois Agroskoui, from whom, no 
douljt, came tiie much disputed name, Irocpiois, which is just the 
word meaning man, %ariously set forth according to the different 
dialects as onhre, liikn'', rokme. As Tharonhiawakon he was 

' Ui.-ti)ir<' lie- la Nouvellc Knincc, vi. CiO. 

' I'.ti-r I)o(,yi-ntat; Clurkc. WyaiKlottH aii(J <itli;r Indian trilicsnf North .\iu(irica. 
'-' Liiijoiiic, Historical Notes on the I'lnvirons of (,)ui'b(c, II, 17, 11*. 
' Til'' last named, Tehoti'imhiaron, is really a ditFcivnt pi-i-son, hut the lapse of 
ages has confounded liirn with Wisk. 


the maker of the lakes, rivers, and streams, and these, for the 
benefit of mankind, he made without impediment of any kind, 
but the mischievous Tawiscara, a veritable Puck, destroyed his 
brother's work by placing rocks in the water, creating falls and 
rapids that hindered all progress. Tharonhiawakon *found him 
out in his evil deeds, and a conflict took place in which he was 
victorious, for the unhappy Tawiscara had only a blade of grass 
to defend himself with, while the river-maker fought with a 
stag's horn. From the blood that issued from the wounds of 
Tawiscara, kannhia or flint was formed, and from this metamor- 
phosis he received the name of Tehotennhiaron, the letters nnhia 
standing for kannhia. These flints became the Mohawk tribe 
whose name is Kanienke.^* It is evident, therefore, that this 
tradition, which makes Tawiscara an evil genius, was not origin- 
ally a Mohawk one. The Mohawk dialect is most nearly related 
to the Huron. The Buddha or Quetzalcoatl of the Iroquois was 
not Tawiscara, however, but Hiawatha. He appeared mysteriously 
in the realm of Atotarho, King of the Onondagas, a warrior and 
a tyrant. Nothing is said of his family, save that Atotarho ha,d 
put some of them to death. According to one account, the 
dauirhter of Hiawatha met her death through a scheme of the 
Onondaga king, but another states that she was killed by an 
enormous bird that crushed her to atoms. This great bird, at 
the sight of which Hiawatha warned his daughter to prepare for 
her coming doom, is now well known, for it is no other than the 
Harpy, the Stymphalis, the Simurgli, the vulture Lubad. the 
man-eater of Gwenddoleu : but the Iroquois chronicler errs in 
connecting it with Atotarho. Hiawatha had endeavoured to get 
the Onondagas to consent to a great scheme of universal brother- 
hood, involving the total abolition of warfare, but his assemblies 
were always dispersed by the sudden apparition of the terrible 
Atotarho. After the death of his daughter, the peace-loving 
chief sailed in his white canoe to the land of the Caniengas or 
Mohawks, and there succeeded in gaining over Dekanawidah, 
wlu; is supposed not to have been a genuine Canienga. Hiawatha 
was adopted into the Canienga tribe, and was ever afterwards 
reccjgnized as its representative. Then Odatsehte of the Oneidas 

*^' Cuoq, Lcxic)uc de la lanque Iroquoise, 180. 


joined the league, and the three chiefs waited upon Atotarlio, 
but he still refused to have anything to do with the bond of 
peace. The Cayugas were next sought out, and their leader, 
Akahenyonk, entered the league. Atotarho could no longer 
withstand the pressure brought to bear upon him, and, as a chief 
place was given to him in the confederacy, he became as eager to 
extend its influence as he had formerly been to oppose it. By 
his means the powerful Senecas, or more properly Sonontowanes, 
w^ere added to the league under their two chiefs, Kanj'adariyo 
and Shadekaronyes. The league being formed, at the head of it 
was placed Tekarihoken, reported to be a Canienga, but recog- 
nized as the representative of the most ancient Iroquois family, 
while the name of Dekanawidah disappeared from view. Mr. 
Horatio Hale, who has collected some Iroquois traditions, and to 
whom the world is indebted for the text and translation of the 
Iroquois Book of Rites, first committed to writing about a 
century ago, is of the opinion that Hiawatha and the great 
Leafjue belonof to the fifteenth century. While the languao-e of 
the Book of Rites may justify such a date, and the actual names 
contained in it may be found to correspond with those of living 
chiefs, the fact of the League's foundation goes back to the time 
when Chaldean kings of Hittite birth called themselves lords of 
Kiprat Arba or the four races, a title preserved in the Laur 
Cantons or four quarters of the Basque legends, and in the 
Pei'uvian lordship of the four regions of the earth. The Egyptian 
records show that the Hittites were united in Palestine as a con- 
federacy of tribes under a leader whom they call a grand Duke, 
but whom the Hittites themselves no doubt desimiated a Kins 
of Kinfjs.^^ 

The key to the Iroquois riddle is the Canienga name. The 
Caniengas, or as the Abbe Cuo(i calls them Kanienke, are 
American Yeniseians, whose mounds in Asia ri\al those of the 
Ohio and Mississippi. From the Yenisei to the tributaries of the 
Obi this remnant of a once powerful nation dwells, speaking a 
well defined Khitan language, and calling themselves indixidually 
Kliitts Th()S(,' who inhabit Inba/k and Turuchansk call them- 
selves Cfjllectively Kcnniyeng, which is the Kanienke name.'"' 

''' H;tl<-, Tiif; InxjuoiH F'ook nf Kites. 
^' Kl^iprotli, Asia J'<,ly^,'l<,tta. 


Other tribes are Assan, Kottuen, and Arin or Aral. In the times 
of the classical geographers the flint men were known in the 
Caucasus as the Heniochi, and it was reported that their 
ancestors were the charioteers of the Dioscuri.^'' To the present 
day Anzuch is the name of a Lesghian tribe, and the Circassians 
call all the Lesghians Hannoatshe, while the Mizjejians term 
them Sueli. In Sanscrit story the wise king Janaka, who con- 
futes the Brahmans and is contemporary w^ith Vasishtha, appears 
as the ancestor of the Heniochi, and he seems to be the same 
person as Jahnu, descendant of Ayus. The ninefold Angiras, 
also, is connected with Kavi, being taken together with him out 
of the ashes of the lire. But the most lordly representative is 
Gancra, the Gano-es. When this river flowed down from the 
mane of Siva, it overspread the sacred place in which Jahnu 
was exercising himself in devotion. Irritated by this want of 
respect, the sage drank up the entire river, and it was only after 
the earnest entreaties of the gods and rishis had been addressed 
to him, that he allowed the imprisoned stream to flow forth from 
his ears. Hence the Ganores is called Jahnavi, the daughter of 
Jahnu. The Angiras also were drinkers up of rivers.^*^ In 
Eratosthenes' list of Upper Egyptian Kings, Anchunius Ochy 
follows Choma Ephta. In Grecian legendary history Anaxagoras, 
called the son of Argeius and grandson of Megapenthes, shared 
the throne of .Vrgos with Bias and Melampus. In Buddhist 
story Hansa is the king of birds, and when Gautama cut off his 
hair on becoming a recluse, it soared into the heavens and 
assumed the form of a The Arabs are said to call the 
ibis of the Nile Abu Hansa. This introduces the Arabian Anka 
whicli ranks with the Harpy and the Simurgh as the devourer of 
the people of Al Ras. Some writers say that Schoaib, the son o^ 
Mi kail, or descendant of Hanoch, was the prophet who preached 
to the p(.'0])le of Al Rass, and that, on their failing to believe him, 
the earth opened and swallowed them up. Others make the 
]jropliet Handha ebn Safwan, whom the Rassites disregarded and 
in consef|uence were devoured b\^ the Anka.^" In Irish history 

" Strabo ft ;tl. 

"'' Muir, Sanscrit Ti-xt- ; liaiuayaiia. 

"'* Hardy's .Manual. 

"' Sal.-V K..nii.. 


the son of Fiachadh is Aongus, a ^reat warrior who defeated in 
thirty battles the Scots, Picts, and Firbolgs^^ The story of 
Hengist the Saxon, as told by the British chroniclers has already 
been found to lie in a lapful of very ancient traditions. Dr. 
Latham, quoting largely from Kemble, says : " The account of 
Hengist's and Horsa's landing has elements which are fictional 
rather than historical. Thus when we find Hengist and Horsa 
approaching the coast of Kent in three kebls, and Aelli effecting 
a landing in Sussex with the same number, we are reminded of 
the Gothic tradition which carries a migration of Ostrogoths, 
Visigoths, and Gepidae, also in three vessels to the mouth of the 
Vistula. The murder of the British chieftains by Hengist is 
told tot idem verbis by Widukind and others, of the old Saxons 
in Thuringia. Geoffrey of Monmouth relates also how Hengist 
obtained from the Britons as much land as could be enclosed by 
an ox-hide ; then cutting the hide into thongs, enclosed a much 
larger space than the granters intended, on which he erected 
Thong Castle ; a tale too familiar to need illustration, and which 
runs throughout the mythus of many nations. Among the Old 
Saxons the tradition is in reality the same, though recorded with 
a slight variety of detail. In their story a lapfull of earth is 
purchased at a dear rate from a Thuringian ; the companions of 
the Saxon jeer him for his imprudent bargain ; but he sows the 
purchased earth upon a large space of ground, which he claims, 
ami by the aid of his conn-adcs ultimately wrests it from the 
Tliuringians." ^-' Di*. Latham also shows that the so-called Jutes 
who came cn'er with the Saxon invaders were no Germans but 
the pe<jple of Vectis or the Isle of Wight. Now Hengist was 
tlie si)u of Vihtgils, of Vitta, of Vecta, of Odin ; what is this 
lut Aongus of Fiachadh, and the Indian Janaka, King of Mdeha, 
and the Iro([Uois Kanienke, derived from the blood of Tawis- 
kura."*-' Tilt! man whose name explains these genealogies is in 
tlic Kenite list Hanoeh or Chanoeli, called the son (jf llcuben.'*'* 
Iifuben had a si^n of tliat iiaiiu', but he was not the father of 

'" K.-;itin;<. 

'' [j;itli.iiii, I ramlljiMpk of the Mii^,'listi Ii;uii,'u;i;;'t', |)t. i. cli. i. 

Tin- Chmcli Hi-t'iri:uis ni Vai'^]:mi\, .S:i\(jn L'hruniclr, rtc, p. :^\. 

" 1 Cliinii. V. :i. 


Joel.*^ In Norse story Hanoch is Yngvi the head of the Ynglin- 
gians, whose festival of Yule was held at Rugen on the Baltic.^^ 
There were two Joels, one the son of Hanoch, who was the father 
of Shemaiah and grandfather of Gog ; the other, the son of 
Acharchel and father of Shema. But Hiawatha, the man of 
peace and chief of the Caniengas, is Job in the topographical 
form Oboth, the father of Hanoch and son of Paseach. 

Further proof of the identity of Tawiscara, the ancestor of 
the Kanienke, and Paseach, is found in the coincidence of two 
American traditions. Cusick, the author of The History of the 
Six Nations, relates that when the Iroquois in their migrations 
came to the Ohio, they found an enormous grape-vine trailing 
across the river from bank to bank. By means of this natural 
bridge a large number of the people made their way to the other 
side, but the vine suddenly broke, so that many were unable to 
cross. Those who remained behind became the enemies of those 
who had passed over.^'' With this may be compared the story 
told to Catlin by the Mandan chiefs. " The Mandans (Seepohskah) 
were the first people created in the world, and they originally 
lived inside of the earth ; they raised many vines, and one of 
them had grown up through a hole in the earth overhead, and 
one of their young men climbed up it until he came out on the 
top of the ground on the bank of the river where the Mandan 
village stands. He looked around and admired the beautiful 
country and prairies about him, saw many buffaloes, killed one 
with his bow and arrows, and found that its meat was good to 
eat. He returned and related what he had seen ; when a number 
of others went up the vine with him and witnessed the same 
things. Amongst those who went up were two verj^ pretty 
young women, who were favourites of the chief's because they 
were virgins ; and amongst those who were trying to get up was 
a very large and fat woman, who was ordered by the chief not 
to go up, but whose curiosity led her to try it as soon as she got 
a secret opportunity, when there was no one present. When she 
got part of the way up the vine broke under the great weight of 

*' Numb. xxvi. 5. 

^* Mallet's Northern Antiquities. 

*'' Hale, Iroquois Book of Rites. 


her body and let her down. She was very much hurt by the 
fall but did not die. The Mandans were very sorry about this ; 
and she was disoraeed for being the cause of a very great 
calamity, which she had brought upon them, and which could 
never be averted ; for no more could ever ascend, nor could those 
descend wiio had got up ; but they built the Mandan village 
where it formerly stood, a great ways below on the river ; and 
the I'emainder of the people live underground to this day." *^ 
Catlin remarked the light complexion, the blue and grey eyes, of 
many Mandans, and imagined that he had found the lost crew of 
the Welsh Madoc. He also mentions their round skin coracles, 
blue glass beads of their own manufacture, and the identity in 
pattern of the pottery which he saw the Mandan women make 
with that found in the mounds. The true name of the Mandan 
stock seems to have been Wahtana, which is a variation of 
Eshton, the name of the father of Paseach. Among the Esthonians 
of the Baltic the name of Paseach is not prominent, but one of 
their divisions is Ungannia, representing Hanoch.^^ The Mandan 
name Seepohskah, said to mean the pheasant, is the Circassian 
Schapsuch answering to the Hittite Khupuscia, the Basque 
Guipuscoa, and the Akkadian god, Hubisega. The Iro(|Uois and 
Mandan tales are of the same origin as the well known Jack of 
the Bean Stalk. But this legend is generally associated with the 
name of Hanocli. Thus the great abyss of Norse mytliology is 
the Ginnunga-gap, and this is the fatal chasm in the realm of the 
Phr3'gian Midas, which closed only when Anchurus, his son, like 
the Roman Mettus Curtius, leaped into it and gave rise to the 
weeping of Annacus. Again it is linked with Ancaeus, the 
Samian, to whom a prophet intimates that he shall not drink of 
tlie fruitage of his vineyard, a prophecy which he answers by 
raising a cup of new wine to his lips, when he is told that a 
wild V)()ar is i*avaging his vines ; leaving the cup untasted, he 
gofs to meet the enemy and falls a victim to his tnsks. From 
this incident ai-ose the proverb : 

" Tlierf's many a sli]i 

' Twixt the cu|> and the lip.'' 

<* Catlin, Xortli American Indians, i. 17S. 
Maltft I'.run, \ i. 


And he is Ocnus who twists a rope of hay which a she ass 
devours as fast as he makes it ; an industrious man with an 
expensive wife, thinks Pausanias, but at any rate he who gets 
nothing for his pains twists the rope of Ocnus. Ocnus also is a 
bird, the most beautiful of all the heron tribe, in which appears 
the Indian Hansa and Arabian Anka. As Oeneus of Calydon, 
the father of Deianira, wife of Hercules and mother of Hyllus, 
he is still the same as the Samian Ancaeus, for he also is a planter 
of vines, but, neglecting to honour Artemis after a rich harvest, 
the Calydonian boar destroys all the labour of his hands. Once 
more he is Gunadhya who has written a poem of unparalleled 
ength with his own blood. It is in the Pisacha dialect, however, 
and King Satavahana will not give the price asked for it. Then 
Gunadhya ascends a mountain and begins burning his composi- 
tion, surrounded by all the beasts of the forest, who shed tears 
of rapture as they listen to the beautiful verses. Satavahana, 
falling sick asks for game, but none can be had as all the animals 
are listening to the story of the poet. Thereupon, like the 
second Tar(|uin, he is compelled to pay the original price for the 
seventh part- that remains. In the case of the Cumaean Sibyl, 
two thirds of her composition was love's labour lost. So far as 
the meaning of these stories can be peneti'ated they seem to 
contain the record of two distinct events, the separation of 
elements once united, and a fall from prosperity to adversity. 
The latter, which is also illustrated hy the Buddhist story of 
Wessantara, a predecessor of Gautama, and by the Sanscrit 
legend of Harischandra, refers to Job the father of Hanoch ; and 
thei-e is every reason to believe that the separation of tribes once 
united, and the union of the disunited by the self-sacrifice of one 
man, as in the case of Anchurus, refer to the same patriarch. 

The Iro'juois legend of Hiawatha places at the head of the 
confederacy Tekarihoken, " who represents the noblest lineage of 
the Iro(juois stock." This is undoubtedly a disguised Regem or 
Sargon (jf Agade, no Mohawk, therefore, but an Akkadian, 
Jachdaite, or Adite, belonging to the Zuzimite family of 
Achu/ani, the first born of Ashchur, the Hittite father. The 
name I't.'karihoken, which in the plural becomes Tehadii'ihoken, 
is compounded of kc riJu), a wild beast, which makes kontiriho 


in the plural. The chief so called is the same as the Riozin or 
dragon god of the Japanese. He is Regeni the originator of the 
name Ka-Regem-ish or Carchemish, whicii became the Hittite 
metropolis and seat of the Hittite Kings of Kings. The con- 
fusion of his name with the Caniengas or Mohawks arose out of 
the luiion of his descendant Aharhel with a daughter of Hanoch, 
the Paseachite, and out of the double union of these two families 
with the Buzites, descended from the Japhetic Eker, from which 
latter union originated all the traditions of white men preserved 
by the Regemites and Paseachites in many lands, and from which 
also may have been derived the fairer complexion and Indo- 
European features which Catlin and others have observed in 
some American Indian tribes. The Onondagas, whose name 
comes from ononfes, a mountain, are the Haniathites, but the 
Hamathites of the line of Rechab and Beeri, for their chief is 
Atotarho, the great warrior, the same as Hadadezer and the 
Sanscrit Yudisthira, who, aiming at universal authority, never- 
theless allied himself with Krishna or Regem agfainst the Zere- 
thite Kurus and their Midianite allies. The Senecas or Sonon- 
towane are but another Hamathite line, the initial s being of 
Elamite origin, for in Elam Hamath became Sumudu ; and as 
the Iroqucns have lost in, with the other labials, two ns have to 
do duty for that letter. But the Elamite Hamathites were of 
the two lines of Ezra and Salma, so they have two representa- 
tives, of whom one, Kanadariyu, is an Iro(|uois Gedoi" in the 
Gandhara, Centaur and Gunther form of the name. Shadeka- 
ronyes, the other Seneca chief, is harder to account for. but the 
name is well identified with the Gedor line, being the same as 
Satakarni, a name that occurs thrice in the Indian list of Andhra 
kings, whose name connects them with Indivi or . I ether. The 
family of Gedtjr was at first in league witli the Zerethites, but 
afterwards seems to iiave jcjined the sons of Naarah. Three of 
the allii'il ehitjfs n\ust for tluj piesent disptmse with recognition. 
Thesi' are J )ekanawi(lah, the; Mohawk or Canienga, Odatsehte 
the Oneida, an Iro((uois (Jdysseus, and Akahenyonk, the Cayuga. 
The iKUiif of l)('kan;i\vi(lali I'i'scinblcs tiiat of flu; Andhra King 
Skatnlhaswati. He niay thus possibly be the Ix-ad of tlu; Neto- 
phatliitcs of the family ol' (y'liedoi'laoincr, a GrtM^k Antiphates, 


and historical Egyptian Numhotep. Supposing this to be the 
case, we can assert the contemporaneousness of Regem, Hadad, 
Gedor, the son of Jered, Netophath, and Job, the son of Paseach, 
who are Tekarihoken, Atotarho, Kanadariyu, Dekanawidah, and 
Hiawatha, although the latter must have been the younger, 
belonging virtually to the next generation. The so-called League 
of the Iroquois, founded by these men about the time that Joseph 
was sold into Egypt, was the original Amphictyonic League of 
the Greeks. Amphictyon, its founder, is indeed called a son of 
Deucalion, but the feminine form Amphictyone is always con- 
nected with the name of Phthius. In the league were found 
Thessalians or Zocharites, Phthiotes or Paseachites, Malians or 
Mahalaites, Perrhaebians or Rephaim, Q^teans or Jahdaites, 
Phoceans or Japhetic Buzites, Dolopes or Eliphazites, and other 
tribes, some of Hittite, others of purely Hellenic origin ; but it 
is very unlikely that all of these constituted the primitive 
League which seems to have embraced only the four tribes 
descended from Ashchur and Naarah, although there seems to be 
evidence that the Zocharites and the Aryan Ekronites had 
representation in its councils. 

While Carcheraish was regarded in the time of Hittite domi- 
nation in Syria and Mesopotamia as the centre of the confedei'acy, 
it does not appear that the ruler of that city had any extensive 
region under his immediate control. In this I'espect Khupuscia, 
or Thapsacus, was superior to Carchemish, its king being called 
the kinfj of the Nairi and, sometimes, the kin^ of the Hittites.-''^ 
The Nairi occupied all northern Mesopotamia and overspread its 
limits into Syria and Armenia. Thus Paseach's line acquired 
great reputation, displacing in point of authority that of his elder 
brother Kapha. The name of Hanoch survived among the Nairi, 
or Mehii'ites, as Yanzu, designating more than one king of Khu- 
puscia.''^ The Nairi of the New World were the Mexican Nahuatl 
and the Nicaraguans. The story of their advent in seven vessels 
is obscure, but it is stated that they brought with them a deity 
env(iloped in sacred wrappings, some Buddhist relic probably, who 

Records (if tlic Past. 
Rf'Cords of tli<? Past, vii 


was known as Opu, or the invisible.^- Opu, however, is not an 
Aztec word, nor do we know what reason the chronicler had to 
translate it by the invisible. It is the Ob, Opis, Opus, of the 
Hebrews and Greeks, the latter of whom Pindar sets forth in his 
ninth Olympic, with Opuntian Locris and the Oilean Ajax, as the 
son of Zeus and Protogenia, Deucalion's daughter.^^ There was 
a Protogenia, daughter of Calydon, who, as Gilead the Buzite, is 
more likely to have been the relative of Job than the long departed 
Zochar. Homer seems to have known the patriarch by fame in 
his land of Uz, for he represents Jupiter as turning away from 
Troy to look upon those most just men, the milk-fed Abii, and 
the Mysians and Thracians.^* Indian writers ascribe his virtues 
to his son Hanoch, calling Janaka the father of his people, although 
the afflicted sajre, dissruised as Suvarna, Janaka's father, is made 
a distributer of gold to the poor. Janaka was constantly engaged 
in meditating upon the life to come, which gave him a tranquil 
mind. " And these words were repeated by the king of Mithila, 
when he beheld the city enveloped in fire, ' nothing of mine is 
burnt here,' so said the king to himself." 

" Though worldly i)e]f I own no more. 
Of wealth I have a boundless store ; 
While Mithila the flames devour, 
My goods can all defy their power." 55 

The life of the philosopher Anaxagoras appears to contain ele- 
ments that belong to Hanoch, who has already been identified 
with the Argive monarch of that name, or rather to his father. 
Job. He was told that his disregard of earthly things indicated 
a want of love for his country, when, pointing to heaven, he 
replied : " I have the greatest affection for it." When told of the 
ileath of his children wliom he buried with his own hands he 
answered : " I knew that I was the father of mortals." The 
account of his trial for impiety and his appearance before his 
ju'lLres, worn to a shadow and stricken with disease that moved 
all liearts to pity, even liis release at the recjuest of Pericles and 

- i; de I'ourtxiiirg, Nations civilist'cs, i. 109. 

Pindar, ( 'lyinp, ix. 
-* Iliad, xiii. fJ. 
'' Raja Tarangini ; Muir's Sanscrit Texts, i. 42t), seq. 


his death at Lampsacus, are strange coincidences with Job's story, 
i'or he was a man of Paseach, and Barachel, the Buzite, was his 
friend. One touching request of the philosopher was his last ; 
when the governors of Lampsacus asked what they could do for 
him ; " Let the children play every year during the month of my 
death." ^^ It will be difficult to separate from the stories of Paseach 
and Hanoch the facts that pertain to the life of the greater son 
of the one and father of the other. 

^ Diogenes Laertius. 



The Hittites in Palestine and the Neighbouring 
Countries before the Rise of the Assyrian Empire 


The Iroquois tradition, which is connected with the life history 
of that indomitable race, and which there is, therefore, no reason 
to doubt, represents Job as suffering frorp tyranny, and that the 
tyranny of Hadad in Gebalene. Now, Job's home was there in 
the very heart of ITadad's kingdom, but the story of the bird that 
killed Hiawatha's daughter belongs to Samlah's time. In his 
youth the hermit of Uz must have been a man of great activity 
and of powers of organization. It is not unlikely that, with the 
aid of the Hepherite Netophath, he organized a league of the 
Hittite peoples with a view to universal brotherhood, so thoroughly 
congenial to a heart that beat with the warmest sympathy for 
want and suffering. One naturally asks whence did he derive his 
pure faith ? Did it belong to him only in late years, the result 
of the great religious movement that took place in the reign of 
the Egyptian Jabez ; did it come through the alliance of his family 
with godly Midianites ; or was it the effect of the teaching of some 
later Melchizedek, in that Jerusalem which preserved his father's 
memory as that of a heathen god in after days ? There is reason 
to think that his affliction came upon him in what would now be 
middle-age, and that he could not have been indebted to the teacli- 
ing of Josepli's Pharaoh for his creed. He, therefore, represents 
.m early protest against growing idolatry and superstitious ritfs 
of the foulest and most murderous kind, tlieu in vogue in Baby- 
lonia and Egypt. His enemies were not Hittites nor Amoritus, 
but Cliasdim descended from Aljraham's brother Nalun", and 
Sabaeans of the family of Cush. His tliree friends wei'e Hittites 
like himself, representing three branches of the I'ace. There was 
lOliphiiz, tin; 'i\naanite, a S(jn perhaps of Husliani, who had been 
king in (jlel)alene, the namer, it may be, (jf tin; fJebel el Tarfuyeh 


near Zerkeh, which, as an ancient Delphi purged for a time from 
idolatry, was the meeting place of the League. And with him 
sat Bildad the Shuhite, belonging to the branch of the Achash- 
tarite family in which MaReshah ranked highest, the nearest, 
therefore to Job in tribal kinship. And the third, Zophar the 
Naamathite, was of the race of Zochar, for the Naamathites were 
descended from Naam, the son of Caleb, the son of Jephunneh, 
whose father was Ephron the Hittite. It is strange that of the 
three lines of Hepher which contributed so largely to the League, 
no member came to condole with the afflicted patriarch, and that 
the Achuzamites of Egypt and Akkad stood aloof from him. But 
there was a young man present, whose father must have been 
Job's friend, a man of foreign race and alien blood, whether he 
came from the Maaleh Acrabbim, south of the Dead Sea, or from 
Phai'aoh's guard-house at the mines of Sinai, Elihu, the son of 
Barachel the Buzite, of the kindred of Ram, a warrior, doubtless, 
like all his race and a descendant of the great king Cecrops. 
That the League was formed by this time is evidenced by the 
representation of five distinct families in the company, composed 
of the Chelubite sage and his four friends. They may have been 
members with him of the great Council. The 29th chapter of 
Job .shows the high position which he held in Gebalene, and inti- 
mates that he was a warrior as well as a righteous judge and a 
man of great benevolence, for he " bi-ake the jaws of the wicked 
and plucked the spoil out of his teeth ;" he chose out also the way 
of the people, " and dwelt as a king in the army." ^ But in the 
following chapter the work that he had done in consolidating the 
tribes and reclaiming them from a life of rapine, barbarism, and 
misery is well set forth in contrast with the treatment which he 
received at the hands of those for whose welfare the best years 
of his life had been spent. " For want and famine they were 
solitary, fleeing into the wilderness, in former time desolate and 
waste. Wlio cut up mallows by the bushes and juniper roots for 
their meat. They were driven forth from among men ; they cried 
aft(-r thciii as after a thief; to dwell in the clitls of the valleys, 
in caves of the eai'th and in the rocks. Among the bushes they 
bi-axed : uinh-r the nettles they were gathered together. They 
' .r.i. xxix. 17, '.ir). 


were children of fools, yea, children of base men ; they were viler 
than the earth. And now am I their song, yea, I am their by- 
word."- Such were the younger men that had the patriarch in 
derision, whose fathers he would have disdained to have set with 
the dogs of his flock. This evidence is very striking. The wars 
of Chederlaomer, of Bela, and Jobab, arw:l Husham, and Hadad, 
had demoralized the Hittites of Gebalene. A numerous people, 
they were without organization. Tribe fought against tribe, and 
rising nations, less numerous but more united, were already begin- 
ning to make them a prey. The most of the tribes were, doubt- 
less, the vagabonds that Job describes them as being when he 
undertook their cause. He had united them, given them peace 
and a strong government, so that a judge was on the earth again 
and prosperity abounded. The inwardness of Job's grief is 
apparent. A prophet of the true God, a lover of peace, a preacher 
of unity and the benefits of a well regulated national life, he had 
had hard work to gain acceptance for his reforms. In the pros- 
perity that followed the reception of his counsels he had, no doubt, 
told the people to behold the divine blessing, heaven's justification 
of his advice and efforts. And now he, the doer of it all, the man 
above all others who, speaking humanly. Providence should bless, 
is suddenly smitten, not only by the Chasdim and Sabaeans, mere 
human foes, but by heaven's elements, fire, and hurricane, and 
loathsome disease. What wonder, when his own wife said to him 
''' Curse God and die," that those whom he had weaned from Baal 
Peor and Tannnuz, seeing in their teacher one, 

" Wh<iin unmerciful' disaster 
Followed fast and followed faster," 

should regard his sufferings as the judgments of the gods whom 
he had dethroned, an(i deride their chief earthly benefactor as a 
false pi-oph('t and a fit victim of the anger of outraged deity ! 
Even the four friends, who had not lost their faith in God, could 
not undei'stand the .succ(^ssion of strokes, save as acts of punish- 
ment foi" sin c(jnniiitted, for histoiy, down to their time, presented 
no pHi-allel case ; and, long since their time, the world hiis been 
slow to eoni])rehend, oi- I'athei' to .i])])i-ehend, the great problem 

.Jul) x\.\. :!-!. 


of the permission of evil, physical as well as spiritual, in the earth, 
a cause of suffering to God and man, and thus to those who are 
God's men as well as to the rest of humanity. Job saw his God 
dishonoured and his great work nigh to dissolution. The chief 
councillors among the kings stood aloof from his sick-bed ; Regem 
and Hadad, and Gedor,.and Netophath, and Pelet, were unrepre- 
sented even by members of their tribes. The League was a rope 
of sand. Add the story of Hiawatha to that of Job, and some 
idea may be formed of the poignancy of the great statesman's 
anofuish. Could he but have seen himself down the ages as an 
Ob or Fetish man, the chief representative of that devil worship 
his soul abhorred, he would have had yet greater cause to lament 
the day on which he was born. It was his revived greatness that 
brought this change about, and made him an object of superstitious 
adoration. The Lesghian Andi seem to be the only people among 
the northern Khitan who made him their supreme god under the 
name of Zob, but the Latin Jove is likely the same word, picked 
up from the Hittite Opici of Campania. That doubtful honour 
was conferred more largely upon his father Paseach and his son 
Hanoch, as the Circassian Pkhah, the Lesghian Betschet, the 
Mordwin Paas and Shkipaas,the MaskokiEfikisa,and the Peruvian 
Apachic; and as the Circassian Antsha, Basque Jainko, and Koriak 
Angan. Zophar the Naamathite, the son of Nacham, or Nagam, 
who was the father of Keilah, or Kagilah the Garmite, is men- 
tioned by Apollonius of Rhodes, who calls him Nasamraon 
Caphareus.^ Apollonius makes a nymph Acacallis, who is Kagilah, 
the mother by Apollo of Garamas, who is Garmi, the son of 
Kagilah ; and this Garamas is the father of Nasammon Caphareus, 
or Zophar, the son of Nacham. The Abbo Santa Maria picked up 
some remarkable e^enealoo-ies in Seneo^ambia relatinoj to the his- 
tory of the ancient world, which contain elements of truth mingled 
with much fable or confusion of fact. In one of his Egyptian 
dynasties he has the name Kaphranahom, but, unhappily, it is in 
the midst of elements having no connection with the Zocharite 
11 ne.^ It is useful, however, as showing the constant association 

' 1 Chron. iv. 19 ; Argdiiaiitic-s, iv. 1400, mq. 

' La Tradition Vivaiite des N(,'gres, Actcs dc la Socii'te d'Etbiioi,'rapliit\ Tome iii 
Paris, 1X71, ]>. 7'J. 


of Zophar and Naham as in Nasammon Caphareus, and indicates 
that Capernaum, or Capharnaura, preserved the name of the friend 
of the patriarch, as the Carian Bargylia became a memorial of 
Barachel the Buzite. Apollonius finds his Acacallis, Garamas, 
and Nasammon Caphareus in Cyrene, which is full of traces of 
the tribe of Zochar, but which was also a genuine Greek colony 
founded by the Ekronites or Buzites. The story of this colony 
told by the father of history, in which Battus represents a Buz, 
and Arcesilaus, a related Aharhel, is in entire consistency with 
the union of the three lines set forth in the fifth chapter of First 
Chronicles ; but to follow out every trail indicated in the march 
of early Hittite history would be to tell the story of all the 
ancient world.^ 

Job, in all probability, removed from Oboth in the land of 
Uz to Memphis in Egypt, where his father was honoured as 
Pthah, and himself, perhaps, as Hapi the god of the Nile. His 
family was one of river namers. In northern Syria, Paseach's 
name was given to the Oronte.s as the Thapsacus. and the 
Assyrian Physcus, on which Opis was situated, honoured him. 
Hanoch or Chanoch named the Ganges, the Yenisei, and the 
Canif'nga or Mohawk river in the State of New York. So Job 
replaced the Nahaliel or Nile name derived from Jehaleleel with 
his own as Hapi. Far away in Siberia it was transported to 
name the Obi, and in the New World the Ohio was originally 
the beautiful mouth. The removal to Egypt took place in the 
reign of Jabez, who gathered around his court a galaxy of noble 
men. In Memphis proper or in the military suburb of Sakkara, 
Aharhel the son of Harum married Job's grand-daughter, the 
daught(!r of his son Hanoch and sister of the older Joel, from 
whom descended in successive generations Shemaiah, Gog, Shimei, 
Micah, Reaiah, Baal and Beerah.'' But the son of Aharhel was 
the younger Joel named after his maternal uncle, a ti'ue Hyllus 
son of Hercules, and his son was Shema the father of Azaz and 
tlio grandfather of Bela.'' These twin lines of Paseach and 
Pegeiu were, with the Buzites of Eker, the wise men of tlu; 

1 1. T.. (lot. iv. ].>> : 1 Cluon. v. 
1 Chroii. V. 4. 
1 Cliroii. V. 8. 


Hycsos line, and the soldiers who gave it victory for a century 
over all its foes. By the commingling of the two stories, known 
among the Greeks as the Trojan War and The Seven against 
Thebes, in British tradition, the posterity of Hanoch became the 
Saxon Hengist, enemy of Hadar or Eidiol, confused with Conan 
Meriadawc, or Baalchanan the holder of sovereignty in Gebalene. 
When Philistim and Caphtorim were at length driven out of 
the land of the Pharaohs, the three races, leaving a body of 
Ekronites in Philistia and the plains of Sharon to the north of it, 
made their way to Bashan, the old home of the Paseachites, and 
there began the foundation of that Hittite sovereignty which 
Carchemish and Thapsacus presided over in Mesopotamia and 
Syria. There is one fact associated with this abode of the tribes 
that the historian can hardly record without regret ; it is that 
Og or Gog, for the name begins with an ay in, the King of 
Bashan who fell by the arms of Joshua, was of the line of 
Paseach and Job, for in no other connection does the name occur, 
and the testimony is clear that he who reigned in Ashtaroth and 
Edrei was of the remnant of the Rephaim. Yet this Og can 
hardly have been the Gog of the genealogy, who, unless some 
generations containing names of no historical importance have 
been suppressed, is the fourth in descent from Job. Gog 
may, however, be the first Lydian Gyges, the contemporary and 
friend of Magnes, who is Meon or Megon the great-grandson of 
Hebron the son of Mareshah, and the father of Beth Zur. The 
traditions of Job, or, to use the Iroquois name, Hiawatha, must 
have survived among these men of Bashan constituting the 
strength of the Hittite tribes, as by them they were led to seek 
continually the revival and extension of their confederacy. 

For the history of the Hittites in Canaan and the neighbour- 
ing countries prior to the conquest of Joshua, the Egj^ptian 
monuments are the chief authority. Without their aid, tradition 
could only furnish vague conjecture. Unhappily, however, there 
are no Egyptian records of conquest in Palestine giving definite 
information before the reign of Israel's oppressor, the third 
Thothnies and second Ramescs. In an inscription of Una, a high 
officer of Teta and Pepi Merenra, the Anm of the Herusha are 
spoken of as an inimical and conquered people, but the region 


occupied by them is not indicated. The conjunction of the 
names Amu and Herusha suggests the Ma Reshethites of the 
Emim, who were no Joubt enemies of Hadad ; but their being 
mentioned along with the land of Khent or Kenuz and with the 
negroes, makes the identification doubtful.^ The first inscription 
that records northern warfare is that of Aahmes the son of Bana. 
His father, Bana, son of Reant, had been an officer, of Sekenen 
Ra of the ancient line of Jaaken, who alone disputed sover- 
eignty with the great Aahpeti. Aahmes entered the service 
of Neb-Pehti-Ra, who should from his name be Ziph the grand- 
son of Jabez or Aahpeti, but who is generally made the same as 
Aahmes or Mesha, the father of Ziph. He also served under 
Amenophis I. or Meonothai, the adopted son of Mesha, and under 
Thothmes I. or the first Tahath, who was Mesha's nephew, being 
the son of Bered and a daughter of Jabez. All of these so-called 
kings were vicegerents under Jabez who survived them. It 
follows that the war in which Aaiimes took part was not carried 
on aofainst the Hvcsos, inasmuch as Jabez was himself the chief 
Hycsos Pharaoh. He fought in Nubia and apparently against 
the revolting; Kenezzites of that region, but his chief cam- 
paign was at Avaris where warfare was carried on by land 
and by water. The name of the enemy who had taken pos- 
session of Avaris is not mentioned, but as a later campaign 
was made in Mesopotamia against the Rutennu, and as Sharhana, 
supposed to be Sharuhen in southern Palestine, was a city to 
which the expelled from Avaris were followed, a city that lay 
within the domain of the Geshurites, the inference is that the 
Zerethites or Cherethites were the offenders, an inference justified 
h)y the maritime superiority of that people.'' The Zerethites 
had been expelled from Egypt shortly after the reign of Ziph or 
Cheops, and their fortunes had been shared by part of the family 
of the Kenite Ezra or Gezra, which had been allied with them 
throuf'h the union of Ezra's son, Mered, to Bithia the daughter 
of Cheops. Thus the Geshurites descended from the Clierethite 
Jesher, the Gezrites of Ezra, and the Amalekites, were the chief 
occupants of southern Palestine during the Hycsos or Acliuza- 

R.cciii,- of tljf PiiHt, ii. 'A. 

K(VT(J> of the Piist, vi. 5. 


mite rule in Egyyt. Sisyphus made another attempt to ascend 
the hill of Egyptian sovereignty. In the language of the 
Hittites this attempt would be represented as a rolling of the 
ball towards the goal of the enemy, for much of their historical 
imagery is taken from the national game played still in the 
Pyrenees, on the plains of Siberia, in Japan, and all over the 
North American continent, and popularly known as Lacrosse. 
The Quiche traditions frequently set forth warlike contests as 
games of ball. The Zerethites then had summoned the players, 
including the descendants of Zabu and Apil Sin, the Asherites or 
Assuru of Assyria, the men of Ardon or the Rutennu of Mesopo- 
tamia, their brethren, the Geshurites of the south, the Midianites 
or Zimrites preparing to ascend the throne of Gebalene, the 
Gezrites of Kenite birth, and the Amalekites whose supremacy 
as the first of the nations was gone ; and with these they tossed 
the ball of defiance towards the Hycsos goal of Avaris. Between 
the and Avaris lay the men of Rosh, descendants of 
Mareshah and sons of Hebron, and near at hand wei'e the 
Heraclidae descended from Regera, the Maachathites of Relet, 
and the Goshenites of Geshan. These defenders of Egypt could 
not withstand the shock of the men of the north ; they were 
driven back before the players of the game of death, and reached 
Avaris, the stronghold of the empire, only in time to find the 
Cherethite fleet in occupation of the city. Thus the stone was 
rolk"] up. and the ball planted in the enemy's goal. Rut Sisyphus 
was to meet Sisyphus. Another Ziph, a second Typhon, grand- 
son of Aahpeti, stemmed the invading tide by land and sea, and 
the pestilence was driven out of Avaris and back to its Palestinian 
home. The revenge game was well played, and the Hycsos ball 
went triumphantly through and through the goals of Cherethite 
ambition and sovereignty. This was probably the time when 
the Rosh. smarting under recent defeat, captured Kirjath Arba 
and caller! it Hel:)ron after the son of their eponym, when 
Tappuah. Maon, and Beth Zur, were colonized or garrisoned l)y 
them, and wlu-n they planted Mareshah in the vicinity of 
SliJirnlien, with Kubeibeh near at hand to mark the ancient 
friends! lip !)etween tluit hero and Zobebah the mother of Jabez, 
their Pliaraoli. Tlie Captain General of marines followed the 


victorious Egyptian armies northward into Mesopotamia, and 
helped to smite the Cherethite Rutennu in that distant land. 
This appears to have been the chief disturbing event in the long 
reign of Jabez. In it also may be seen the beginning of the 
long struggle between barbaric cruelty and superstition and the 
principles of enlightenment and humanity, which marked the 
life of Saul of Rehoboth, after whose death the Zerethite became 
triumphant, and, under the son of Achhor, stained all the altars 
of Palestine with the blood of human victims. The Dardanian 
war that followed was more than a quarrel over a faithless 
woman : it was a contest between light and darkness, a i-eliu'ious 
war fraught with the most momentous consequences to the human 
race. Had Sisyphus, lord of Assvria, Bal)ylonia, and Palestine, 
succeeded in rolling his stone up the pyramids and in planting it 
there, had the tribes of Tollan driven their ball through the 
Chichimec goal, the world would have fallen vnider the domina- 
tion of the most bloodthirsty race that ever disgraced humanity, 
and have been bound in tiie chains of the vilest superstition 
that ever fettered the soul of man. Thanks to young Ziph and 
the long-suffering Saul and the gallant warrior Hadai-, the Zere- 
thite power of darkness was repelled, again and again, in its 
attempts at Egyptian conquest, and was banished from the soil 
of Palestine. But the atrocities committed Viy the great Assyrian 
conquerors in after days prove that the murderous spirit was not 
extinct in the Cherethite. 

Aahmes, tiie marine, connects the name of Thothnios I., who 
is Tahath, son of Bered, and grandson of Jabez tlirough his 
motlier whom the Greeks call Stlienoboea and the Persians 
Sen<la]ieh, with the concjuest of Mesopotamia and ovci'throw of 
th(; Rutennu: and his calling Xeb-Pehti tlio justitied shows that 
Ziph had died before this final overtlu'ow took ])lace. Another 
AahiiH's suriiaiiuMl Pciiuislu'iu had been a follower of Ziph in 
his iioi-thern caiiqiai'jn and of Thothiiies in Mesopotamia, where 
lif took twenty-one hands of wnn-ioi's killed by him, for which 
h<' was i"e\\ai-de(l with gold armlets, collars, bi'aci'l(>ts, an 
oi-nanicnteil sword, and two gold war axes.'" I'nder the second 
Thothnies, gramlson of tin- lii'st and the husliand of Mati-ed, the 

1" Ji,<-.,nl'-..f til- I'a-t, iv. 7. 


daughter of Mezahab, he fought against the Shasu or Shuhites, 
the race to M-hieh Ma Reshah belonged. These, however, must 
be the Shuhites who remained behind in tlie land of Moab and 
in Jashubi-Lehem, the linen workers, potters and gardeners of 
these countries. These Shuhites probably shared the fortunes of 
the Zerethites, for their home was in Mesopotamia, south of the 
Nairi, and in Babylonia, in early Assyrian days. They were in 
two divisions, the elder branch, descended from Er the father of 
Lecah, being the Lakai of the Assyrian inscriptions, and the 
junior, comprising the posterity of Ashbea, Jokim, Chozebah, 
Joash, and Saraph, being the Sukhi or Shuhites proper, of the 
same documents. They are often connected with the Amalekites, 
with whom they may have made common cause against the 
Egyptians in the Sinaitic peninsula. They appear to have been 
a feeble folk, for Aahmes Pennishem took so many prisoners of 
the Shasu that he did not care to reckon them. But he received 
a silver war axe, with more bracelets and collars, for his conduct 
in the Shuhite campaign. These cultivated Shuhites, the first to 
excel in the useful arts, became the savajxe and intractable Sacae 
of later generations. Thothmes II. fought no doubt the battles 
of Mezahab, his father-in-law, and in the same service must 
Amenophis II. or Ophrah have made the campaign recorded by 
him in the temple of Amada in Nubia. The campaign was in 
the land of Asshur, from which he brought the bodies of seven 
slain kings, one of which was set up at Napata to let the negroes 
see the prowess of their monarch, but the other six were sus- 
pended on the walls of Thebes, an evidence that the line of 
Jabez was still in power in the city of No-Ammon. Then came 
a period of anarchy in Egypt. Mezahab died or disappeared, 
but the Hycsos would not acknowledge Tahath as their king. 
With Ophrah of Elephantine and Saul of Abydos, the husband 
of ^latred fought against the Thebans, but suffered disaster at 
the hands of the gallant Philistines and the Heraclidae and 
descendants of Paseach, who bore arms with them. Saul tran- 
(|uilized Gebalene for a tijne, but who can tell wliat hordes from 
Western Palestine poured in upon Lower Egy'pt during the pericjd 
that the struggle lasted in the south ? Certain it is that the 
Zei'ethites won back their possessions in Palestine, and set up 


their strongholds on the eastern shores of the Dead Sea. They 
retook Hebron and called it Kirjath Arba. But there is no 
record, save that which Josephus preserves from Manetho, which 
gives any information concerning the tumultuary army that 
invaded Upper Egypt and drove the kings of that country into 
Ethiopia. Josephus calls their leader Osarsiph, a priest of 
Heliopolis, and identifies him with Moses. It has been already 
suggested that the name may be a cori-uption of Zur-vuna or 
Beth Zur, the descendant of Ma Reshah, which, if it were estab- 
lished, would make the army of iconoclasts the raisers of the 
siege of Thebes instead of an invading host from Palestine. 

When Saul died, the Zerethites and Zimrites got the upper 
hand in Moab and Canaan. The Hittite tribes were in a measure 
subject to Baalchanan, his successor, as king of Gebalene, but they 
owed immediate allegiance, not to that prince, but to his father 
Achbor, known in Babylonian history as Isbi-barra, king of 
Karrak, in Egyptian as Sapalala, or. Seplul, grand duke of the 
Kheta, and in India as Sisupula, king of Chedi. Indian history 
makes him subject to Jarashandha, who is Baalchanan. From 
indications given in British tradition, as well as by his residence 
at Karrak, Achbor is authenticated as a Temanite or Amalekite, 
in the language of Merlin, an Albanian. While Achbor presided 
over the council of the allied Hittite chiefs, and his son, Baal- 
chanan, exercised depotism in Gel)alene, a young warrior arose in 
southern Egypt, whose career has been already sketched, Hadar, 
the son of Saul. Sunnnoning his faithful and warlike Bedrothites,. 
he went to the help of Thothmes, whose daughter, ^lehetabel, he 
marricil, and gained over to the side of that monarch his brother- 
in-law, Michael of Xois. The Kenez/itcs under Ophrah, oi- his 
son Ishgi, swelled the army of Thothmes, who, with three kings 
in his train, once more besieged Thebes, and this time successfully. 
Philistim and Caphtoi'ini capitulated and tlien, step by step, they 
were driven noi'thward by the ever vietorious Hadar, hardly 
recognized .on tin; moiniments as Thothmes T\''. Then Thothmes II. 
assumed, as the head of a new Egyptian dynasty, the title of 
Kanicsi'.s I. As such it is stated at Kai'iiak that he was the first 
to seek out th(; Ilittites in the \allcy of the Orontes, where he 
nia<le a treaty of peact^ with their king, Se])lul, or Achbor. The 


Orontes is a mistake, and cannot possibly be the place or river 
called Hanruta. In the case of Rameses I., if it denote a river, it 
is probably the Arnon in Moab, some of the southern streams of 
which are not far from Zerkeh and Kerak, where Achbor held 
state, within easy distance of the Jebel el Tarfuyeh, or original 
Delphi. There is no record of any fighting on this occasion. 
Philistim and Caphtorim were quite enough to keep Rameses 
engaged, so that the treaty between him and Seplul, brought 
about through the good offices of Hadar and Michael, and of the 
Kenezzite Ishgi who took home to Elephantine the fair-haired 
and blue-eyed Zimrite princess Taia, was formed for the purpose 
of, keeping the Hycsos Hittites and their Japhetic defenders in 
check. The Zerethites remembered how the line of Jabez had 
driven their ancestors of the family of Cheops from the throne of 
Memphis, how Ziph, or Xeb-Pehti, had repelled them in their 
attempt to regain the valley of the Nile, and how the descendants 
of MaReshah had overspread southern Palestine and made their 
colonial metropolis in Hebron. There was, therefore, no love lost 
between these Zerethites and the expelled from Egypt, who now 
lay between them and the land of the Pharaohs, all the way from 
Hazerim in the wilderness to Gaza, in which country they had 
wreaked their vengeance on the Kenezzites who had helped to 
(h'ive them out Ijy exterminating their relatives the Avim. This 
act of vengeance on the worshippers of Baal Peor would consti- 
tute another reason for enmity between these two branches of 
the Hittkite race. 

Rameses I. died, and the reign of young Rameses II., other- 
wise Thothmes III., began, and Hadar as Thothmes IV. fought 
the battles of the enslaver of Israel, aided by his wife, Mehetabel, 
the (^ueen Regent. Were it not for tradition it would be impos- 
sible to construct the history of Hittite Palestine from the Egyp- 
tian monuments, for Rameses II. industriously chiselled out the 
name of his sister and her husband on the monuments they 
erecte(i, and ascribed their warlike achievements to his l)oastful 
self.^^ The great e\ent of Hadar's life was the Zerethite, or 
])ardanian, war. which placed liim on the throne of Gebalene, 
coiiiinoiily known as the Siege of Trcjy ; which, as told by Homer, 

'I Kawliiison's HcrMili>tiis, ajip. bk. ii. ch. 8. 


jjrotesquely mixes up persons, places, and dates, in immortal verse. 
Yet tiie ground-work is well vouched for by many widely separ- 
ated traditions in Greece, India, Britain, and in the New World. 
As a result ot" the pacification that took place when Rameses made 
his treaty with Seplul, or Achbor, his son Baalchanan king of 
Gebalene, visited Michael, the brother-in-law of Hadar, in his 
Xoite kingdom, and requited his host's hospitality by carrying 
away his bride, whom the widely divergent Greek and British 
traditions concur in calling Helen. Baalchanan, the Parisian, as 
a descendant of Peresh the Gileadite, and an Alexander, as the 
Harischandra of the Indian writers, thus combined in himself the 
pei'sons of Priam and his son. This outrage called Michael and 
Hadar to arms, and with Hadar went his son Shimon, the Aga- 
memnon of the Greeks. So far as can be gathered from tradition, 
for no published Egyptian text gives the history of this war, 
Hadar and Michael were aided by the Philistines and the expelled 
Caphtorim, including the Ammono-Hittite line of Jabez soon to 
be known as Moschi and Cappadocians, the direct Achuzamite 
line of Acharchel or men of (Jarchemish, the Posh of MaReshah, 
the Paseachites descended from Job, and the Maachathites of 
Pelet's son, Maachah. Hadar's victory had the effect of driving 
all the Zerethites, with the exception of those who dwelt on the 
borders of Egypt, and who, if Homer's Catalogue of the Ships is 
to be relied on, fought as Cretans against their Dardanian brethren, 
out of southern Palestine. Another exception is Anak, the son 
of Arba, who held out in the city of Hebi'ou. The Geshui-ites 
took refuge for a time in the Havu'an, but most of the Zerethites 
betook themselves to Assyria, where their family was still supreme. 
Ibular reigned in Edom, its last king, for during his reign, or at 
its close, a liund of inva'lei's, whose home is linrd to determine, 
entei-ed the land of Moali. They are called Hornets in the trans- 
lations of the Hebrew Scri[)tures, because that is the Hebi-ew 
ni'iining cjf tlieii- name, but the word \arions]y rendered Zoi'ite, 
Zoi'iitliite, Zai-eathite, ilenotes the Jteople \vlio founded Zorali, on 
till' hordei-s of i^liilistin.'- 'I'li<'y were Ifoi-ites, or Anioi'ites. des- 
cended fi'oni Ileaiidi and .Man;diatli, the |ii'incipal sons ot' the ances- 

'' 1 C'luMii. ii. 'ui, .")} ; iv. L'. S'M- my .nticlf .m Tln^ lloi-iii'ts ..f Scri|itun-, l'r-liy- 
tf-riaii ijn:ut<rl\- aiiil I'l iii<-it'.n lti-\iiw, Oct. 1^7."), |>. (177: Ivm'iI. wiii. 2S ; 1 )cul. 
vii. 20 ; .U,-\k x.\iv. 12. 


tral Shobal, and allied with the family of Bethlehem, descended 
from Manahath's grandson, Chedorlaomer. The traditions which 
bring the Phoenicians from the islands and Arabian shores of 
the Persian Gulf lelate probably to these allied Horites, traces 
of whose presence are found in the geographical nomencla- 
ture of that region. Pressed upon by other tribes, Ishmaehite 
and Midianite, they made their way northward, and came in 
countless swarms into the land vacated by the Zerethites. But 
they did not come alone ; the Moabite and the Ammonite accom- 
panied them. Michael was the last of the Xoite dynasty, and if 
we are to credit the Maya legends, the Moabites were his subjects 
in the Delta. Wliether they were expelled by Rameses, or were 
transported by Hadar to the land they had helped him to acquire 
or voluntarily left their home in the Delta for a pleasanter abode 
among the rivers that flow into the Dead Sea and the Jordan, we 
cannot tell. But they came, the Ammonites to the old dwelling 
place of the Zuzim in Ham, and the Moabites, separating from 
their tyrannical brethren to begin a national life, in the land so 
well identified with their name ; while, all around them, swarmed 
the Amorite Zorathites. Moab and Ammon were strong enough 
to resist the attempts of the Hornets to displace them, but Zippor, 
king of Moab, could not prevent the southern Amorites depriving 
him of part of his territory. Moses has preserved the Amorite 
war-song that celebrates this conquest: 
" Come into Heshbon, 

Let the city of Sihon be built and prepared ; 

For there is a fire gone out of Heshbon, 

A flame from the city of Sihon ; 

It hath consumed Ar of Moab, 

The lords of the high places of Arnon. 

AVoe to thee, Moab ! 

Thou art undone, people of Chemosh ; 

He hath given his sons that escaped and his daughters 

Into captivity unto Sihon, the Amorite king. 

AVe have shot at them ; 

Hcslibon is perislied even unt(^ Dibon, 

We have laid them waste even unto Nophah, which reacheth 
unto Medeba." '^ 

'* Niimlt. xxi. '27. 


The name of Heshbon is associated with that of Eshban, a son of 
Dishon, the Horite.^* Another band of Amorites entered Gilead 
and Bashan, but they do not seem to have exercised royalty there, 
for, when Israel conquered Canaan, their kinf^ was Og, or Gog, of 
the family of Paseach. They must, however, have contributed 
largely to the population and soldier}' of tiie Paseachite kingdom, 
as Og is called the king of the Amorites.^'^ 

Crossing the Jordan into Canaan, the Amorites swept all 
before them to the borders of the Philistines, and even planted 
Zorah and Eshtaol in the midst of that warlike people. They drove 
the Hittites out of Beeroth, Hebron and Lachish, and perhaps 
from Jarmuth, although it is more probable that it was a Jerah- 
meelite city. The solitary Amorite king of Jerusalem, whom the 
sacred character of his city had invested with respect and granted 
immunity from conquest, hailed the restoration of Horite dominion, 
and in recompense for his welcome was recognized as the head of 
the Amoi-ite confederacy of kings. Then the Hittites sufi'ered. 
Threescore and ten kings gathered the crumbs that fell from 
Adoni Bezek's table, mutilated men, whose miserable imprison- 
ment enhanced the warlike reputation of the Amorite monarch ; 
and most of these, if not all, were Hittites. The Anakim alone 
remained in the neighbourhood of Hebron, in which the Amorite 
H(jham reigned, and the rest of the Hittites were to be found 
north of Samaria. But there was a remnant, and, by no means a 
small one, of those who had long held Egyptian sovereignty, on 
the north-western or Libyan border of Egypt, among whom many 
tribes of Midian were found, and these were the ancestors of the 
Berber tribes of northern Africa. The centres of the Egyptian wars 
with the Hittites in the time of the great Rameses were Kadesh 
Naphtali above the Sea of Galilee, and Megiddo on the river 
Kishon. B(jth of these were Achuzamite foundations, the foi'uier 
lj<-iiig named after the ancestral Gazez, the father of .Jachdai, and 
tli(,' latter, after Maachah, Jachdai's grandson. They were thus 
assuci;ited with the' leading Hittite tribe, which afti'rwards made 
(Jarclieiiiish the sc'at of its authoi'ity. Vet Kadesh was a name 
intiti;ute|y ecmneeted with tin; Aiualekites, in whose tri))e the 

" i;.-ii. xxxvi. L>(;. 

! .lo^ll. il. 10. 


kingship or presidency of the Hittite confederacy was at this 
time vested.^*^ The son and successor of Seplul as head of the 
Confederacy was, according to the Egyptian monuments, Mara- 
sara. and he was followed in succession by his two sons, Mautenara 
and Khitasara.^^ It has been already stated that Seplul, the 
Kenite Gachbor and Babylonian Isbi-barra, was an Amalekite. 
A text of Sennacherib, which mentions Ispabara, king of Illipi or 
Albania, and his city, Akupard.u, confirms this fact. But that same 
text links with Akupardu another city, called Marugarti.^^ There 
is only one other geographical name belonging to the Hittites men- 
tioned in the Assyrian inscriptions that comes as near as Maru- 
garti does to Marasara, and that is Mairsuru, which is probably 
the same place, for, although Sbalmanezer assigns it to Kharru 
and not to Albania, the Cyrus river, which bears the name Kharru, 
constituted Albania's southern boundary.^^ It seems that Mair- 
suru comes nearest to the original name, for among the Alani, 
who were descendants of Elon the Amalekite, appears a king 
Beorger, whom Cassiodorus mentions as an invader of northern 
Italy.'^*^ But for a remarkable fragment of ancient histoiy pre- 
served by Herodotus, we should have had to look in vain for 
definite traces of Khitasara, Marasara's son. Herodotus calls him 
Cytissorus, but makes him the son of Phrixus the Colchian, a 
name that only connects with the Amalekite family in the person 
of Peresh the Gilea'iite, through whose descendants Baalchanan, 
son of Achbor, inherited the Dardanian throne."^^ Strabo quotes 
Ephorus to the effect that this son of Phrixus, whose name he 
abbreviates to Cytorus, was the eponym of Cytorum in Paphla- 
gonia, a place mentioned by Homer in his enumeration of tlie 
Trojan forces.-^ The Temenite, or Amalekite, origin of the 
Paphlagonians has been already indicated. Few statements better 
display the remoteness of Homer from the events he professes to 
relate than those regarding the Paphlagonians. The very name 

"' <;cii. xiv. 7. 

'' Lciiciriiiant's Manual, i ; Records of the Past, iv. 27, seq. 

'< KecurdH of the Past, vii. (lO. 

'i' Itecords of the Past, v. 39. 

-"' Cas>iu<lorus, Cliron. Rxist. et Olyb. Coss. 

-' llen,(i..t. vii. T.)7. 

-- Stral). xii. 'A, 10. 


Paphlagouia is a corruption of the name of that Baalchanan out 
of whom he makes Priam and Alexander Paris ; but not content 
with this, he repeats the perfidious Dardanian as Pylaemenes, the 
Paphlagonian leader, and makes him possess Cytorus, a place 
named after a hero who can have been but a child in Baalchanan's 
time. Still further does the poet make the Amalekites do the 
duty of a stage army in giving them, as Alazonians fro)n Alybe, 
Hodius and Epistrophus for their commanders. Valuable as the 
poems of Homer are for suggestions, they are utterly untrust- 
worthy as narratives of fact. 

Professor Rawlinson thus translates the tradition which 
Herodotus records concerning Cytissorus. " On his (Xerxes) 
arrival at Alus in Achaea, his guides, wishing to inform him of 
everything, told him the tale known to the dwellers in those 
parts concerning the temple of the Laphystian Jupiter how 
that Athamas the son of ^Eolus took counsel with Ino and 
plotted the death of Phrixus ; and how that afterwards the 
Achaeans, warned by an oracle, laid a forfeit upon his postei'ity, 
forbidding the eldest of the race ever to enter into the court- 
house (which they call the people's house) and keeping watch 
themselves to see the law obeyed. If one comes within the 
doors, he can never go out again except to be sacrificed. Further, 
they told him, how that many persons, wh'en on the point of 
being slain, are seized with such fear that they fiee away and 
take refuge in some other country ; and that these if they come 
back long afterwards, and are found to be the persons who 
entered the court-house, are led forth covei'ed with chaplets. and 
in a grand })i-ocession, and are sacrificed. This forfeit is paid by 
the descendants of Cytissorus the son of Phrixus, because, when 
the Achaeans in ol>edience to an oracle niaile Athamas the son 
of /Eolus tlK.'ir sin-oflering anil were about to slay him, Cytissorus 
came h'oin Aca in Colchis and rescued Athamas, ly which deed 
he brouirht the anger of the god upon his own i)osterity.'"-'* This 
fxti'acjrdinai'y stoi'y lidongs clearly to the Anialekitcs. who- 
thi'ough tlirii- King iiusliani, ac<|uin'd in adilition to their other 
names that of Os, Ossetes, Huzites, or Achaeans, and their Alus 
is a reminiscence of Elon. The Lajihvstian .lupitei" nnist, there- 

Kauliii-.n'- H.Todctiis. 


fore, take his name from the Amalekite Eliphaz, and his temple 
connected with a court-house or house of the people must be the 
same place as the original Delphi of the Amphictyonic League 
on the Jebel el Tarfuyeh in Moab. There also was what the 
Iroquois call The Long House, which gave name to the whole 
confederacy, who are Hodenosaunee or the People of the Long 
House.-^ The connection of Athamas, Ino Leucothea, Phrixus, 
and Cytissorus, is, however, obscui-e. Athamas is Etam, the father 
of Jezreel, who is associated with the rest simply by the marriage 
of Mahalah, the third son of Moleketh, or Ino Leucothea, to a 
member of his family, probably a daughter of Jezreel. Phrixus, 
again, is Peresh, the son of Gilead, and thus the nephew of Mole- 
keth. As for Cytissorus or Khitasara, who is long posterior to 
the others, a wife of his grandfather, Achbor, was in all pro- 
bability a ofrand-daughter of Peresh, through whom her eldest 
son, Baalchanan, inherited the Cymro-Dardanian throne. Pausa- 
nias mentions the Laphystian Jupiter in Amphictyonic connec- 
tion, and states that when Athamas was about to sacrifice 
Phrixus and Helle, the sons of this god sent a ram with a golden 
fleece which carried them away.^^ The story refers to an aboli- 
tion of the human sacrifices that had been instituted in the time 
of Samlah of Masrekah, in connection with the act of impiety 
that led to the mourning of Meholah ; and to their reinstitution 
at some period subsequent to the rule of Khitasara over the 
Hittite confederacy. It would appear, therefore, that, whatever 
sanguinary rites were observed by individual Hittite families, 
such as the Zerethites, the Rephaim and the Kenezzites, these 
were not sanctioned nor practised by the League, since the time 
tliat JoV) and his coadjutors established it down to the time of 
the death of Khitasara, the last Hittite suzerain mentioned by 
the Egyptians. The next head of the League, whose name 
history records, is Jabin, who held court at Hazor. His name 
and surroundings in Hazor connect him with the tribe of Zochar, 
wliich in his person first emerges from obscurity. 

The records of warfare in Palestine during the reign of the 

'-' Murgaii, L<-af,'ue of the Iruquois ; llouses and Hcjuse Life of the American 
.\.t)<'ri;,''iii'-s, Cdiitriljutiims tu North American l^tliiiology, \i>l. iv. 
' I'au.s. ix. 3-1. 


enslaver of Israel comprise those attributed to Thothmes III., 
Rameses II., Amenopliis III., and Seti Menephtah ; the first tAvo 
being; names of Bei'iah, and the others denotinn: Shimon and 
Zoheth. These inv^aders of Palestine were at peace with the 
Amorites who occupied the south country, for we read of no 
opposition ottered by them to the progress of the Egyptian 
armies. Rameses was himself an Amoi'ite and bore the name of 
Ra, ancestral and divine among the Horites. Under the name of 
Thothmes III. he records his victories over the Hittites in two 
regions, Megiddo and Kadesh : but the latter he regfarded as the 
Hittite capital.-^ It must, therefore, have been the stronghold of 
the suzerain whose name he does not give, but who was either 
Marasara, son of Seplul, or his eldest son Mautenara. In 
Megiddo the descendants of Pelet dwelt with the allied Jezreelites. 
The Kenite list only mentions the third generation from Pelet in 
the lines of Shaaph and Sheva, sons of Maachah, their sons being 
Madmnnnah and Machbenah.'-" There is geographical evidence 
that these Maacliathites once dwelt in Moab, for Madmen in that 
country is a reminiscence of Madmannah, as well as Methymna 
in Lesbos. Dimnah and Dimon represent the same name, for the 
initial rn<i is the Hittite honorific prefix : in the same way 
Machl)enah is rendered hy Cabbon. The men of Maachath or 
Megiddo became famous in India as the Magadhas, and in 
Siberia the elder sons Sheber and Tirchanah named Sibir and 
Turuchansk. Kadesh has been identified with Kadesh Naphtali. 
When Seti ^lenephtah invaded Palestine, he found this city in 
the possession of the Amorites. How they obtained it we cannot 
tell. It may have been by force of arms, but it is more probable 
that when Beriah took the city he placed it in charge of an 
Amorite rrarrison, thus exijellini'' ^SLiutenara the Hittite kino; 
from his capital. Seti was a Hittite and was far from being 
ashamed of his parentage. He saw that no good could come to 
Egypt by harassing the triljes of his own l)l()()(l and speech, and 
accordingly sought to mak(; jieace with them. iJut there covdd 
be no ])(;ace while tin; hat('d Amorite dwelt in the Hittite sanc- 
tuary. Seti commanded the* Amorites to evacuati; Kadesli, whicii 

''" licnoriiiunt's .Manual, i. ; Ki-(;iii<ls ni tlif Past. 
1 Cliicii. ii. -ix, v.). 


they refused to do. Then a fierce contest took place, in which 
Kadesh was at last carried by assault, the Amorites driven out, 
and Mautenara restored to the seat of empire. A treaty was 
afterwards concluded, in terms of which Mautenara promised not 
to engage in hostilities against the Egyptians. Rameses II. 
fought a battle at Kadesh which is set forth in the Third Sallier 
Papyrus written by the royal scribe, Pentaour, and in the battle 
pieces of that Pharaoh at Thebes and Ipsamboul. It is described 
at full length, the object being to glorify the valour of Rameses, 
and, therefore, presents many particulars which do not appear in 
the other documents. It took place in Rameses' fifth year which 
was probably the fifth of his sole reign after the death of his 
sister Mehetabel.-'^ Thothmes III. fought his battle of Kadesh 
in ilie twenty-third year of his reign including his minority, and 
it was his first action. It' we identify Thothmes III. with 
Rameses II., this will give Mehetabel a regency of eighteen ^^ears. 
Her sixteenth year has been found recorded at the Wady 
Maghara and on the great obelisk at Karnak.^'^ Mautenara was 
King of the Hittite Confederacy in this war, which must, there- 
fore, precede the treaty of peace which Seti Menephtah made 
with him, and which there is no evidence that he failed to keep. 
Seti's pacification did not last long, for Mautenara died, and his 
brother, Khitasara, became the Hittite suzerain. He resumed 
warfai-e, which lasted fourteen years and came to an end by a 
ti'eaty of peace, the text of which has been preserved in a some- 
what imperfect state, and by an alliance of Rameses with a 
daughter of the Hittite emperor.^** 

The story of Rameses' battle and siege of Kadesh should be 
studied as a companion picture to that set forth in the eleventh 
chaptf r of Joshua, which contains the account of a war with the 
same Plittite ConfL'deracy a century later. If Kadesh be regarded 
as a city on the Orontes, the Hittites must have reconquered north- 
'i-ii Palestine in the interval, for Joshua found them as far south as 
Samaria. But there is no evidence that these Hittites were ever 

*~ Itccords of tlie Past ; Touikiiis, The Campaign of Kameses II. Tran. See. Bib. 
Airli. vii. .'^DO. 

'-'' Sir <;. Wilkinson in liawlinsoii's Herodotus, ajip. hk. ii. cli. S. 
" R. -cords of th.- Past, iv. 27. 


driven into the north, before the leader of Israel's host broke 
their power at the waters of Merom. Even after this crushin(^ 
defeat they did not withdraw to any great distance, for early in 
the times of the Judges they reappeared under a second Jabin at 
Harosheth, not far from the springs of the Jordan.^^ The Ivadesh 
of Thothmes III., Seti Menephtah, and Rameses II., is, therefore, 
Kadesh afterwards called Naphtali, south of Hazor, to the west 
of Jordan, and about midwa}^ between Lake Merom and the Sea 
of Galilee. The Third Sallier Papyrus places Kadesh in the 
vicinity of Shabutuna, and the land of the Amairo or Atnorites. 
The former is Safed, south of Kadesh Naphtali, and the land of 
the Amorites through which the Egyptian army probaljly 
marched into the north was the country east of Jordan. Thei'e 
is no evidence for an xVmorite colony on the Orontes. The names 
of Kino- Mautenara's allies arc somewhat ditterentlv read bv the 
Egyptologists, and most of these place the allies in Syria and 
Mesopotamia by the error common to almost all readers of 
ancient historical documents, that of identifying a shifting people 
with the most famous locality bearing their name. Thus the 
Zerethites of Zarthan, mentioned on Egyptian monuments, have 
been called Dardanians from Troy and Sardinians from Sardinia 
and Cretans from Crete, instead of being regarded as the Pales- 
tinian parent-stock by which these three regions were culonized. 
Mautenara was King of the Kheta or Hittites, and most of his 
so-called allies were his confederate Hittite lords. The first 
people mentioned among his followers are the Naharain. These 
were the descendants of Meliir of the family of the Achashtavite 
Chelub, in the three families of Beth Kapha, Paseach, and 
Tehiiinah, the father of Ir Xahash, among whom Paseach occupied 
in Assyrian days the chief position. But in Puntaour s list of 
the wariiors, Patasa or Pidasa represents Paseach. It is d(jubtful 
that the Xairi had yet ]'cacli('il Mesopotamia, or that the 
i^iscachites, scj lately out of Eg\"pt, had established thfiiiselves 
in 'I'hapsacus. The valley of .)iplitliach-(d on the lim-diTs of 
Aslici- find Zebulon is moiv' likely to lia\t' been the abode ot the 
P;ise;icliites. 'i'lie Nairi or Nahariiia may also he looked for at 
M('ai'ali, Meai'otli. oi', fixing vrdue to "////', .Megarah, near Sidoii, 

31 ,Ju'l,o- iv. 2. 


where Misrephoth represented Hammu-Rabi or Beth Rapha, as 
Masrekah set forth the family of Rekah. Terteni, another 
Hittite tribe, was a branch of the Zerethites at Zarthan. The 
Maasu were the Meishga or Moschi, the descendants of Mesha, 
the son of Jabez, and probably dwelt about Thebez, north-east of 
Samaria, built by them to commemorate their great city in Egypt. 
Mauna is a northern Maon and belonged to the family of Ma 
Reshah. It may have been beyond Jordan in the land of Ham 
near Ammon, where the Maonites were smitten in the time of 
Hezekiah by the descendants of a certain Simeon.^- There was 
also a Beth Baal Meon in Moab. The Leka, originally inhabi- 
tants of Lachish, were at this time in Kadesh itself and in the 
Mount of the Amalekites in Ephraim. The name Amalek or 
Gama Lek is like the Akkaiiian form of Beth Rapha, Gammu- 
Rabi. Kerkesh may have been Chelkath or Helkath in Asher, a 
place of note, the ethnic relations of which are undetermined. 
Kairkamasha is plainly Carchemish, but was it Carchemish far 
up in northern Syria ? If it was, there is evidence in favour of 
Ka<lesh being up there also. But the Kairkamasha are mentioned 
with the Leka, who certainly were not in northern Syria. As in 
Ephraim there was a mount of the Gama-Lek so was thei'e a 
mount Gerizim, and its enclosure or city would be an ancient 
Gerizim-ish. Katsuatana is yet unidentified. Mashanat was 
doubtless in the neighbourhood of Ophrah of the Abiezrites, for 
Meonothai or Megonothai was the father of the former and the 
son of Abiezei". Anaukasa may have been Ta Anach near 
Megiddo, in which case Akarith or Akalith would be Chesulloih 
to the south of it. The first belonged to the family of Paseach ; 
but the second was a city of the Goim of Galilee, who appear to 
liave been called Kati by the Egyptians. Khilbu or Chirabu 
has been identified with Aleppo which was indeed a Khilbu ; 
but there was a Helljah <;r Chelbah in tlie north of the tribe of 
Asher, out of which Israel did not succeed in (h'iving the 
aborigines, an^l this suits the case better. Finally, Arethu, if in 
it Atadus be recognized, was the most northern of the Hittite 
royal cities. The Hittite army thus presented a confederation 

' ] Cliroii. iv. tl ; thi- ]-]ii;,''lisli vcrsiun, wliicli must translate every word, knows 
th" .Ma'.iiitcs a- " tlie lialiitatinns." 


consisting of the Achuzumites of Gerizini and Meslia, the 
Hepherites of Arad, the Temenites of Kadesh and Anialek, the 
Achashtarites of Mehir an<l of Maon, the Zerethites of Zarthan, 
(unless the Terteni be the Tirhanites of Maachah), the Zochnrites 
of Chelbah, and the Ethnanites of Megonothai. Thus all the 
seven families were represented in the League, which, like that 
overcome by Joshua, received assistance from the Japhetic Goim 
of Galilee. 

The names of the warriors mentioned arc Hittite, some ot" 
them ending like Marasara and Khitasara in the well-known 
word zari, meaning a captain or leader ; such are Khilip-sara 
and Sapt-sara. The former was probabh^ the leader of the 
Calebites descended from Zochar, and the latter the lord of Sated 
called after Shaphat, who seems to have been a descendant of 
Aharhel, as Sybotas is a name belong^ig to the Heraclidae, and 
Sybota in Epirus is associated with Ekronite and Heraclid 
names.^^ Two other names, Thargan and Tliargannas, cannot be 
positively identified with Tirchanah the son of Maachah, because 
the Egyptians did not accentuate the gutturals eheth and (tyin. 
Tilgamus, Telegonus, Telchin, and Tarquin, ai'e names that set 
forth Regem, so that some later Regem or Rekem may have been 
thus designated. Still Thargannas might well answer to Tir- 
chanah, and be the name of a man of Megiddo. Thargathasas is 
unmistakable, representing the Hamathite Tirgathi, and the 
Jerigotli whose union to the Zerethite Hur or Urukh gave to 
that ti'ibc tlie ancestors of the Geshuritcs and Rutciniu. The 
name, therefore, may be either Hepherite or Zerethite. Thiatar is 
a much disguised Hadadezer, in form like tlie Inxjuois Atotarho, 
yet it is UK^re correct than Tentyris or Tyndareus. He ought to 
have ])een the King of Rehob or Beth Rehob, in the trllie of 
Ashcr. Rabbasunna is a late Betli Rapha, the name being 
governed in the g(.'in'tive by the woi"d for house or family, in 
Japan(,'S(.' /.vr/i". i. So, in Ksthonia, Lappi-guuda is a trihe of the 
old Esthonian league. His place should be in Meai-ah and 
Misi'eplifjtii. Tsuat-sasa ouglit to be the head of th(( Mashanat 
oi" ])ei;ple of Nb'onotlini, bjr lie is a Zolieth, jX'rhaps Ben-Zoheth, 
the Ill-other of Seti Meiiephtah, who as Poly-<lectes was inimical 

' 1 f_'hriiii. V. 12; I'aMs:uii:is. 


to Perseus and was put out of his kingdom. Paisa or Pisa is a 
Hittite name, the chief element in that of Pisiris or Pisa-sari 
King of Carchemish, but it was originally Japhetic, being Buz, 
the son or early descendant of Eker, after whom Pisa in Elis 
was called. It may, therefore, denote an Ekronite or a member 
of the allied families of Paseach and Aharhel, the latter of whom 
continued the line of Regem. Samarsa suggests Samlah, and 
Sliimron as his cit3^ and Carmel a Palestinian Camirus where he 
was worshipped, but this gives a division of the Rephaim, who 
have already been found farther north in Misrephoth. Garbatusa 
is like the Girbat in Ulam-Girbat, which would class it with 
Zimrite nomenclature, but again it answers to Sarepta and the 
Lycian Sarpedon, who belonged to the family of Beth-Lechem 
descended from Chareph. As Salma was the father of Beth- 
Lechem, he may have ruled in Salem near Samaria. Matsrima 
is more probably Matslima or Meshullam, an Ekronite ally of the 
Hittites. Agma occurs in a Pictisli inscription as Sakasa Agma.^* 
It also appears in the Irish genealogies of the Tuatha de Danans, 
continually in connection with Dealbhaoith, an Irish Telephus, 
as Qcrma.^^ Thus Ogma is the name of the father, brother, and 
son of persons called Dealbhaoith. This makes Agma the same 
as the Kenite Husham, wlio was probably the father and the son 
of an Eliphaz. Finally Kamaits may be a Shemidah, connected 
with Shechem the son of Shemidag or Ismidagan, who renamed 
the Amorite city and established therein the worship of Baal- 
Berith.'^^ These tentative identifications of the names of Hittite 
places ami persons will, at any rate, pave the way for their com- 
plete elucidation. 

The copy of the Treaty of Peace between Rameses and 
Khitasara, the new Hittite monarch, which is preserved on the 
outer wall of the temple at Karnak, is unhappily deficient at the 
very place which contains matter of historical interest, that, 
namely, which originally set forth the chief families of the 
Hittite confederacy and their deities.^" The names that remain 
are Taaranta, Pairaka, Khisasap, Sarasu, Khirabu, Sarapaina, 

' C.'ltic Society of Montreal, Trans. 18S7, ]). 55. 

'' Kr'atin<,' : Vallaiicey, S|iecinieii of a Dictionary of tlie Irish Language. 

"' 1 Cliron. vii. Ill ; .Tiidge-^ ix. It;. 

' lieconls .,f the I'a-t. iv. 31. 


Taitat or Zaiath-KWerri, and Tawatana. Of these the first is 
marked by the modern name Dourahin among the southern 
springs of the Kishon, and represents the Hittite Tirhanah named 
after the second son of Maachah of Pelet, Megiddo being 
Maaehali's memorial, and Tabor, that of Sheber the eldest son, in 
the same region.^ Pairaka is probably Beeroth in Naphtali, and 
at the same time designates the E,echabites descended from Beeri. 
The interchange of certain gutturals and dentals was not uncom- 
mon among Egyptian dialects, and at any rate the radical is not 
Beeroth but Beeri.^^ Many Hittite names resemble Khisasap, 
such as Chozeba, Gazubah, and Achshaph, but none of these 
perfectly transliterate the Egyptian word. If we suppose 
Achshaph to have been originally compounded of the Zuzimite 
name Shaaph or Shagaph, it would, as Achshagaph, answer to 
Khisasap. The associations of this name or of its geographical 
neighbour Achzib, the Ecdippa of the Greeks, are set forth by 
Diodorus in connection with Rhodes, the island of the Telchins 
and Heliads, who were Ochimus, Cercaphus, Macareus, Actin, 
Teneages, Triopas, and Candales.^^' Ochimus married Hegetoria 
and had a daughter Cydippe, afterwards called Cyrbie, whom 
Cercaphus took to wife, her children being Lindus, Jalysus and 
Camirus. There is an extravagant mixing up of historical 
elements in this genealogy, but they centre geographically about 
Achzib and Carmel. The Telchins are the Regemites ; Actin is 
probably Eshton, the son of Mechir or Macareus ; Triopas, like 
the Esthonian Tarapyha and Dorpat, is Beth ilaplia ; and 
Teneafjes is Hanoch, son of Paseach, as Taanach near Meixiddo. 
Ochimus must be Chusham or Husham the Amalekite, and the 
.same as the Egyptian Agma ; Cercaphus is Rochab witiiaprelix ; 
and Candales is a somewhat inverted Othniel or Gothniel. 
Cydippe, as a w(jman, should be Gazuba the daughter of Hur and 
Jerigoth, married first t(j Regem and af t( r his deatli to Rapha, 
lier son bi'ing Samlali the GnM'k Caiuirus. (Jazuba's njiine is 
thus Common to two regions, that inhabited by the Ilaruinites 
and Ifcraclidae desc('iid(,Ml from Ri'gem, and that of the Ri'phaim 

' Th'- Chalilaic chaii^'i' iif .< ti) < liliscun-s many Hittite iiaiiirs ; tlirif \v,-[f placus 
c.illeii Atahyiis oi- Atahyiuii in I'cisia, Ptliodr's, and Sicily. 
' Thcl)an /' i.r th \va.< the .M.-nipliitr rh nv h. 
I" Dim,!. Sic. V. :U, si-(,. 



proper. As Sazabe it denoted in Assyrian days the garrison city 
of the Hittites dependent upon Carchemish. Sarasu undoubtedly 
is the same name as the Babylonian Karrak, and, therefore, 
denotes the Zerachites of Amalek, the Thracians of the Greeks ; 
but it is without geographical representation in northern Pales- 
tine, unless Gergesa to the east of the Sea of Galilee be identified 
with it. Khirabu or Khilabu is Chelbah, and Sarapaina is 
Sarepta or Zarephath, which found its way among the Horite 
Phoenicians through the alliance of Chareph of Beth Gader with 
the Horite Manahath's daughter. In Taitat or Zaiath-Kherri 
there is no difficulty in recognizing Ben-Zocheth the brother of 
Seti Menephtah. As a locality it may denote Tahtim-Hodshi 
about the waters of Merom. The Egyptian hherri is the 
Georgian s/a)'i, a son, Lesghian diirrha, Basque haurra. Thus 
Zaiath-Kherri is the same word as the Assyrian Sandu-arri and 
Sanda-sarvi, the latter form replacing aurra or haurra with the 
Circassian arps, Yeniseian dulho and Aztec tetelpuch, which are 
the same in origin as the Basque nerahe and Loo Choo ivorrahi. 
This Zaiath-Kherri answers to the Iroquois Tehotennhiaron the 
opponent of Taronhiawagon, who is improperly made the same 
person as Tawiscara. Seti Menephtah in his invasion of the 
Hittite country probably met his brother Ben-Zoheth or Zaiath- 
Kherri, and made use of his influence among the Hittite lords 
for obtaining a peaceful settlement of difficulties between them 
and Egypt. At the same time he must have caused the two Beth 
Horons to be built in Ephraim as refuges for his people, when 
the caprice of the tyrant Rameses should deprive them of favour 
and drive them into exile. The last name is Tawatana, which is 
elsewhere rendered Thepkana. It possibly denotes Tappuach or 
Tappuah, a state of considerable magnitude as Palestinian king- 
doms went, the king of which was conquered l)y Joshua a 
hundred years after. Tappuah was a grandson of Ma Reshah.^^ 
The illegible names in the inscription, which are at least six in 
number, would complete the representation of the Hittite tribes, 
who, with the exception of the Zerethites on the Euphrates and 
Tigris, presented a united front to the enemy. 

In the reigns of Merenptah and Rameses III., reigns whicii 

" .Joslniii xii. 17 ; 1 Clirnn. ii. 48. 


coincided in point of time, but which were those of two distinct 
persons, Horon, the eldest son of Seti Menephtah and Sherah, the 
daughter of the great Rauieses, and Uzzen-Sherah, or Acencheres, 
the son of Rameses and the same princess, an invasion of Egypt 
by the Hittites took place. It is generally called The Invasion 
of Egypt by the Greeks.*- Some of them were indeed Greeks, 
the Ekronite founders of Cyrene, but they were accompanied by 
other Philistine tribes, by many Midianites who became Numi- 
dians, and Hittites of Mehir, who became Maurctanians, by Zocha- 
rites, and Zerethites, and Heraclids, and Amorites from Eshcol. 
It is impossible that their great invasion took place in the time 
of Rameses III., although they harassed the northern coasts in his 
time as in the declining years of his father, for had it been made 
while the Israelites were building Pithom and Raamses they 
would have obtained their liberty without a miracle. But after 
the overthrow in the Red Sea, when Merenptah became king- 
instead of viceroy, and while Israel, therefore, was in the wilder- 
ness, the so-called Greeks poured into Egypt, driving Merenptah 
into the south and advancing in their victorious career beyond 
Heliopolis and Memphis into the heart of the country. Merenptah 
gathered his forces and inflicted a crushing defeat upon the inva- 
ders of Paari, which compelled the remnant to return to their own 
land.*'^ The invading army was under the command of Marmaiu, 
son of Batta, king of the Libyans, or Lubu. Herodotus in his 
fourth l)0()k gives an account of the colonization of Cyrene by 
Battus of Thera, which is chronologically inconsistent with tlie 
appearance of a Battus before the time of Merenptah. Battus, 
however, was a Japhetic name, being one of the modifications of 
Buz, ancestral in the Ekronite family. The name of Arcesilaus, 
son of the Jjattus of Herodotus, displays the conn(.'cti(jn of the 
Heracliilae f)f Aharlud witli the Ekronites, which has been ahx'ady 
suflieicntly indicated. The Lubu of the land of Maurui, over 
whom Mai-iiiaiu, son of J)atta, reigned, wei'e a branch of the 
Repiiaini, southern Lapps, and their land was.nanK.'d after their 
anc</stor, Mehir, the e[)oiiyin in Africa of the Moors, as In 

'- iI>-cor(ls i.f tlic I', iv. 3!). 

'' .Mi-|i-iipt.'ili iiiriy 1)1- K'-iiliali, i>v lioln'jih, suns i.f IJrriali, rutlirr tliiui in\c (if the 
H<.rijiis ; 1 (,'liic)ii. \ ii. '2~>. 


Mesopotamia of the Nairi. The auxiliaries came from the land of 
Mateni, the Midian, from whose son Epher, according to Josephus, 
Africa derived its name, and from that of Tahennu, so called after 
Tehinnah, the father of Ir Nahash, another grandson of Mehir.** 
The Mashuash who accompanied them may have been the men of 
Nachash ; the Shekilusha w^ere Sicilians from the Amorite Eshcol 
on their way to, not from, Sicily ; and the Sharutana, sons of 
Zereth, had not yet seen Sardinia. The Luku were Hittite 
Lycians, for whose parentage Lecah, son of Er the Shuhite, Ama 
Lek, son of Temeni, and Lechem, son of Salma the Hepherite, 
may compete ; but the Akauasha, Tursha, and Kahaika, in such 
a mixed multitude of Philistines, Midianites, Horites, and Hittites, 
defy definite identification. These w^ere the peoples who carried 
civilization all through northern Africa and across the Mediter- 
ranean to many coasts of southern Europe. Sallust quotes from 
the library of king Hiempsal a story of the invasion of Numidia 
by Hercules and his army of Medes, Persians, and Armenians. ^^ 
Movers is not far astray in asserting that the Hycsos, leaving 
Egypt for the west, became the Numidians and Mauretanians."*^ 
The Hycsos, typical Turanians, are, however, to be carefully dis- 
tinguished from the Amorite tribes, that, according to tradition, 
fled from the arms of Joshua along the same route. ^'^ Yet there 
seems to have been a remarkable fusion of peoples and of 
language in northern Africa, producing the Berber type of 
humanity and of speech, which has much in common wdth the 
Celtic. In point of worship and arts there is much similarity 
between the former inhabitants of the Canary Islands, or the 
Guanches, and .the Peruvians, so that comparative ethnologists 
have been led to regard the latter as Guanche colonists, rather 
than the guardians of the eastern limits of that widespread Khitan 
race, whose western bound was fixed in the Canaries.'*^ 

" Josephus, Antiq. i. 1.5. 

^'' Sallust, Bel. Jug, xviii. 

"' Ap. (jiuigniaut, ii. S3t3. 

*'' Procopius, IJel. Vandal, ii. 20; Leo Africanus, Uescrii)tio Africae ; Shabeeny's 
Travels, by Jackson, London, 1820. 

I'* (ihisse, History of the Canary Islands; Malte Brun, Geog. vol. iv. ; Peg-ot 
Ogier, The Fortunate Isles, by Frances L(jcock ; Peruvian Antiquities, 14, 32. 



The H1TTITE9 IN Palestine and the Neighbouring 
Countries Before the Rise of the Assyrian Empire 


Leaving tlie colonizers of Africa to spread along its Mediter- 
ranean shore and drive the descendants of Mizraini and Phut 
into the interior, we turn to the Hittite Confederacy at Kadesh. 
It seems to have done more than hold its own against the 
Amorites, for the family of Paseach, aided by the Heraclidae and 
Ekronites. had passed over Jordan, and, in the person of Og or 
Gog, had assumed sovereignty over the Amorites in Bashan and 
Gilead, while Sihon the Amorite indemnified himself for this loss 
V)y depriving Moab of her northern boundaries. The Zerethite 
sons of Anak lingered about Hebron, and, with some of the 
Rephaim who appear, like them, to have been favoured by the 
Philistines, maintained themselves against the Amorite Con- 
federacy, framed on the model of the Hittite with Jerusalem at 
its head. A collision took place during the obscure period that 
intervenes between the last Egyptian record of Palestinian war- 
fare and the entrance of Israel into Canaan between the 
Heraclidae and the desendants of Shimon the Beerothite, but 
where tliis took place it is hard to say. It may have been to the 
north of Bashan, where tlie kingdom of Hamath Zobah sprang 
int(j existence, through whose country the posterity of Regom 
nnist needs pass to get U) Cai'chemish, the historical seat of th'^ 
family. Socjii after leaving Egypt, Moses sent spies into Canaan 
who lu'ought biick a report of the state of tiie land, of which we 
possess but a brief suimiiary.^ 'I'hc s])it's had entered by the 
roail from the south whicli passed hy llehron, ami had tlieuce 
iiiad(' their way noi'thwai'd to ilelioh, opposite; the spi'ings of 
loi'dan. In the south they found the Amalekites in the (K'cupa- 

' Xuiiili. xiii. 


tion of part of their ancient domain, separated from the rest of 
their Hittite brethren, with the exception of the Kenite families 
of Arabia Petraea. In Hebron they found more Hittites in the 
three sons of Anak the Geshurite. The Canaanites, whom the 
spies saw dwelling by the sea and by the coast of Jordan, were 
the Sidonians, the Phoenicians or Beni Jaakan, and the Girgasites; 
and in the mountains were the Hittites, Jebusites, and Amorites.^ 
In the enumeration of the tribes, the reporting spies appear to 
have begun at the north with Sidon and the Phoenicians, next to 
whom came the Hittites, extending from Rehob to the mountains 
of Bethel, then the Jebusites in Jerusalem and Bezek, and finally 
the Amorites in all the south country to the border of the 
Amalekites. No mention is made of the Philistines and the 
other Japhetic tribes scattered through the land, nor of the 
occupation of Jericho by a branch of the family of Jerachmeel, 
the ancestor of the historical descendants of Japheth. In their 
wanderings in the wilderness, Israel's only enemies were the 
Amalekites of the desert under their Agag, and a body of 
Canaanites, perhaps journeying from the Persian Gulf to seek a 
western home like the Amorites, whose king was Arad. When 
tliey came to the Amorite border, no attempt was made to com- 
bine the forces of the trans-Jordanic tribes against them, which 
may be regarded as an indication that the kingdoms of that 
region were mutually hostile. Joshua conquered them in detail, 
first reducing the Amorite kingdom of Sihon, which lay between 
Moab and Bashan, and, by a stroke of military genius, hindering 
future combinations in that quartei*. Og or Gog, who was lord 
of the Amorites of Gilead and Bashan, and who reigned in the 
ancestral seat of the Rephaim, Ashteroth Karnaim, was him- 
self no Amorite. His name is Hittite, the Circassian gug, the 
heart, Basf|ue gogo, thought, desire, feeling, which the Japanese 
has lengthened to kokoro, mcaninor both heart and thoun-ht, of 
wliicli I'oJrocJii, a syn)nym, answers to the Choctaw vliuhesh. 
The Lydians, among whom the historical Gyges appears, were 
Hittites (jf Laadah ; and Gog, the son of Shemaiah and descen- 
dant f)f Pascach, is the only person of the name mentioned in 

- l'"i)r I'x'iii^Hii as I'liDciiiciaiis, sit my article on tht- Pliociiicians in the Briti^ 
and l-'i)rcitcn J'^vang-clical Krvicw, .luly, 1875, ]). 425, st-t). 


the Kenite genealogies. It is also expressly stated that Og was 
of the remnant of the Rephaim.^ 

Gog of Bashan is a character of much interest. The raljbins 
tell unnumbered stories about him, each more extravagant than 
the last.* Gog and Magog is not a mere Bible expression, but is 
as common in the east as Kretlii unci PletJti in Germany.^ Two 
Latin legends relate to Gog. The first is that of Caeculus, son 
of Vulcan, who built Praeneste in Italy, a city connected with 
Anagnia, after a lifetime spent in robbery and pillage. Having 
no inhabitants for his city, he besought his father, Vulcan, to 
acknowledge him before the neighbouring people. Suddenly a 
tlame shone all round about him, and the multitude that had 
assembled to behold the adventui'ous stranger at once consent 
to become his subjects. The second legend calls him Cacus, also 
a son of Vulcan, and a robber like Caeculus. He was a o-iant of 
enminous bulk, from wiiose mouth fire and smoke were emitted. 
His cavei'n in the Aventine hill was hung round about with the 
hea<ls and limbs of his victims, and the whole land was in terror 
because of his ravages. When Hercules came thither with the 
oxen of Geryon, Evander hospitably entertained him, but Cacus 
stole away the hero's herds. Thereupon Hercules attacked the 
monster, and, spite of his blasts of tire, strangled him in his 
ai-ms. Dionysius of Halicarnassus adds that Hercules disbanded 
part of his troops, and settled them in the land over which Cacus 
had tyrannizel. The same person appears, although out of date, 
as Cocalus, King of Camici, or, according to Pausanias,of Inycus, 
in Sicily. To him Daedalus lied, and when Minos came in .search 
of that ingenious but wicked subject, Cocalus scalded him to 
death in a hot bath. Another form of Goof is Caucon. of whom 
we know little more than that he was the eponym of the 
Caucones of Ells and Bith^-nia. Geographically his name is con- 
nected with Samicus and Anigrus, and genealogicall}' with 
Phlyus, doubtless the same as Phlias, son of Cacus and grandson 
of Temenus. Pausanias states that Caucon, son of Celaenus, 
brought the I'ites of tlu; great goddesses to ^lessenia. The 

D.-ut. iii. 11. 
' \'.:um-/-(',n\\h\, L.'g.'iici.^ (,f Old Totaincnt Characters. 
Tii-Talliiud ; Tli.- KMi-aii ; Finiusi, Mirkhoi,,!. 


Gygaea palus of Lydia is connected with Magnesia ; and Nicolas 
of Damascus says that the Magnesians, having disfigured Magnes, 
a beautiful youth of their city beloved by Gyges, that monarch 
took their city. Gyges, again, was a usurper who married the 
wife of Candaules, the son of Myrsus, and the last of the 
Heraclidae. His story is variously told. According to Hero- 
dotus, Candaules, proud of his wife's beauty, secretly introduced 
his officer, Gyges, into her bedchamber, which the queen dis- 
covered and offered Gyges his choice of death or the assassination 
of his master. Gyges chose the latter and became king. But 
Plato says that Gyges was a herdsman, and that, while feeding 
the flocks of the King of Lydia, a great earthquake took place 
which made a rent in the ground. Into this chasm he descended 
and found a brazen horse with an aperture in its side. Looking 
in, he saw a royal corpse with a ring on its finger. Returning to 
his brother herdsmen, he found that by turning the ring he could 
make himself invisible. With this potent ally he took possession 
of the queen, murdered the king, and ascended the Lydian 
throne. Nicolas of Damascus represents Gyges as the descen- 
dant of one Dascylus, whom the Lydian Adyattes had assassinated. 
A prophecy had gone before that vengeance should come in the 
fifth generation, in which were Sadyattes the king and his 
officer, Gyges. The latter was sent by the king to bring home 
his bride, the dauo-hter of Arnossus, Kino; of Mysia. On the 
way he insulted the 3'oung queen and was condemned to die, but, 
collecting a band of followers, he suddenly fell upon Sadyattes 
in the bridal chamber and put him to death. Li this last, Sady- 
attes looks like Sandacus, who, according to Apollodorus, married 
Pliarnace, daufditer of Me^essarus, and built Celenderis in 
Cilicia, which Bochart supposes to be a corruption of the land of 
Gilead. Arnossus and Pharnace are forms of Ir Nahash, the son 
of Tehinnah the Nairi, while Sadyattes, as a Zoheth, would 
explain the Messenian and Magnesian coimection as relating to 
Meonf)thai, whose people the Egyptian monuments call Mashanat. 
Candaules also is probably the rendering of the original name 
Gotliniel wliicli heads the line of Kenezzites to which Meonothai 
and Zoheth belcjnged. But they were in no sense Lydians, while 
Mvrsus and Ma-^mes niiii'ht well stand f(jr the two genuine Lydian 


names, Mareshah and Meou. The Maonites also were certainly 
to the east of Jordan in the time of Gog, having removed from 
Beth-Baal-Maon in Moab into the country east of Bashan. Gog 
was plainly a usurper. It is said that he " dwelt at Ashtaroth 
and at Edrei, and reigned in mount Hermon and in Salcah, and 
in all Bashan unto the border of the Geshurites and the Maacha- 
thites, and half Gilead, the border of Sihon, King of Heshbon."*^ 
Edrei or Edregi, supposed to be the Hadrach of Zechariah's pro- 
phecy, was a transported name, there being a place so called near 
Capernaum, which is mentioned in the book of Joshua with 
Kedesh and Hazor.'' Hermon was certainly named after Harum 
the father of Aharhel ; and Salcah may be a form of Zerach fur- 
nishing the Egyptian Sarasu. The name Ir Nahash, which 
appears equally in Arnossus, Pharnace, and Praeneste, as well as 
in the Mysian Lyrnessus united with Pedasus, has no place in the 
Hebi-ew record of Palestinian geography. When Nahash 
appears in the Bible as a proper name it is always connected with 
Amnion. In Greek story Edrei connects with the nine-headed 
Hydra of Lorna, which was slain by Hercules at the spring Amy- 
mone. Lerna is an abbreviation of Lyrnessus denoting Ir 
Nahash, and Amymone is the Greek version of Jemima, the name 
of Job's eldest daughter. Pausanias tells how the Hydra was 
nourished under a plane tree near the fountain of Am3nnone, and 
how Philammon instituted the Lernaean mysteries in connection 
with it. The numbei" nine was sacred to the family of Hamath, 
l)ut also to that of Tehinnah, for the nine Muses of Parnassus 
belong to the same story as the nine-headed Hydra of Lerna. As 
Lerna is to Lyrnessus, so is mount Parnes to Parnassus, for on 
that mountain were the statues of Jupiter Parnethius and Jupiter 
Semaleus, uniting the name of Ir Nahash with that of Samlah.^ 
According to Strabo, the abodes of the Hydra and the Stympha- 
lides W(,Tt; in close proximity. Paseach also connects with the 
story in Aniynioiie, his granddaughter .leniinia. Nahash is 
famous in Sanscrit stoi-y us tlui great serpent Nahusha, whose 
identity with Ir Nahash is established by his descent from Ayus 

'' rii>li. ,\ii. '], 

' 7.<rh. ix. ] ; ,I,,.-I,. xix. .S7. 
' I'au-.iiii.-is. 


and Pururavas. He was a great king and devotee of the gods, 
who, by making the sacrifice of a hundred horses, dethroned Indra 
himself. Then he claimed the celestial throne and Sachi the 
spouse of the god. None dared openly resist him ; therefore 
Sachi consented to a union with the presumptuous monarch on 
condition that he would come to her in a car drawn by Brahmans. 
The intoxicated Nahusha harnessed the Brahmans to his car and 
hastened to meet the goddess, but as the sages were not quick 
enough in their movements, he gave Agastya, the nearest of them, 
a kick on the head, crying at the same time " sarpa, sarpa," (go, 
go !) ; on which the Brahman answered " sarpa, sarpa," (snake, 
snake !) and hurled the king of Pratishthana to the earth, where 
he crawled a huge serpent for ten thousand years. It was he 
who hugged the Bharatan Bhima in his folds, and who, letting 
him go at the request of Yudisthira, was by that hero set free 
from the curse of Agastya and allowed to ascend to heaven.^ 
Xahash is the Hebrew word for a serpent and for brass, and is 
used by Job to denote the draco volans or flying serpent.^ The 
brazen horse in the story of Gyges connects with this word. 
Druhyu, a son of Nahusha is a Typhonian monster answering to 
the Hydra and Edregi. The Persian story of Ir Nahash calls him 
Piranwis-ah, and makes him the commander of the armies of Afra- 
siab, king of Touran. As Zohak and Afrasiab belong to the same 
family, the latter is Ophrah the Kenezzite,connected, however, with 
the Kt'phaiu) through his grandfather Abiezer, the son of Samlah. 
It is impossiljle, therefore, that Ir Nahash can have been Ophrah's 
general, but he may have acted in that capacity for his ancestor 
Othniel. Mirkhond makes Siyawesh or Zipli of the line of Jabez 
marry Ferangiz the daughter of Piranwis-ah. In the Greek 
history of the Argivc line, a Lynceus, otherwise unhistorical, is 
introduced as the son of ^Egyptus and the only one spared among 
his fifty sons by the daughters of Danaus. The Persian account 
ex|)lains this double relation of Lynceus as Ir Nahash to the 
families of Jabez and the Kenezzites of Dinhabah. Sir George 
("ox, however, by a ha))py stroke of genius unites Lynceus and 
the Hvdra. After statinii- that the Danaides threw the heads of 

Jul, xxvi. 1.3. 


their slain husbands into the marsh orounds of Lernai, he goes on 
to say : " But one of the Danaides refused or failed to slay her 
husband. The name of this son of Aigyptus is L\'nkeus, a myth 
to which Pausanias furnishes a clue by givinc: its other form 
Lyrkeios. But Lyrkeios was the name given to the river Inachos 
in the earlier portion of its course, and thus this story would 
simply mean that although the other streams were (|uite dried 
up the waters of the Lyrkeios did not wholly fail."^^ Without 
discussing Sir George's explanation, his note to this passage may 
be added as it stands. " The head of Lj-nkeus (Lyrkeios), the 
one stream which is not dried up, answers to the neck of the 
Lernaian Hydra. So long as streams were supplied from the 
main source, Herakles had still to struggle with the Hydi-a. His 
victory was not achieved until he had severed this neck which 
Hypermnestra refused to touch. Tlie heads of the slain sons of 
Aigyptos are the heads which Herakles liewed oti" from the 
Hydra's neck : and thus this labour of Herakles resolves itself 
into the struggle of the sun with the streams of tlie earth, the 
conquest of which is of coui'se the settino- in of thoi-ou<>h 
drought." Immediately after the passage in Pausanias to which 
Sir George Cox refers, the geographer mentions Epidaurus, a 
])lace answering to the Palestinian Abiezer and the Indian region 
of Abisarus, of which he says, Deiphontes and Hyrnethus the 
Hei-aclids took possession. But Temenus the head of the Hera- 
clidae had been king over that region, and had given his daugh- 
ter Hyrnetho in marriage to his kinsman Dei})hontes, who was 
Ijetter loveil liy Teyienus and the Argives than were his own 
sons Cisus. Cerynes, and Plialces. Tlie brothers determined to 
take Hyrnetho away from J)L'iph()ntes, and, as sh(3 i-cfnsed to go 
with them, they took her by force and drove awa\' with hci- in a 
cai". ])eiphontes and his Epidaurians pursued and killed Cn-ynes 
with a dai-t, l)ut, fearing lest he might wound Hyrnetho to whom 
Phalees clung, he endeavoui'cd to drag liim away. Phalccs, how- 
ever, so \"iol('ntly prcsscii his sister that she died in his ni'iiis ; 
wlici-eupon h(,' disengaged jiiiuself fiMiii the- grasp of Deiphontes 
and Hed in terror, leasing the uidiap])y l^j)idauri.ui to build the 
H\"i'nethium in hoiiou!' of his dead wife.'- Another stor\' of 

'' .Ary.'iii Myt!i..I..-y. li. LTH 
I- I'aU'-. ii. _'>. 


Nahash is that of the Megaric Nisus, made the father-in-law of 
Megareus, who is evidently the same person as Macareus, king of 
Lesbos, called by Diodorus a son of Crinacus. Like Samson, the 
strength or fortune of Nisus was in his hair, and, so long as the 
purple lock remained uncut, his life and happiness lasted. But 
when Minos besieged Megara, Scylla, the daughter of the king, 
fell in love with the Cretan, and, cutting off the lock from her 
father's head while he slept, gave it to the invader who thus 
obtained the city. Minos, instead of being gratified, was disgusted 
with Scylla's treachery, and, tying her by the feet to the stern of 
his ship, dragged her through the sea till she was drowned. Two 
Irish stories exhibit relations to that of Hyrnetho. In the time 
of Connor, king of Ulster, a prophet foretold injury to the king- 
dom from the child of Feidhlim, his secretary. Connor, however, 
would not allow this child to be put to death, but shut her up in 
an impregnable tower surrounded b}' a strong garrison, appoint- 
ing a wise woman named Leabharcham to be her gaoler. The 
princess Deirdre grew to be a woman of singular beauty. Look- 
ino- out of her window one wintry day she saw the blood of a 
calf just killed lying on the snow, and a raven feeding upon it, 
and prayed that she might have a husband " who had a skin as 
wliite as the driven snow, hair as shining black as the feathers of 
a raven, and a blooming red in his cheeks as deep as the calf's 
blood." Her governess told her that Naois, the son of Visneach, 
corresponded to such a picture, and then, at the princess's request, 
entered into correspondence with Naois. With the aid of his 
brothers Ainle and Ardan and a hundred and fifty followers, the 
son of Visneach stormed the castle and carried Deirdre ott' to 
Scotland. The king of Scotland sought to deprive Naois of his 
bride, so that he was compelled to sue Connor for permission to 
return to Ulster. Connor apparently consented, but as soon as 
the three s(ms of Visneach landed, his general Eogan, chief com- 
mander of the Fearmoighe, treacherously slew them and carried 
Deii"dre to the king. For some time she remained in confinement 
bewailing her beloved Naois, but Connor brought her out and 
best(jwe<l hei' upon the murderer of her husband. Between Con- 
nor and Eogan she was borne in a car towards the castle of the 
latter, and on the wav the cruel kinir amused himself makinrr 


coarse jests upon the prisoner, which so incensed her that she 
threw herself violently to the ground and beat out her brains. 
The other stor}' is that of Macha, wife of Cruin, the son of 
Adnauihuin. Connor compelled her, although with child at the 
time, to run a race with his horses. She came first to the goal, 
but immediately gave birth to a son and daughter and died 
leaving a curse upon the men of Ulster. " And heaven heard her, 
for the men of that province wei'e constantly afflicted with the 
pains of childbearing for many years, from the time of Connor, 
who then reigned in Ulster, to the succession of Mai, the son of 
Rochruide."^^ The circumstances of Hyrnetho's death were simi- 
lar to those of Macha : and the enemies of Siyawesh attempted 
to destroy the unborn son of Ferangiz. 

The story of Macha is valuable as shedding light upon a 
strange custom peculiar to that Chelubite branch of the Achash- 
tarite race to which Paseach and Ir Nahash belonged. In Beam 
it is called the Couvade, and consists in the rising of the mother 
from her bed immediately after the birth of her child, and the 
father taking her place, there to receive the compliments of the 
neighbours. Various writers cited by M. Francisque- Michel find 
the same usage in Biscay and Navarre. M. Chaho has attempted 
to explain it b}" the legend of Aitor (Achashtari), the father of 
the Bas([ues. While in exile upon a mountain a son was born to 
him, and the mother, fearing for the life of the infant if she re- 
mained with him doing nothing, placed him under the father's 
care and went away to provide for the wants of the family. 
Since then the Basques have preserved this ceremony in memory 
of the privations of their first parents. ^^ Strabo knew of tliis 
custom, and says concerning the Iberian women of Spain : " They 
cultivate the ground, and after childbirth put their husbands in 
bed in their place and wait upon thcm."^'' Diodorus Siculus 
found it in Corsica, where a strange and very difficult language 
was spoken : " They (the Corsicans) observe a ceremony of a 
most fantastic character at the birth of their children. They pay 
no attf'ution of any kind to their wives while they are in labour; 

'' K<-atiii^'. 

" ]-"rancisfiu("-Miclicl, Lc Pays ];as()iu', '202. 

'' .Stiabu, iii. 4, 17. 


but the husband goes to bed and lies there a certain number of 
days as if he were the patient."^^ Apollonius Rhodius notes the 
custom as pertaining to the Tibareni, neighbours of the Chalybes 
on the south-eastern shore of the Black Sea. The passage is 
thus translated by Mr. Preston : 

" Advancing in their course the advent'rous band 
Were borne along the Tibarenian land. 
Among that race strange usages thej' find, 
Inverting all the customs of mankind : 
When to the light their infant offspring rise, 
The husbands utter groans and i)iercing cries ; 
With many a bandage bind the drooping head. 
And, helpless, sink upon the sickly bed : 
The wives for them the choicest food prepare, 
And baths adapted for the teeming fair."l" 

In the travels of Marco Polo this couvade is attributed to the Zar 
Dandan or Golden Teeth, who are the Miau-tze of West Yunnan 
in China, and to the present day " the father of a new-born child, 
as soon as its mother has become strong enouLfh to leave her 
couch, gets into bed himself and there receives the cono-ratulations 
of his acquaintances."^^ Sir John Lubbock cites the custom as 
common to the Caribs of Guiana, the Abipones of the Gran Chaco 
and the Dyaks of Borneo, to whom Dr. Tylor adds the Koravans 
of India.^'^ It is tliis practice as reported by Marco Polo, wliich 
occasioned Butler's couplet 

" Chineses go to bed 
And lie in in their ladies' stead." 

Herodotus relates that a judgment of the same nature as that 
which fell upon the men of Ulster visited the Scythian invaders 
of Eg3'pt in the time of Psanniietichus, on account of their plun- 
dering the temple of Yeiuis Urania at Ascalon.-*^ 

The ditierent traditions thus set forth indicate, first a connec- 
tion of the tribe of Ir Nahash with Edrei, which Og possessed in 
addition to Ashteroth Karnaim, the ancient seat of the Rephaim. 

!' DicMl. Sic. v. 11. ' 

'" I'lt.-ston, Arguiiauties of Aiiolloniu.s Rhodius, London, iSll, vol. i. p. 153. 

1^ Yul.', ,Mareo Poln, ii. 52. 

'^ Lubliuck, l'r<, 10; Tylor, rriniitive Culture, i. 7<'). 

-' H.-indot. i. 105. 


An inscription of Shalmanezer places Adduri in tlie immediate 
vicinity of the Nairi kingdom of Dayani, which represents Tehin- 
nah the father of Ir Nahash.-^ They also indicate a distinct 
relation subsisting between the Kenezzites of Elephantine and the 
family of Ir Nahash, first in Egypt, and afterwards in Palestine, 
where these Kenezzites were found in the country of Abiezer, the 
chief town of which was Ophrah or Beth Leophrah. This is fur- 
ther vouched for in geographical nomenclature by Lyrnessa as a 
name of Tenedos or Leucophrys, the island of Cycnus and Tennes. 
If, however, the Hycsos city Arnath be the same as Terenuthis, 
which is to the west of the Delta, a later Egyptian home of the 
family must be looked for in the south, probably about Berenice, 
a name common to Ethiopia and Cyrene. An association of the 
two Xairi lines of Paseach is also displayed, which ajipears in the 
Troad, where Pedasus and Lyrnessus were twin cities, and in 
Syria where the same river bore the two names Orontes and 
Thapsacus. Pausanias says that a Roman emperor, whom he does 
not name, turned the Orontes into a new channel for the benefit 
of his fieet, and in the dry bed of the old channel found an urn 
of earth more than eleven cubits high, in which was the body of 
a man of equal height. An oracle declared that the body was 
that of an Indian named Orontes.-- The representative of the 
line of Paseach is Gog, the Lydian Gyges, who appears at first in 
a humble station ; and the reigning king, whether he be Cau- 
daules or Sadyattes, an Othniel or a Zoheth, belongs to the Ken- 
ezzite fauiily. The seat of this family was probably Abiezer in 
central Palestine near the Jordan and the water of Tappuah, 
l)L-longing to Mareshah. Its king had strengtliened his throne by 
taking in marriage a daughter of tlie king of Ir Nahash, who for 
ccjuvenience may be called Pharnacc or Pcreiiice, but the <(Ucstion 
arises wlu^'ther he took her with or against her will. (libbon has 
preserv(Ml a remarkal)le parallel to Herodotu.s' story of ({yues in 
that of Posamund. Slu.' was the daughter of ( "nuiiiiuud, king of 
th(,' Gepidac, and was sought in marriage by Albijin, king of the 
Lombards. Jjy stratag(,'m and force he gained possession of the 
fail' pi"ine<'ss, but the Gepidae and the lionians overcauie him, and 

-1 li.'C'.i'ls (.f tl.i' I'a^t, iii. !M. 
I'uii^. \iii. 2;i. 


he was compelled to relinquish his prey. Alboin then called in 
the aid of the Chagan of the Avars, against whose multitudes the 
Gepidae could not stand. Cunimund with the bravest of his 
warriors fell hghting, and Alboin had a drinking cup made of his 
skull. He carried off Rosamund once more, who appeared to be 
well satisfied as the queen of Lombardy, soon afterwards gained 
by her warlike husband's valour and military skill. In a palace 
near A^erona he feasted with his warriors, and when the banquet 
was far advanced had Cunimund's skull filled with wine and sent 
it to the queen to drink. Rosamund dissembled and touched the 
sacred relic with her lips, vowing inward revenge. Helmichis, 
the king's armour bearer, was her agent. When she had deprived 
Albuin of all weapons, and lulled him to sleep, he entered wnth a 
band of followers and killed the tyrant, whose fall his queen 
smiled at beholding. The Lombards drove her forth, and with 
Helmichis, her daughter, and the faithful Gepidae, she sought 
refuo-e with Lono-inus, the Exarch of Ravenna. The Exarch 
sought her in marriage, and she prepared to make away with 
Helmichis in order to bring about this union. But while he drank 
the cup she tendered him, he did not drain it ; there was enough 
left to serve Rosamund as she had served him, and with his dagger 
at her breast he compelled the guilty queen to partake of the 
poisoned draught which ended both their lives.-^ 

Cunimund, Alboin, Longinus, and probably Rosamund and 
Helmichis, are historical characters belonging to the second half 
of the sixth century, just as many personages in the Niebelungen 
Lied pertain to the middle of the fifth ; yet the traditions con- 
cerning them are twice-told tales. The Gepidae were of the same 
lineage as tlie Franks, and these were Germanized Hittites, as 
were the j^orse Varangians and British Bernicians. Xennius 
deduces the Bernicians, from whom the Deirans were separated 
in the time of Soemil, perhaps Samlah, having been pi'eviously 
one people, from Beornec, son of Beldeg, or Baldur, son of Woden ; 
and states that from Beornec in the eighth generation came a 
(luecn Bearnf)ch.^"^ Between these, however, he brings in Ingwi 
and Eoppa of the line of Paseach, and Theodric a Hadadezer. 

Siiiith's Stu'icnt's Ciblxiii, ell. xxiv. 
^' N<-nniu.-<, eh. 'il. 


These were the same as the Franks of Europe, descendants of 
Ir Nahash, Berenice, Parnassus. The Gepidae, however, although 
closely related, were not the same people, but a Germanized rem- 
nant of the Cappadocians, or Jabezites, called in southern Italy 
Messapian lapyges. It is clear now why the Sanscrit documents 
make Gritsamada, who was the brother of Nahusha, the son of 
Vitahavya or Mezahab, and, at the same time, call Vitahavya's 
descendants the Srinjayas. By a union, represented in Persian 
story as the marriage of SiN'awesh and Ferangiz, the line of Ir 
Nahash, Srinjaya, or Ferangi, was leagued with that of Jabez, so 
that Cappadocia owned a Tyana and a Parnassus. But the 
Gepidae, if they told the story of Rosamund, derived it not from 
their own, but from Prankish traditions. The Lombards again, 
of whom Alboin her husband was king, were the halbardiers 
descended from Leophrah, the Olymbrius of the Cilicians, the 
Zeus Labrandens of Caria bearing an axe, the Labradh of Irish 
story with his green-headed partisans ; and to their line belonged 
Godoniel and Zoheth, or Candales and Sad^^attes. They also were 
Germanized Hittites. It is not alleged that any of these peoples, 
Gepidae, Franks, Lombards, were of pure Hittite blood. The rule 
of the Hittite confederacy, as shown in the institutions of the 
Iroquois league, was to strengthen the Long House by admitting 
any tribes that were willing to enter the League and conform to 
its usages; and the introduction in this way of large bodies of 
people, from time to time, must account for the enormous extension 
throughout tlie habitable world of Hittite names, customs, and 
tra<litions. The story of Rosamund is thus an old tale of enmity 
between the men of Ir Nahash and the Kenezzites, carr3ang us 
back through the traditions of tlie Lydian Gyges and the mere 
iiienti(jn of (_)g of Bashan, as the lord of an Edrei that did not 
riglitl}' belong to him, to that obscure poi-tion of Hittite history 
that lies l)et\veen the reigu of the tliird Rameses and the entrance 
(jf Israel into Canaan. 

This stoiy leaves us in doubt as to the truc^ciuiraeter of the 
priiici'ss or (|Ueen thi'ough whom (Jg claimed Edrei. and as to his 
tiT'atiiienl (jf Ucv. Of the traditions I'eferred to. the Greek one 
of liynietho, tin- Persian of Ferangis, and the L'ish. ichite to an 
Ivgyptiaii alliaiiet; liet\ve('n the faniilies of .labez and Ir Nahash 


which was distasteful to the Kenezzites of Elephantine, All these 
accounts coincide in representing the Kenezzites as killing the 
husband and acting cruelly towards the wife ; and in some 
way, not yet very clear, the practice of the couvade originated in 
her history. As the Coptic language turned Paseach into Pthah, 
so it converted Nahash into Neith. This Neith, tutelary goddess 
of Sais, corresponds to the Greek Athene and Roman Minerva. 
The oldest accounts of the birth of Minerva make her motherless, 
a child of Jupiter. The monarch of the gods, learning that his 
spouse Metis was about to bring forth a daughter excellent in 
wisdom, and a son who should rule the universe, swallowed her, 
like the Lydian Gambles, to prevent this catastrophe. But the 
pains of maternity came upon the deity, who only found relief 
when Vulcan cleft his skull, and Minerva full-armed sprang from 
it. The child-bearing Jupiter was a common subject of the artists 
of that Hittite people, the Etruscans. The favourite tree of 
Minerva was the olive. It is not a mere coincidence that Minerva 
was worshipped at Epidaurus, where was the Hyrnethium sur- 
rounded on all sides by wild olive trees, which Deiphontes conse- 
crated to the memory of his murdered Hyrnetho and forbade any 
one to touch. No less a personage than Jupiter Avas the first to 
keep the couvade, but that the great Zeus was the Ziph, Siyawesh, 
or Deiphontes, whose child-bearing wife came to a tragic end 
through the cruelty of the Kenezzites, is more than one would be 
disposed to assert. This Egyptian legend being separated from 
the mass of tradition, there remains that of the second Pharnace. 
Under that name she was the wife of a Sandochus, and, as a 
daughter of the king of Arnossus, she was the bride of Sadyattes, 
both of these representing a Zoheth, or Sandes, in the Kenezzite line 
of Leophrah. Here we have the original of the Lombard stoi y. 
In Auranitis, to the east of Bashan and to the north of Amnion, 
dwelt a descendant of Tr Nahash, the son of Teliinnah, who had 
e.Ktended his conquests into Bashan, founding in that country tlie 
city of Edrei. "He was conquered, however, b\' the Kenezzite 
Zoheth, who took his daughter in mari'iage and became, if indeed 
tliat had not ah-eady been his position, the head of the Hittito 
confederacy. Og, or Gog, a descendant of Jol) and Paseach, \\as 
in the service of Zuhetli, and was, like liis race, a man of <avat 


stature, of personal courage, and manly beauty. He was related 
to the family of the conquered and slain king of Auranitis, and, 
therefore, to the queen by a common descent from their ancestor 
Eshton. It is true that Zoheth might claim the kingdom of the 
Rephaim through Abiezer, a Rapha ; but when Abiezer married 
Hathath, the Kenezzite princess, he virtually renounced his birth- 
right and became an adopted member of the Kenezzite family. 
The Lydian traditions, while acquitting Zoheth of the brutality 
attributed to his representative in the story of Rosamund, yet 
make him guilty of dishonourable conduct towards his queen. If 
this were not sufficient to alienate her from him, the remembrance 
of indignities inflicted upon an earlier Pharnace in Egypt by the 
race to which he belonged would fill up the cup of indignation, 
and lead her to invoke the interference of her kinsman Gog. It 
was he who called in the Amorites, by some jugglery, like Caecu- 
lus, gaining the ascendancy over these invaders ; and with their 
aid he overthrew the dominion of the Kenezzites in Bashan, slew 
Zoheth, and appropriated his queen. Then, having married 
Pharnace, he thereby became king of Praeneste, or, as Latin tra- 
dition inverts the story, the Hernici ruled in Anagnia ; for the 
Hernici were the men of Ir Nahash, and the Anagnians were 
Gog's people, the descendants of Hanoch. Of Pharnace's fate we 
know nothing, but Gog, after a career of conquest and rapine, was, 
like Cacus, slain by an Israelite Hercules, Joshua, the son of Nun, 
whose chief friend was not indeed Evander, but Caleb, the son of 
Jephunneli, a member of that Kenezzite family whose head Gog 
had treacherously murdered. How the story of the death of 
(/acus found its way to Italy is a (juestion hard to answer, but it 
must have travelled from tlie East with a race, Kenite or Kenez- 
zite, friendly to the Israelites and, at any rate, inimical to the 
Etruscans, of whom the Paseachites, or Japuscer, constituted a 
division. Probably the Oscans, Ausones, or Aurunci, carried the 
tale. With tlie victory of Zoheth the empire of Nahusha fell ; 
with that of Gog, tin; so-called Lydian Heraclidae, who wci'e not 
really such, were superseded ; and, coincident with his ovei'thi'ow, 
was the I'ise t(j supremacy over tlu; Ilittite tribes of the race of 
Zocliai- ill tli(; |ers()ii of king dabin ol' llazor. 

.I'jsbna did not attack the Amiiioiiites noi' the men of Ir 


Nahash, who were doubtless confederate with them ; but he 
defeated the Moabites and their Midianite alHes, slayino- the five 
princes of Midian, Evi, Rekem, Zur, Hur and Reba, together with 
the false prophet Balaam, the son of Beor, from the land of the 
Ammonites. On the west side of Jordan his first conquest was 
Jericho, a Japhetic, or as the Sanscrit writers would say, a Brah- 
man city. In Greek story it is probably represented by the first 
Orchomenus inhabited by the Phlegyans and Eteocles, the Jer- 
achmeelite Bela or Belag and Jediael or Jedigael, who were des- 
troyed by incessant storms and fearful earthquakes, save a few 
that fled to Phocis. After the fall of Jericho and the connected 
Ai, one of the chief members of the Amorite or Hornet Confed- 
eration, Gibeon, fell away to Israel, with its dependent cities, 
thus weakening greatly the forces of the Amorites. Five kings, 
of whom Adoni Zedek was the leader, mustered their forces, but 
by a famous night march Joshua came unexpectedly upon them 
and put them to total rout. The story of Cacus makes the Israel- 
ite leader a Latin Hercules, and that of the Campi Lapidei con- 
firms the identification, showing that the people from whom the 
Romans gained their information were favourable to Israel, 
^^schylus first told the story of the Stony Fields which the 
geographers place between Marseilles and the Rhone. There, 
Albion and Bergion, or Alebion and Dercynus, if we follow 
ApoUodorus, met Hercules in his career of western con(}uest. 
The hero's weapons failed him and he invoked the aid of Jupiter, 
who rained stones from heaven and destroyed the Ligurian 
giants. Diodorus tells of the conquests of this Hercules in Sicily, 
and mentions among the famous captains overcome by him. 
Gaugates, Cygaeus, Leucaspis, Pedicrates, Buphonus, and Cry tidas, 
(jf whom Gaugates and Cygaeus seem to represent Gog, and 
Buphonus, Jal)in of Canaan. The kings of ]\[akkedah and 
Libnali, and Horani, king of Gezer, whom Joshua discomfited in 
tlie south, wei'c, in all probability, Amorites, as were the five 
coufuderate kings. In that same south country Joshua afterward 
cut fjfi' tlie Anakiiu, evidently a generic term, for it applies to tlie 
Zfrctliite remnant named after Anak, the son of Arba and 
descendant of .Jcslier, and als(; t(j the Philistines, a Japlietic ])eopl'. 
When Sheshai, .\hiinau an<l Talmai weivj slain, tlieii" faiuilii'S 


appear to have taken refuse in the kingdom of Geshur, alongside 
of that of Maachah, and to the north of Bashan. This seems not to 
have been accomplished until after Joshua's death, at the time 
when Adoni Bezek, a tyrannical and cruel Amorite king, was 
taken with his city of Bezek and executed for his crimes. The 
Philistines, like the Ammonites, were spared because of the 
ancient friendship that subsisted between them and the Israelites 
in their Egyptian home. 

At last the Hittites declared war. The head of their Confed- 
eracy was Jabin king of Hazor ; " for Hazor beforetime was the 
head of all these kingdoms."-^ Hazor was situated to the north of 
Kadesh Naphtali, and like the Latin castriun which as chatsor 
it resembles, means a castle. This is in HebreAV, however, not in 
Hittite. Its representative in Pontus was Gaziura, the ancient 
residence of the Pontic kings ; in Yenetia, Hadria ; and in Japan, 
Katsura, the abode of Sui Sei the second emperor of that coun- 
try. In Japanese the word is supposed to mean the BolicJiUS 
hirsutuf^, a plant of the bean family, which is a somewhat 
improbable name for a city. Its king was Jabin, a modified 
Jephunneh, belonging to the same family as Jephunneh, son of 
Abraham's contemporary Ephron, that namely of Zochar. This 
family has no royal record since the time when Ephron ruled in 
Hebron. From that time the Zocharites became physicians, but 
whether in Egypt or in Palestine or both is hard to say. The 
Odyssey, indeed, makes the Egyptian physicians more skilful 
than othei's because the}^ were of the rnce of Paeon, but no 
distinct traces of the family have been found in the land of the 
Pliaraohs.-'^ Their great African home was Cyrene, to which 
they must have migrated through northern Egypt and Libya. 
As the Takkai'o they were a warlike mai'itinie people associated 
with the Shardana or Zerethites in raids upon the Egyptian 
coast.'-^" In Cyrene, Hippon was one of their eai'liest settlements, 
and it was a ro^^al name, for, according to Solinus, the Phoenician 
Elissa oi- Dido pui'clias('(l from Japon, king of Libya, the ground 
on wiiich sli(.' erected ('arthagc.-'" After Hi])pon, settlements of 

- .ro>hua xi. 10. 

'<' ()<\-, iv. 2;V2. 

" IjfiioriiKUit's M;iiiu:il, i. 2<i.") ; Ki-iirick's ICtr.vpt, ii. 2'^. 

'-'* Solirm-i, xxvii. 10; .Ih|iiiii and 1 1 ipimii arr fornix nf tlir same iianii'. 


Zocharites were founded in Apollonia, which commemorated 
Ephron, in Teuchira, and in Augila far inland, the centre of the 
Nasamones and Garamantes, descended from Nacham and Garrai. 
The Zocharites thus constituted an important element in the 
Hittite population of northern Africa. They have also been 
traced to southern Assyria, in which country they appear to have 
shared royalty with their brethren the Zerethites. But early in 
Egyptian days, a body of the descendants of Zochar established 
itself along with the related Hamathites in the north of Palestine, 
between Capernaum, named after Zophar the Naamathite, and the 
springs of the Jordan at Paneas. The bond that linked the 
physicians and the scribes was the union of Jether, the son of the 
Hamathite Ezra, to Jehudijah, the daughter of Caleb the Zochar- 
ite, a princess whose name was translated into Hittite as Mabug or 
the Excellent Oracle. In the days of Hittite supremacy in the 
south, the families had dwelt in what afterwards came to be 
Judea, where Socho, Gedor, and Zanoah were indications of 
Hamathite occupation, while Keilah and Naamah marked the 
presence of the Zocharites. As early, however, as the reign of 
the first enslaver of Israel, they had been driven into the north, 
for the author of the Travels of an Egyptian, in his reign, makes 
mention of places bearing their characteristic names in that 
quarter. " Didst thou not then go to the country of Kheta ? 
Hast thou not seen the land of Aup ? Knowest thou not 
Khatuina, Ikatai, likewise ; how is it ? The Tsor of Sesortris, 
the city of Khaleb in its vicinity ; how goes it with its ford ? 
Hast thou not made an expedition to Qodesh and Tubukkhi ? 
Hast thou not gone to the Shasus with the auxiliary body ? 
***** Come, set off to return to Pakaikna. Where is 
the road of Aksaph in the environs of the city ? Come then to 
the mountain of Oiisor : its top, how is it ? Where is the moun- 
tain of Ikama ? Wlio can master it ? What way has the Mohar 
gone to Hazor ? How about its ford ? Let me go to Hamath, to 
Takar, to Takar-Aar, the all-a.sseml)ling place of the Mohars ; 
come then on the road that leads there ! Make me to see Jah. 
How has one got to Matamim ? Do not repel us by thy teach- 
ings ; make us to know tliem."^*-' Hazor, then, was in existence 

29 Records of thi; Past, ii. 109, seq. 


in the time of Rameses II.. and Hamath and Zochar were 
intimately connected, for Takar corresponds to Takkaro, the 
name of the Zocharites or Teucri. Khaleb, Qodesh, Tubakkhi, 
Aksaph and Matamim, denote Helbah, Kedesh, Tappuach, 
Achshaph and Madon. The land of Aup must be that of Job, 
whence came his descendant Gog, and may thus be the Bible Tab 
or Ish Tob in the east of Bashan. In this northern region 
Jephunneh was commemorated in Jabneel, but Paneas, sacred to 
him as the cjod Pan, was his chief record. Pan was the lord of 
Hyle in Greece, which was a transported Huleh from the springs 
of Jordan named after Elah, Jephunneh's grandson and the 
father of Uknaz. " How beautiful was the evening scene of 
rocks, trees, blue mountains and the extended plain with the 
thread of the Hha.^bani winding: through it on the western side ! 
Tliere were also herds of cattle coming in, and a .shepherd boy 
playing his rural pipes. What a scene for Poussin 1 I offered to 
buy the Pandean pipe (of several reeds joined laterally) from the 
boy, wishing to have it for my own, obtained at the mythological 
home of Pan himself 

"Pan primus calamos cera conjungere plures 
Vtut the lad asked an exhorbitant price for it and strode away. 
Then I rushed up to make use of the fading twilight for catch- 
ing at least a glimpse of the Greek inscriptions and Pan's grotto 
from which the river issues, not in infantile weakness, but boldly 
striking an echo against the sides of the natural cavity. " Groat 
Pan is dead ! " as tlie superstitious peasants of Thessaly said, whon 
tiifv imagined they heard the echo formed into words, sixteen 
hun<ire(l years ago ; and while musing on the rise and fall of the 
( "lassie idolatry, a bat Hew past me out of the grotto, but I saw 
no moles for the old idols to be thrown to. Pan was the mytho- 
logical fleity presiding over caverns, woods and streams from 
whom this place received its denomination of Panion or Paneas 
in (;re<-k,or Panium in Latin: and the word Paneas becomes 
lianias in Arabic, as it is at this day."-"' This was tlu^ ancient 
Tlie^saly and the f)i-igiiial liome of Pan, who was also Paeon, 
Apollon's son, and the father of .Ksculapius, whom Ghelbah or 

" I'inri, Ijyw.iys in I'alcstiuf, .'<(>5. 


Khaleb held in honour. Apollon's line had been long in servitude 
to Admetus, feeding that monarch's flocks in their own Thessaly, 
but now, in the person of Jabin, king of Hazor, the sons of 
Zochar lifted up their heads, and made their capital no mere 
assembling place for Mohars or seiibes, but for the lords of all the 
tribes of Heth. 

Unhappily the book of Joshua furnishes the name of but one 
other Hittite monarch at this time, that of Jobab, king of Madon. 
This name is identical with that of the Temenite son of Zerah, 
who reigned in Edom after Bela, and whose descendants had been 
Hittite emperors or army leaders from the time of Achbor to that 
of Khitasara ; but no such name as Madon occurs in connection 
with the Temenites. No one knows anything of Madon, and it 
is elsewhere unmentioned, save in the following chapter of Joshua 
where its name occurs between those of Lasharon and Hazor.^^ 
The Egyptian Mohar, however, places a Matamim somewhere near 
Takar and Hamath, which Hamath is not to be looked for in 
Syria, but to be identified with Hamath Dor in Naphtali. This 
Egyptian form recalls Mattanah, or Mattanim, which was a stage 
in Israel's wanderings to the north of the Arnon, and thus in the 
midst of the region for which the Hittite tribes contended.^- 
Pausanias says that Mothone in Messenia was anciently called 
Pedasus, but that its name was changed to Mothone in honour of 
the daughter of Qilneus, son of Parthaon.^^ This is the same 
CEneus as the one that represents Hanoch the Paseachite, and after 
him the G^nussae islands were named. He goes on to say that 
the Lacedemonians o-ave .Mothone to the Nauplienses, belonofincr 
to the most ancient Egyptians who left Egypt with Danaus in 
the third generation, and who received their name from Nauplius, 
the son of Amymone. The Bias river with Aepea and Pylos in 
the same region of south-western Messenia bear out this Paseachite 
connection of Mothone. Now Hercules married the daughter of 
G^]nens, or Hanoch, by whom he had a son Hyllus, or Joel. The 
Greek genealogists place Cleodaeus and Aristomachus, two gen- 
erations, Vjotween Hyllus and Temenus, who are the Joel and 

31 JoHh. xii. 19. 
33 Numb. xxi. 18. 
" VdXK. iv. .S.'). 


Shema of the Kenite list. But the son of Temenus is Cisus or 
Casus, and his son is Phlias, answering to the Kenite Azaz or 
Gazaz, son of Shema, and Bela or Belag, son of Gazaz. To Cisus 
another son is given, namely Medon the father of Lacidas and 
grandfather of Meltas, who were virtually deprived of regal 
authorit}'.^* Homer mentions a Medon who with Podarces fought 
at the head of the Phthii, and calls him a natural son of Oileus, 
the father of Ajax, these two being Joel and his grandson Azaz. 
The poet adds that Medon had killed the brother of Eriopis his 
step-mother, on which account he had fled to Phylace.^^ The only 
other Medon of any importance who occurs in legendary Grecian 
history is the son of Codrus, who, after his father had sacrificed 
himself for the welfare of Athens, going out as a woodman to 
meet his death at the hands of the hostile Dorians, became the 
first perpetual Archon and the head of the Medontidae. His period 
is one marked by great migrations, which are represented by the 
departure from Attica of his brother Neleus, who expatriated 
himself, beinw indignant that a lame man should be chosen before 
him. Codrus traced his descent from Neleus, the father of Nestor 
but it was properly on the mother's side, for Bias had married 
Pero, the daughter of Neleus. The separation of the latter Neleus 
from Medon may thus indicate a severance of the Heraclid, from 
tiie Nairi family, but the connection is obscure. The rule of the 
Medonti<lae ceased with Hippomenes, who had shut up his oflend- 
ino- dauo-hter with a wild horse which killed her, and draofo^ed her 
accomplice to death behind his chariot. For these acts of cruelty 
his descendants were deprived of the archonship.^'' Methana in 
Ai'golis was sacred to Hermes and Hercules ; the Troezene with 
which it is connected is thus a record of Begem, and the allied 
Herinione, as a foundation of Hermion, son of Europs, sets forth 
Harum as the step-son of Kapha. As the Oilean Medon was a 
Locrian, so in ancient British history his counterpart Maddan is 
th(i son of Locrin and Gwendolaena.'^'' The exile of Medon inen- 
tione<l by Homer in connection with Ajax, who is Azaz, introduces 
the ancestry of the philosoplier Pythagoi-as. The son of Azaz 

' I'aiiH. ii. 1!); Schuhart, (^ncntioncH (Icnealogicac llistoricae. 

nia<l, ii. 727. 

' See .Viitlioritif's in Kawliiisoii's lI(,To(lotus, ajip. bk. v. J'>ssay ii. l.S, note i). 

' (icoffrcy's I'ritiKli History, ii. (i. 


or Gazaz was Bela or Belag, and he is Phlias, the son of Casus, 
son of Temenus, and probably the same person as Phalx called 
Temenus' son and the father of Rhegnidas. In the time of 
Rhegnidas, says Pausanias, the faction of Hippasus, being unwill- 
ing to submit to him, fled to Samos, where Hippasus became the 
father of Euphron, from whom, through Mnesarchus came Pytha- 
goras.^ But Diogenes Laertius derives Pythagoras, through 
Mnesarchus and Marmacus, from the same Hippasus, and makes 
the latter the son of Euthyphron instead of the father of Euphron, 
giving Cleonymus, an exile from Phlias, as Euthyphron's father. ^^ 
Cleonymus, or Clysonemus, again is represented as the son of 
Amphidamas and grandson of Lycurgus, being thus made a brother 
of Milanion.'*'^ In British story Maddan is the father of Malim, 
who was murdered by his brother Mempricius after Maddan's 
death. The character of Mempricius is painted in the blackest 
colours as a tyrant and debaucher. He was eaten up by wolves, 
and left the throne to his son Ebraucus. The mystery is hard to 
penetrate, for we are deserted by the Kenite lists, but this is clear 
that the names of Madon and Jobab stand in some historical 
relation to the mourning of Meholah, for Milanion of Amphidamas 
has been found in connection with the daughter of Jezreel, who 
is Corineus (like Zeraheen), the father of the British Gwendolen. 
Gwendolen herself bears the name of Samlah, Mahalah's father, 
who is Gwenddoleu of the cannibal birds. Mempricius, or Meu- 
prit, and the Medontid Hippomenes represent a family upon which 
a curse rested on account of a barbarous punishment which one 
of its members inflicted on Mahalah and the accomplice of his 
crime. Every indication marks that family as belonging to the 
Heraclidae, but not in the main line represented by Bela, the 
Phlias of the Greeks. 

' Paus. ii. 13. 

"'' Diog. Laert. viii. 1. 

<" This Milanion reflects Mahalah. 



The Hittites in Palestine and the Neighbouring 
Countries Before the Rise oe the Assyrian Empire 


Although the Buzites of Eker were not Hittites, but a 
Japhetic people, they stood in such intimate relationship to the 
Heraclidae and the Paseachites that some knowledge of their 
history is absolutely necessar}- for purposes of synchronism. 
Next to Buz, the most prominent member of their race was 
Abihail or Abichail, and his name is variously rendered, accord- 
ing as value is given to the aspirate or not, by Iphicles, Phigalus, 
Q^balus, Naubolus, Nauplius, the two last being nunnated like 
Nifiung and Nergal.^ Among the Phaeacians of Corey ra who 
represent the Buzites in the Odyssey, Abihail appears as 
Naubolus, Michael as Anchialus, Gilead as Clytoueus. Nauplius, 
who was an Argonaut, is called the son of Clytoneus, but also of 
Poseidon and Amymone, who is Jemima the daughter of Job. 
(Eneus again, who is Hanoch, the son of Jolj, is made a king of 
Calydon, named after the same Gilead. And Iphicles is repres- 
ented as the twin brother of Hercules, who married the daughter 
of Hanoch or Q^neus. Between Gilead and Abihail, however, the 
Kenite list inserts Jaroach and Cliuri. The Laconian genealo- 
gies make confusion worse confounded, for Michael as Amyclas 
is the father of Hyacinthus, or Jachan, and Argalus; Cynortas 
follows Argalus, and (Elbalus the son of Cynortas marries Gorgo- 
phone tiio daughter of Perseus. Other accounts represent 
<Ebahis as the son of Argulius, or of Telon and the nymph 
Sehethis. Now Sebethis belongs, as a name, to this family, being 
the Kenite Shaphat. and being geographically conncctt'd as Safed 
in Palestine, an<l Sybota in Epii'us. The Sebethus river in 
Campania also is in the midst <jf Buzite names, and is specially 

' 1 Chn.ii. V. i:m5. 


associated with Neapolis, which indeed, means the new city, as 
Nablous is supposed to have done in Palestine ; but, as the latter 
is an adaptation of the ancient Ebal, so is the former of an 
ancient Abihail. If it be true that Abihail is the (Ebalus who 
married a daughter of Perseus, he may at the same time be the 
Iphicles who was born on the same day as Hercules, for Hercules 
in this case will be Shimon, son of Hadar, the Sem Hercules of 
the Egyptians. In this case, Tahath, or the first Rameses would 
seem to have gained over for a time, at least, the once faithful 
Praetorians of the dynasty of Jabez to his cause, which explains 
the sudden collapse of its fortunes and the exile of Caphtorim. 
But all were not thus reduced, for Meshullam, the second son of 
Abihail is the Masraim who fought at Kadesh against Rameses. 
He is called the brother of Khitasara, which he can only have 
been by marriage or by courtesy. Still another name for 
Abihail is Cypselus connecting with Corinth and Arcadia. 
Pausanias describes the ancient coffer with undecipherable char- 
acters in boustrophedon order in which Cypselus was preserved 
from the wrath of the Bacchiadae ; but he also tells how 
Cypselus married his daughter to the Heraclid Cresphonfces, and 
how, when the oligarchs killed Cresphontes and all his children 
but one, because he was more friendly with the poor than with 
the rich, Cypselus took care of his grandson yEpytus and so 
advanced him that the Heraclidae came to be called the 
/Epytidae.'^ From ^pytus descended Sybotas, a Shaphat, 
through Glaucus, Isthmius and Dotadas. But Glaucus, wdio 
sacrificed to Machaon, the son of iEsculapius, and Isthmius his 
son who raised a temple to Gorgasus and Nicomachus, look 
suspiciously like the Zocharite Keilali the Garmite and Eshtemoa 
the Maachathite, sons of Nacham, introduced, through some 
alliance, into the genealogy. The Kenite account is that Joel the 
first and Shapham the next and Jaanai and Shaphat dwelt in 
the land of Baslian unto Salcah.^ If the Hebrew word ha 
ro.sA, tlie first, were brought into connection with Shapham, it 
would furnish Cresphontes. Sphettus, the name of an Attic 

- Pau.s. V. 17 ; viii. .o. 

' 1 Chron. V. 12. The names may denote sub-tribes (>f wliom these were the 


deme, also denotes a son of Troezen. Sopeithes is the Indian 
form of the name as preserved by the classical geographers, who 
place the people, so called after their king, near the Cathaei.* 
The line of Shaphat apparently belonged to the Heraclidae, and 
Cresphontes may find its explanation in the place called by the 
Assyrian Samas-Rimmon Kar-Sibutai, which is suspiciously like 
the modern Khorsabad/'' Were the initial Kar prefixed to 
Shapham, as it here is to Shaphat, the desired Cresphontes would 
result, and Shaphat w^ould be placed in the second or third 
generation after the Hittite Khitasara, and liis aid Masraim or 
Meshullam, thus bringing him down to the time of Joshua's 
conquest. If, however, an ^pytus intervene, Shaphat will be 
much later, and ^pytus, like Hippotas and Hippomenes, may 
represent Jobab of Madon. 

Shapham and his sons Jaanai or Jagnai and Shaphat open up 
a wide field of historical tradition. In Indian story Shapham is 
Asvina, and the two Asvins his sons are Jishnu and Subhaga. 
Whether they received their names from already existing divini- 
ties who gave names to the Assyrian months, or wei'e the namers 
of the months, can hardly be determined at this stage of enquiry, 
but it is certain that Shapham answx-is to the month Sivanu or 
the twins, and Shaphat to Sabadhu. The equestrian Asvins wei'e 
in the Greek mythology Despoina and Arion, and Pausanias 
makes Despoina the same as Per-sephone, daughter of Demeter 
and Poseidon Hippotes. The Phigalunses or people of Abichail 
represented Demeter or Ceres with the head of a horse. In the 
Zend Avesta, Cresphontes or Shaj)ham is Keresaspa, the brother 
of L'rvakhshya and son of Sam, a descendant ef Trita. It is 
related of him that, carrying the clul) Gaesus, he went to ti^ht 
the poisonous serpent Siiivara, that with green venom killed 
h(jrs(.'S and men. As the serpent lay stretched out on the l);mk 
of a rivei'. Keresaspa mistook it for the solid eai'th and lit a iii'e 
on its back wli(.'rt,'\vith to cook his dinner. Thru it plungeil into 
the sti'i'ani, disconeertiiig the hero I'or tlie time, hut he afterwards 
.blew it and the goldiMi-he(_'led demon Zairi-pashna.'' In Sanscrit 

' souIm,, XV. I, ;io. 

l;.<-oni.s ,,f tl,.- I'a.t, i. 17. 

' /.. inl Av.-la, V:i.-,iiH i\. Spi.-rl and I'.L-rrk, hot.-,.. 


story the advocate of the Asvins is Chyavana, a son of Bhrigu 
who sprang from the fire with Kavi and Angiras. It was when 
Indra refused to drink Soma with the Asvins that Chyavana sent 
the monster Mada to swallow up the gods. The history of 
the Shaphathites is very obscure, but their connections come out 
more clearh^ in ^lexico than elsewhere, inasmuch as it contained 
a colony of that people, from whom the traditions of the Zapotecs 
were learned by the Spaniards. The Zapotecs and Mixtecatl or Mix- 
tecs were twin tribes, deriving their origin from two great trees 
which sprang into existence suddenly by the side of a river at 
the mouth of the pass of Apoala. They inhabited Yanquitlan 
and the shores of the lake of Rualo. Their Buddha-like teacher, 
white and bearded, wearing a pointed capuchin over his head 
and carrying a cross in his hand, was named Wixipecocha. 
He was, like Buddha, represented in a sitting position listening 
to the confession of a kneeling woman. His doctrine was one of 
self-abnegation, of withdrawal from all the pleasures of sense, 
and of the practice of penitence and mortification. In Wixipe- 
cocha plainly appears Paseacli, the original Pthah or Buddha, in 
the Hubisegan or Khupuscian form of his name ; and the lake 
Rualo took its name, doubtless, from Rahula, called the son of 
Buddha, but who is the Kenite Aharhel. The priesthood of 
Yopaa seems to have been connected with his creed, as well as 
that exercised by a succession of Wiyataos, who were kings and 
priests in the cavern cit\' of Yopaa. The Mixtecs also wor- 
shipped Petela, perhaps at Mictla, where thei-e was a mass of 
ecclesiastical Vjuilding called " the supreme fortress of Pezelao," 
who was the same as the Mictlan-teuctli or god of the dead 
among the ]\[exicans pi'oper." Pausanias is right in connecting 
Cresphontes and Cypselus, for Shaphat, the ancestor of the Zapo- 
tecs, is shown by their brief history to have descended from 
Abihail, as Apoalo and Pezelao, while Mixtecatl or Mictla repre- 
sents Michael, his eldest son, and Petela, his i-elative Abdiel. 
The name of Yopaa may be that of Job connecting with Ahnrhcl 
in Rualo, through Hanoch in Yancui-tlan, or it may denote Jobab 
of Madon as of this line. ^Yllat renders the latter prol)able is 
that Zaachilla is the chief royal name among the Zapotecs, and 

15. <lc Ijiiurl.iour;,', Xatiuiis Civilis.-'.-^, Tome iii. cli. 1. 


it is the same as Keilah or Ka^ilah, the Zocharite ancestor of 
Jabin, king of Hazor. 

The Zapotecs and Mixtecs were the offspring of the two trees 
of Apoalo. There is no tradition associating Apulia in southern 
Italy with apples, although Athenaeus mentions a kind of apple 
called phaidian. But in the poems of the Welsh Merddin is one 
called the Avallenau, or the apple trees, wherein he mysteriously 
describes the trees which Gwenddoleu exhibited to him under the 
care of the divine maid Olwen.^ These trees with their white 
blossoms were in danger from the men in black, who represent 
the priests of Saul of Rehoboth. They were also sacred to 
Gwenddolen, the lady of the white bow, whom Geoffrey makes 
the mother of Maddan. It may be, therefore, that Maddan and 
Merddin are one and the same personage, representing a branch 
of the Heraclidae that had given up the peacel'ul and monotheistic 
traditions of Paseach and Job in favour of the idolatrous and 
barbarous rites of Samlah, or Gwendolen. Is not the vale of 
Avallenau that of Avilion, famous in the story of Arthur ? In 
Xorse m\'thology the apples are in the possession of Iduna the 
wife of Bragi, but she is stolen away by the giant Thjassi through 
the treachery of the tempter Loki. By the absence of the apples 
the dwellers in Asgard languish and are threatened with extinction, 
when Loki reluctantly brings Iduna back and the o'io-antic bird 
Thjassi is put to death.'^ Bragi the singer is the same as the 
Sanscrit Bhrigu, father of Chyavana. in America the Natchez 
or Naktche were called tlie Epelois, or Apple people ; but the 
Apalachians of Floi'ida were the true owners of this name. Tiie 
Hitchitis atid Mikasukis are classed with them by Mr. Gatschet.^" 
One of their tcnvns was Pattali, answering to the ^lixtec Petela 
and the Kenite Abdiel. In Arrian's Peri])lus of the Black Sea lie 
mentions tlie Apsili and Abasci of Caucasus as near neighbours, 
and not far off the Machelones and Heniochi under their king 
Ancliialus. The various stories in whicli tlie ap])le figures, includ- 
ing that of the ilesperides, seem to resolve tlunnselves into con- 
tests for the friendship of tiie Ekronites to whom Abihail beIon<>'ed, 

' I);ivi.'s' Druids. 
'' Tl,.- I'roM. Ivlda. 
" .\Ii''ruti')ii \ii''in(\. 


these being captains of brave warriors, whose services were capable 
of deciding the destinies of opposing forces on the battle field. 
They had been the guardians of the throne of Jabez, and, after 
the expulsion of the Caphtorim to Palestine, they adhered to 
the fortunes of the Paseachites and the Heraclidae. They may 
be traced throughout the whole area of Hittite migration, as, for 
instance, in northern India, where they were the Passalae and the 
namers of Peucela in the Punjab. This union of a Japhetic race 
with the fortunes of a Hittite people is a fact of great importance 
in ethnological research. Their connection with the family of 
Aharhel, son of Harum and grandson of Regem or Sargon, explains 
the appearance of the name Sagara as that of kings of Carchemish, 
and of Sagal, or Sangala, as the capital of the Cathaei in the 
Punjab, for this name is a version of that of Eker or Geker, the 
head of the race of Buz and Abihail. Besides being the same as 
Sukra and Sokkari, names associated with Buddha and Pthah, it 
also means an apple, being the Basque sagar with that signification. 
As two incidents in Joshua's victorious career have found 
illustration in the story of the Latin Hercules, it is natural to 
expect that the same story should make mention of Jabin, king 
of Hazor. It does, but with historical inaccuracy, for Evander, 
who is Jabin, is represented as the friend of Hercules and the 
enemy of Cacus. That Jabin and Gog were enemies is ver}^ likely, 
and the former may have rejoiced when the giant of Bashan fell ; 
but, when Joshua crossed the Jordan and prepared to conquer all 
Canaan, he could not Ijut rise in defence of his home and people. 
If Virgil is to be believed, Evander had fought under the walls of 
Praeneste and had slain its king Herilus, but now the time of his 
exile from Arcadia, the home of Pan, had come, or rather the time 
of the exile of his race, for Jabin, king of Hazor, was smitten with 
the sword and his city burned with fire. Evander is vouched for 
as Jabin by the name of his mother Carmenta, which denotes the 
senior Zocharite line of Garmi, of whom Keilah, or Kagilah, was 
the father. Several generations must have interposed between 
Uarmi and Jabin, for Zophar the Naamathite, a Zephyrus from 
wliom th(; Epizephyrian Locrians were named wlio founded 
llipponum and Medina in Bruttium, was a fi'iend of Job. The 
>istL'r of Nahani also was the wife of Jether, the son of Ezi'a, oi' 


of his brother Mered. In the annals of Central America, Kagilah 
is called Cuculean, and in Celtic tradition he is named Cuchullin, 
Congcullion, and Cuthullin. But in Mexican history he is the 
first Acolhua, the head of the Acolhua Tepanecs, who early entered 
Mexico and took possession of Huexotla, a Mexican Hazor, which 
became their capital.^^ Ossian unites the name of Cuchullin with 
the story of Deirdre and Naois, which, however, he tells in a way 
quite different from that of the Irish historian. His Deirdre is 
Darthula, the daughter of CoUa, who is beloved by Cairbar, the 
murderer of Cormac king of Ireland, but also by Nathos, the Irish 
Naois. This Nathos is the son of Usnoth, lord of Etha, and Slis- 
hama, the daughter of Semo and sister of Cuthullin. When 
Cuthullin, who was regent for Cormac, fell in putting down an 
insurrection, Nathos took his place as commander of the Irish 
army. He carried off" Darthula, but a storm drove him with his 
bride and his two brothers, Althos and Ardan, on to that part of 
the Ulster coast which was held by Cairbar. The three brothers 
were killed in battle and Darthula died on the body of Nathos. 
Cuthullin again, whose castle is Tura, must be the same person as 
Cathulla king of Inistore, whose palace was Carric-Thura, in 
which he was besieged by Frothal, king of Sora, until Fingal 
delivered him. Cathulla, however, is called the son of Sarno and 
the brother of Comala ; and in his time Fingal defeated Caracul, 
who is certainly not Caracalla.^^ In Irish history, Fionn, son of 
Cumhal, and grandson of Trein More, the same person as Ossian's 
Finj;al, is made the son-in-law of Kino; Cormac. His first wife 
Graine was taken away from him by Diarmuid O'Duibhne, but 
when this took place Cormac gave him his second daughter Ailbhe 
in her stead. In Ossian, Comala, daughter of Sarno, was beloved 
by Fingal, but Roscranna, Cormac's daughter, is made his wife. 
It is abundantly evident that Fingal and all his race were opposed 
to the civilized powers represented by Erragon, Lathmon, Swaran 
of Lochlin, and Berrathon, who .set forth the families of Regem 
and Beeroth. Yet his friendship with tiie Rephuim and descent 
from Sanilah as Cumhal is not borne out by Irish tradition, in 
whicli Eochaidh, son of Conuiaol, or Ishod, son of Sumlali, is the 

" 15. 'If; l>()urt><)ur)<. 
'-' .Mac|it]fr.-iiiii, ().>si;ui. 


murderer of Cearmna and Sobhairce, or Garmi and Zophar. 
Scottish history is in its legendary region largely Zerethite and 
Zocharite, containing in its genealogies such names as Dardanusj 
Evenus, Gormachus, and Domachus, or Zereth, Jabin, Garmi, and 
Eshtemoag. The last king of the first period of Scottish history, 
who is said to have fallen in battle against the Romans, was an 
Evenus, the fourth of that name and son of Fin Gormachus, after 
whose death the Scots took refuge in Scandinavia, or Lochlin.^^ 
Lochlin is itself very like Lugalginna, the Accadian name of 
Sargon of Agade.^* The second period begins like the first with 
a Fergus, but his son was the fifth Evenus, and he was under the 
tutelage of his maternal grandfather Graeme. Uven and Girorfi 
appear each only once in the Pictish Chronicles, but there are 
several names compounded with Fen. Similar to the last is the 
Eddaic Fenrir, the wolf or Calebite, and to his line, as enemies of 
the ^sir, belong the dog Garm or Gamier, Surtur of Muspellheim, 
and Loki. These, representing the Jephunnites, Garmites, Zere- 
thites, and Amalekites, are yet, according to Scandinavian pro- 
phecy, to break forth upon the dwellers in Valhalla and involve 
the universe in conflagration.^^ Thus the demons of Norse 
mythology are the heroes of Ossianic verse. 

The history of Japan ought to contain the record of this 
family, and it probably does, but the introduction of Chinese 
characters into Japan has given to proper names in particular a 
vagueness that almost defies comparison with those of other 
histories. Everywhere, moreover, the Zocharites held a dependent 
position. Within the northern Hittite area, there does not seem 
to have existed an independent Zocharite kingdom. In Trojan 
story, the ruling family is Dardanian, not Teucrian. In Assyria 
the Tiglaths are a mere section of the Ashers. In Libya and 
Cyrene they were dominated by the Rephaim, and governed by 
the Buzites. So in Japan they are almost merged in the Hama- 
thites, or people of Yamato. The first king of Japan was Zinmou, 
also called Sano, and he was the youngest son of Fiko-no-kisa, 
whose mother was the sea goddess Toyo Tama, whom Fiko-fofo 

''' Buchanan, Rerum Scoticarum Historia. 
1* It is more likely a form of Locrin. 
' Prose Edda. 


or Urashima of Midzunoe lost by his curiosity. The bereaved 
monarch has been well identified with Kudur Mabug, or Jether 
the son of Ezra; and his son Fiko-no-kisa, if the eldest of his 
three sons, should be Jered or Ardu-Sin of Elam. But there is 
reason to think that the Japanese line is that of the Hamathite3 
proper, and that the youngest son of Jether, namely, Jekuthiel, 
is this Fiko-no-kisa, and ihat his son Zanoah is Zinmou or 
Sano.^^ The original Zanoah was in Judah near Keilah and 
other Zocharite places, but when moved into the north the name 
seems to have been changed to Zaanaim, a different word, for the 
Kenites dwelt there, and in its vicinity was Hamath-Dor. It was 
thus near Hazor and Kadesh. The name Japan is nunnated in 
Japanese, being Niphon, but the Chinese knew the country which 
the Japanese call Yamato as Jipen. The honorific title of 
Zinmou was Yaonato-no Iiva are fiko-no mikoto, but in Chinese 
Jy pen phan yu yan tsun. Gofon appears to have been the 
name of the Seoguns, or generalissimos of the Japanese monarchs, 
.so that the line of Jephunneli played the same role in Japan as 
in Ireland, where Fionn, son of Cumhal, was the commander of 
the famous militia. The two accounts, separated by so great a 
distance, go back to Hamath in Syria, and the earlier Hamath- 
Dor in Naphtali. When, therefore, we find a Jabin on the throne 
of Hazor, the Katsoura where the second Japanese emperor 
established himself, it must be concluded, either that the name of 
the legitimate sovereign of the northern Hittites is suppressed, as 
being that of a faineant, or that Jabin was an usurper of royal 
authority. In Peru the Zocharites are well represented, for the 
Yupancjuis come in earlier into the list of sovereigns and are 
more numerous than the Amautas or Hamaths. Several Huascars 
are scattered among them, so that Oscar is represented, but Ossian, 
his father, is not to be found. Yet Osin is a Japanese name, 
denoting an emperor of note, the sixteenth since the cominence- 
ment of sovereignty. He was the son of Tsou-ai, who fell fighting 
against the Oso of Tsukuzi, and of his warlike wife, Singou 
Kwogou, who carried out successfully the campaign he had 
begun, bringing many lands under her sway. Osin was a 
posthumous child, and a king from his birth. He was born with 

' Titsin^fli ; coini). i. Cliroii. iv. 18. 


a wen on his arm of the shape of a buckler, which gave him the 
name of Fonda. He dwelt at Karuno Sima, brought many 
colonists into the country, built great stables (which may have 
been the Augean ones that Hercules cleansed), instituted the 
judicial ordeal of boiling water, encouraged the great philosopher 
Wonin from Fiaksai, and after his death was honored as a god, 
when eight white standards fell from the skies upon his temple.^'^ 
His sons signalized their joint reign by an amiable contest of 
renunciation of empire in favour of each other, which was ended 
by Ratsugo putting an end to his life for his brother's sake. 
Then Nintok or Osazagi, aided by the counsels of Wonin, became 
the father of his people, one of the most excellent monarchs that 
ever sat on the throne of Japan. Some new light may be shed by 
the story of Osin on the history of Husham of the land of Temeni,^ 
and the mysterious Sigurd or Siegfried who is connected with 
him, but no Fingall, save by matriarchy, can be made his 

With Jabin of Hazor, the Zocharite generalissimo of the 
Hittites, Jobab of Madon, an exiled Heraclid, was confederate. 
The king of Shimron Meron, whose name connects with the 
waters of Merom, with Miriam the Hamathite princess, and with 
Saul of Rehoboth, as a Myrmidon, joined their forces. Not only 
Hittites, but all the tribes of Canaan were called to make a stand 
against the intrusion of Israel, including the Japhetic Dorians 
from Dor, the Goim or Achaeans of Gilgal, and the Ekronites or 
Buzites from Lasharon. Some Kenites, who had retained the 
ancestral name of Hepher, rendered assistance. The Tappuans 
or Tappuchans of the family of MaReshah mustered to the fray, 
with the Amalekites of Kedesh, the Maachathites of Megiddo, the 
Paseachites of Taanach, and the men of Jokneam of Carmel,. 
perhaps of the race of Samlah. Other levies came from Aphek, 
Achshaph, and Tirzah, places whose ethnical relations are undeter- 
mined, and from an equally obscure Chinnerotb to the south of the 
sea of Galilee. Many a time the Hittites had assembled to 
protect their homes against Egyptians, Amorites, and hostile 
tribes of their own race, and had successfully rolled back the 
tide of war. But they had never yet encountered an army strong 

'^ Titsingh, Annalew. 


in the faith of an over-ruling Providence and imbued with deep 
and earnest religious enthusiasm, such as that which faced them 
by the w^aters of Merom. The trained bands of Jabin could not 
withstand the shock of the footmen, before whom chariot and 
horseman, as well as heavy armed Greek and light Maachathite 
slinger, were driven like chaff before the whirlwind. The lord 
of Hazor was overthrown, his confederate kings slain all around 
him ; and, while the remains of as gallant a host as yet had 
mustered on the fields of Palestine fled into the north country, 
which was henceforth to be their home, Israel, fleet of foot, 
pursued and cut them down before and even beyond the walls of 
Sidon. Henceforth, as a people, the Hittites have no Palestinian 
record. The Amorites had doubtless filled up the measure of 
their iniquity long before, but now that of the Hittites was full. 
They had owned noble characters, kings of men and reformers of 
religion, worthy of any nation under heaven. Such were Paseach 
and his better son Job, but Og of Bashan shews how the mighty 
had fallen. Such also, Saul of Rehoboth and Hadar, but Shimon 
or Agamemnon must sacrifice human victims, and Shemidag or 
Ismidagan reinstitute idolatry. And as great as any, or greater, 
was Jabez, more honourable than his brethren, whose generation 
had not passed before the altars of unclean gods received the 
gifts of his posterity. Canaan was a polluted land, every civilized 
corner of which had echoed with the screams of the slain, when 
on its thousand altars human lives were offered with revolting 
cruelty to the spirits of devils that had once been among the vilest 
of men. Those who accuse Israel of murder do not know of what 
they are talking, are ignorant of the records of those awful years 
that precedefl Joshua's glorious march from Beersheba to Dan ; 
and would themselves be among the first to counsel the extermina- 
tion of the royal Thugs who filled all the air with horrid apprehen- 
sion, and blasphemed the God of love whom they represented and 
worshipped as a murderer. It is no wonder if history fails to 
record the men of the age of tlic con(|uest; there were none worth 
lecording, save as a Cacus, a Ijeing of plunder and bloodshed. 

Tlie Hittites l)egan -i new life in Syria, where Hamath became 
their great i-eligious centre, but nearer the l)orders of Palestine 
tlie Zocharites built a s(iCond Hazor to replace that whicli Josiiua 


had burned. The Beerothites, who had dwelt in part from 
Shechem to Rehob, and a branch of whom, in the elder line of 
Shemidah, had reigned in Babylonia, withdrew from both these 
regions, the first division to found the kingdom of Hamath 
Zobah, east of Damascus, with its interminable line of Benhadads 
or Hadadezers, and the second to set up empire for a while in 
Mesopotamia about that old Rehoboth by the river from which 
Saul had emerged to become king of Gebalene and the third 
Osortasen of Egyptian Abydos. Of the Kenezzites nothing is 
recorded during the wars of Israel. It would seem as if the 
protecting arm of their kinsman Caleb the son of Jephunneh 
had been about tliem, for besides their settlements in and about 
Ophrah of the Abiezrites, the line of Seraiah held Kir Haraseth 
in Moab and the more famous Harosheth in northern Palestine, 
in the midst of the Goim. Caleb did not war against his kinsmen, 
but drove out the Anakim, killing Anak's three sons, one of whom 
as vEneas, son of Anchises, and descendant of Dardanus, Virgil 
represents as fleeing for refuge to the court of Evander. If 
Ahiman be this JEneas, he may indeed have fled to Hazor, but it 
Would only be to witness Jabin's overthrow, and to make his way 
back rapidly to the strongholds about Hebron. There is no 
evident reason for the enmity of Caleb the Kenezite and the 
Zerethites of Arba and Anak. They were descendants of the 
same great mother Helah, and do not seem to have come into 
conflict since the ancient days, when Ethnan set up his Titanic 
rule in Babylonia, and was driven into Gebalene by the father of 
Shachar. They may also have met in Egypt, when Ziph, building 
his pyramid, found Beor an intruder and chased him forth again. 
Caleb conquered the last of the Zerethites and dwelt in Hebron, 
one of the only two men that had come out of the house of 
bondage, and he no Israelite, but a Hittite proselyte of the ancient 
faith of Jabez. The Hittites left in the land, with whom Israel, 
falling away from the faith and virtue of Joshua's conquering 
host, contracted alliances equally as with the Canaanites, were pro- 
bably the Kenezzites of Harosheth, the Achashtarites of Taanach 
and the Zuzinis of Megiddo. The Kenites also who dwelt apart 
at Zaanaini may have lost their pure creed, and have come to be 
numbered among the Hittite idolaters. Joshua was dead, and 


Caleb, and Eleazar the son of Aaron, in whose stead his son 
Phinehas held the high priest's office. The old anarchy had 
returned to Canaan, every man doing that which was right in 
his own eyes. A watchful eye observed this from the stronghold 
at Rehoboth by the Euphrates. Chushan Rishathaim, the Rustam 
Dastan of the Persians, whom they make the son of Zaul, instead 
of his descendant after many generations, perceived his oppor- 
tunity, and swooping down like the Simurgh of his ancestor's 
story upon the distracted and God-forsaken land, became Israel's 
first oppressor, since his ancestress Mehetabel saved the infant 
Moses. In Sanscrit story he is Rishtishena, or Arshtishena, a 
descendant of Jahnu or Achian, and the father of Devapi and 
Santanu who contended for the crown. The Raja Tarangini calls 
him Srechthasena, the son of Megavahana, and the father of 
Hiranya and Toramana, who contended in like manner. He was 
lord of the whole earth, and was disposed to mercy. But his 
father Megavahana's story exhibits a strange mixture of 
traditions ; for he is said to have twice offered his life on behalf 
of victims condemned to die, and to have spared the lives of all 
creatures, but for him also the sea opened up a passage, rearing 
into walls on either side, while he and his army passed through to 
Lanka or Ceylon, and back again. The stories of Moses and 
Joshua at the Red Sea and the Jordan are mingled with tradi- 
tions of Saul of Rehoboth, and the name of Jabin of Hazor. In 
Greek story, Aristodemus the Heraclid is, like Rishtishena 
and Srechtliasena, the father of two sons, Eurysthenes and 
Procles, who in a similar way contended for the kingdom. 
Rustam's sons were Nimruz and Farimars. After eight years 
of oppression, during which many Hittite troops must have been 
Vjrought into tlie land of Israel, Otlmiel, the nephew of Caleb the 
Kenezzito, with the aid (jf his kinsmen in Ophrah and liaroshcth, 
overpowered the Beerothites, and, ruling in the fear of God, gave 
the land rest for forty years. Afterwards, Moab con(iuered 
Israel at th<.' same time that tlie Philistines warred against them 
ill the west. From Eglon, king (jf Moab, the Japhetic Ehud, son 
of (Jera, a descendant of Jamiii tfie sou of Ram ami brother of 
Ek<r, according to CJreek ])hraseology, a Minyan of Orchomenus, 
delivered the eiKslave<l Hebrews; and another foreigner Slianigar, 


the son of Anath, made a slaughter of the Philistines. His name 
is not Semitic, but his nationality is undetermined, unless, 
wonderful to relate, the Elamite god, Sumugur Sara, or the 
leader Sumugur, declare it. Assurbanipal names this divinity 
immediately after Ragiba, or Rechab, the ancestor of the Beero- 
thites, but as Lagomer or Laomer was also an Elamite god, 
Sumugur may have been of the family of Beth Lechem.^^ His 
story must survive in many lands. After Shamgar's time, Israel, 
alternately enslaved and delivered by Hittite and Japhetic 
warriors, once more apostatized, and became a prey to the 

A century and more had passed since Joshua met the first 
Jabin at the waters of Merom. His posterity was still on the 
throne of Hittite dominion, for a second Jabin reigned in the 
new Hazor, which Ritter identifies with El Hazuri, to the east of 
lake Merom.^^ It lay, therefore, outside of Israel's domain. This 
Jabin was no mere army leader, but the head of the Hittite 
confederacy, under whom Sisera served as commander in chief of 
the allied armies. The Charashim descended from the Kenezzite 
Seraiah, who had been left unmolested by the Israelites, made 
their submission to Jabin; and their king Sisera, when, with his 
aid the lord of Hazor had brought the Hebrews into subjection, 
became the general of the army of occupation at Harosheth in 
Naphtali, which also sustained some relation to the Goim or 
Achaeans. Jabin's force was an enormous one ; he could bring 
into the field nine hundred iron chariots, valuable allies in warfare 
on the plains about Hazor, but less formidable to an enemy posted 
on uneven ground broken by the spurs of Carmel and the 
tributaries of the river Kislion.^*^ No mention is made of the 
tribes composing the army of Sisera ; with the exception of his 
own Charashim or Cilicians, they lay outside of the boundaries 
of Canaan. The Kenites of Zaanaim were at peace with Jabin 
through their kinsmen of Hamath, from whom they had separated 
themselves, but, as regards Israel, they remained neutral. But the 
Zocharites of Jabin must have been there in force, by whatever 

'" Records of the Past, i. 85. 
'' Comp. Geog. of Pal. 
'-'" Judges iv. 3. 


name they were called, Teucri, Paeones, Chalybes, Nasamones, 
Garamantes, Enchelians. And in Harosheth also there must have 
been a strong Kenite contingent from Hamath and Aradus and 
Marathus. From Zobah the warlike Beerothites sent a host ; and 
from Geshur many Zerethite soldiers came, eager to avenge the 
Anakim that fell at Hebron. And Maachah near at hand, looking 
longingly to the old home at Megiddo where its chivalry had 
encountered the Egyptian Pharaohs, was not slow in heeding the 
call to take back the heritage of its fathers. A woman judged 
Israel while Jabin reigned, Deborah, the wife of Lapidoth, whose 
name is only rescued from oblivion by that of his prophetic spouse. 
For twenty years the Hittite sovereign " mightily oppressed the 
children of Israel," and then, when they cried to God, His spirit 
came upon Deborah, and she called Barak the son of Alnnoam, 
a man of Naphtali, to take the men of his tribe and of Zebulon, 
and go forth against the enslaver of His people. Ten thousand 
men of the two tribes composed the patriot army that ascended 
Mount Tabor and proclaimed the independence of Israel. Sisera 
cannot have contemplated serious opposition from the revolters, 
whom he thought to overawe by a great display of military 
.strength. He was drawm, therefore, to Kishon and beyond the 
great plain of Jezreel, where he might have manceuvred his nine 
liundred chariots, into the valley ground between Taanach and 
ilegiddo. The onset of Barak's ten thousand, wh'.>n the chariots 
were entangled, showed the great captain's fatal error, but too late 
to save the Hittite host. All the might of Fgj-pt on that field 
had Itarely won a victory from the Hittites of ancient days, but, 
on this occasion, ten thousand valiant men of Israel involved 
Siscra's great army in total overthrow. Like many others in his 
tiviin, tlie lord of Harosheth left his useless chariot and fied on 
fofjt, only to die an inglorious death by the hand of a woman of 
his own race. This was the beginning of a war that resulted in 
L-^rael biv'aking the Hittite yoke, and ])ringing the supremacy of 
Jaliin to an end. 

A n(;\v en(;iny a})p(.'are(l. lladad the son oi" ix'dad was the 
first to ni(;et Midian in the field of Moab and j)ut a curl) on their 
car(;er of savage conf|nest. 'i'lien they retired to Babylonia 
an<l strengthened themselves by Zerethite and other Hittite 


alliances, until, in the person of Bedan, the Greek Laomedon, they 
placed themselves on the Zerethite throne on the shore of the 
Dead Sea. The next generation saw Baalchanan, uniting in him- 
self the three families of the Midianite Zimran, and the Hittite 
Zereth and Amalek, the proud monarch of Gebalene. Hadar and 
his confederates met him and his Midianite host on Moab's plains ; 
and a second time the might of Midian was broken. The Zere- 
thites fled to other regions, some back to Babylonia and Assyria, 
others northward to Geshur, and a gallant remnant to Kirjath 
Arba in Canaan. The Midianites had no national ties ; the blood 
of their father Abraham did not bind them to the enslaved sons 
of Isaac in Goshen, nor to the wandering progeny of Ishmael in 
Arabia. The Japhetic brethren of their mother Keturah had dis- 
owned them ; and the bonds that linked their fortunes to those 
of the Hittites were but temporary. The Hittite monarchs of the 
east, while reigning over the Zimrites, had recognized their super- 
iority, calling themselves kings of Sumir first and of Accad after- 
wards. When the Moabite and Amorite entered upon the posses- 
sion of northern Gebalene, the Cabul of the Persian historians, the 
Midianite did not depart, but lent his sword to the conquerors, 
and worshipped with them at the shrine of Baal Peor. There 
Moses found the Celtic siren Cozbi and her fair companions 
enticing his warriors away from their great work of conquest and 
life of godliness by the charms of forbidden love. Once more 
on Moab's field Midian rose to do battle, but all in vain, for Israel 
was strong and valorous, not yet unnerved by the barbarian 
luxury and licentiousness of the people of the land. Terrible was 
Midian's punishment ; every male child, every married woman 
was put to the sword, besides the warriors that fell in the fight. 
NoWj however, circumstances are changed. The Israelites are tlie 
idolaters and the weak. Midian has moved northward into 
Karkor, east of Gilead, and has become stronger if not moi-e 
righteous. The Amalekites, that ubiquitous people, are with the 
Midianite, and with them also are the sons of the east, the Cad- 
monites descended from the Horite Etam or Getam, a Greek 
(,'adinus and Indian Gautama, and Mexican Guatimo-Tzin, or 
Guatimo the Prince, as well. The latter had lived in the plain 
of Jezreel, named after Etam's son, from whom came the Sparti 


or sown, a translation of Jezreel, the sown of God. So Midian 
and Ainalek are bringing Etam back to his ancient home, and 
they lie like grasshoppers for multitude over all the plain of Jez- 
reeL The divinely appointed deliverer is a man of Israel's true 
faith, but not of Israel's blood. He is of Ophrah of Abiezer, a 
man of Hittite race, who, through Ophrah, traces his descent from 
the Rephaim and the Kenezzites, from Babylonian and Egyptian 
kings. He casts down the altar of Baal in Ophrah, and summons 
the people to follow him ; but only three hundred are permitted 
to go on the perilous enterprise. In the beginning of the middle 
watch, when the invader's camp is still, the three hundred blow 
their trumpets, dash their pitchers to pieces, and with torch in one 
hand and, in the other, the sword of the Lord and of Gideon, they 
fall upon the hastily-awakened multitude, killing as they pursue. 
All Israel is roused to action as the allies seek safety in flight, and, 
keeping the fords and bridges of Jordan, they cut the fugitives 
down. A hundred and twenty thousand warriors fall, and Zebah 
and Zalmunna pay for the ravage with their lives. So Gideon 
ruled Israel in peace, and after his death his son Abimelech exer- 
cised sway in Shechem, where the Beerothite god Baal Berith 
was worshipped, and where a mixed Hittite and Amorite popu- 
lation seems to have dwelt. He was killed while besiegingf Thebez 
by a woman, who threw a piece of a millstone on his head. So 
the Greeks relate that Pyrrhus king of Epirus, forcing his way 
into Argos, was killed by a heavy tile that a woman threw down 
upon him. Hieronymus Cardan denies this fact in the case of 
Pyrrhus, so that the old Palestinian tradition may have been 
incorporated with the history of the Epirote king. Shechem was 
afterwards called Neapolis from mount Ebal, and this name was 
transported to the Hittite country of Campania to denote the 
ancient city of Naples. In the Italian Nea])olis a bull with a 
human face was worshipped under the name of Hebon. Tliis is 
the Japanese god Ghiwon, which Klaproth calls a bull-headi'd 
deity. But in Sir Edward Belcher's Voyage of the Samaraiig 
there is an illustration of this god as worshipped by the peo{)U' of 
th(; Meia-co-shiniahs, dependencies of the Loo Choo kingdom, 
which has the b(jdy of an ox joined to a human head. Sir Edwai-d 
su|)poses this to repi'esent the Egyptian Apis and the golden calf 


of Israel.2^ The Iroquois Hawonio, and Dacotah Hopeneche seem 
to be names of the same god, who is a deified Jephunneh, Faunus, 
or Pan, the god of rural regions and of cloven hoofs, half man, 
half animal, but to whom the Assyrians, Greeks, and Romans 
gave but two feet instead of the Japanese four. But besides this 
memorial of the rule of the Jabins, the Neapolitans had a strange 
ceremony called the Lampadephoria, instituted by one Diotimus. 
The history of this institution is obscure, but it consisted in run- 
ning races with lamps or torches shaded from the wind, and as 
the races were always run in the quarter of the Potters, whose 
wares were broken on the occasion, the Lampadephoria may be 
regarded as a reminiscence of Gideon's famous victory. The ^od 
of the Rephaim, namely Jumala, was worshipped in Neapolis as 
Eumelus ; and it is not luilikely that the connected Sibyl of Cumae 
called Herophile stood in some definite relation to Gideon as 

Among the judges of Israel after Gideon and his son Abimelech 
there appears Ibzan of Bethlehem, whose name is not Hebrew ; 
he may have been a descendant of Lechem, son of Salma the 
Hepherite.^^ But Abdon, or Bedan, the son of Hillel, and a Pira- 
thonite, whose home and burial place were in the mount of the 
Amalekites, presents a curious genealogy. It goes back to the 
time of Bedan, the son of Ulam, the Zimrite, who became, as 
Laomedon, the king of the Zerethites through a marriage of his 
father into the family of Ardon the Zerethite, son of Ur and Jeri- 
goth. The Persian historians invert the true order, making Abtin 
the father of Feridun, and Iraj or Ur, his son. This Ardon or 
Feridun is the Duryodhana of the Mahabharata. Bedan's line 
again, either throuofh his daughter or that of his uncle Rakem, 
was connected with the Amalekites, so that Baalchanan became 
the heir of Bedan and his successor on the Zerethite throne, being 
recognized, at the same time, as an Amalekite or Temenite. 
Bedan's descendants were known to the Assyrians as the Patin- 
ians and are generally classed with the Hittites. As the Bithy- 
nians of Asia Minor they were separated from the neighbouring 

21 Belcher, Voyage of H.M.S. Samarang, vol. i. p. 96. 

22 Judges viii. 29, 3o. 

2^ Salma (1 Chron. ii. .51) was the head of the family or tribe of Beth Lechem. 


Paphlagonians by the river Parthenius. Among the Saninites, who 
were really, as their tribes show, Damnites or Temenites, some 
Bedauites or Pitanatae dwelt, who are said to have come from 
Laconia. The Celtic area from Pannonia west and northward is 
full of records of the Bedanites. This hybrid family must have 
maintained itself from the time of the conquest of Canaan in the 
mount of the Amalekites until it came to be regarded as part of 
Israel, and gave Abdon or Bedan to be a judge in the land. The 
other judges of Israel appear to have been Israelites proper; but 
the marvellous thing is that Saul, the first king over that people, 
is said to have been a man of Jemini, and that his descent from 
Benjamin cannot be traced. This, however, does not concern 
Hittite history, save in this, that the name of Saul was the 
original propert}'' of the Beerothites, among whom it became an 
honoured one as that of the king of Gebalene who kept court at 
Rehoboth on the Euphrates and at Abydos in the land of Egypt. 
The Philistines were now the enemies of Israel ; and the Hittites, 
ceasing to make any attempt to regain Palestine, were spreading 
abroad and consolidating their empire in Syria and Mesopotamia. 
The Amalekites and a remnant of the Kenites were still in the 
south country towards Egypt and Sinai. Saul defeated their 
king Agag ; and David afterwards completed the destruction of 
his people.^* But the Kenites were allowed to move northwards 
into Judah, alongside of the Japhetic Jerachmeelites. When 
David was an exile in Gath, he professed to King Achish that he 
had smitten these two families friendly to the Hebrews. He also 
stated that he had invaded the border of the Cherethites, evidenc- 
ing that some of the maritime Zerethites kept the coast below 
Philistia, which they had held with varying success from early 
Egyptian days.^^ From these Cherethites came part of David's 
body-guard ; the other division consisting of Japhetic Pelethites 
of Ionian descent, whose ancestor was Peleth the great grandson 
of Onain, the namer of On in Egypt and Ono in Palestine.'-'' Many 
Hittites were among David's chief captains, in addition to Uriah 
whom the king so grievously wronged. Such \vere Nahari the 
lieerothite, an ancient Briton, Eliphelet the Maachathite, Heleb 

-'* 1 .S:iiii. XV. 7 ; 1 Siitn. xxx. 17. 
-''' 1 Siuii. XV. t) ; 1 S.iin. xxx. 14. 


and Maharai the Netophathites, Benaiah the Pirathonite, Igal of 
Zobah, Helez the Paltite, Uzzia the Ashterathite, Hepher the 
Mecherathite, Joshaphat the Mithnite, Shama and Jehiel the 
Aroerites, and the chief of all his host, Jashobeam the Hachmonite, 
or Taehmonite, a descendant of the Zerethite Achiman slain in 
the country about Hebron by Caleb the Kenezzite."'^ Other cap- 
tains may have belonged to the same warlike and faithful race, 
but their nationality is doubtful. 

In David's time there were at least seven Hittite kingdoms of 
note to the north and east of Palestine. With one of these he was at 
peace, having married Maachah, daughter of Talmai, king of 
Geshur.^^ From Geshur also, in all probability, came the Tach- 
monite, who was the chief of David's host. When Saul's faction- 
was defeated, the Philistines and Moabites brought to quietness, 
and the Jebusites driven out of Jerusalem, the warlike king of 
Israel turned his steps northward. There he found Hadadezer 
the son of Rehob on the throne of Hamath Zobah, possessed of 
two great ti^easure cities, Tibhath and Berothai. The Syrians of 
Damascus came to help the men of Zobah against the Hebrew 
invader, but David's warriors prevailed. ^^ The treasures of gold 
and brass were taken away, garrisons were placed in Damascus 
and in Zobah, and the Syrians became the servants of the crown 
of Israel. Toi the king of Hamath, between whom and Hadad- 
ezer the old enmities had been rekindled, gave in his submission 
to the conqueror, and sent him costly presents by the hand of his 
son Joram.^'^ After this the Ammonites barbarously treated 
David's envoys who had come with a message of mingled 
congratulation and condolence, and, having offended the greatest 
monarch of the earth in his day, they prepared for war. Hanun, 
son of Nahash, their new king, gathered the forces of the north 
together with promise of reward. From Htoiath Zobah and 
Beth Rehob, from Tob and from Maachah the hirelings came to 
Rabbah of Ammon, but Joab overcame the Hittites, and the 
Ammonites fled before Abishai, David's general.^^ These Hittite 

2'"' 1 Chron. ii. 33. 

-" 2 Sam. xxiii ; 1 Chron. xi. 

^ 2 Sam. iii. 3. 

'''> 2 Sam. viii. ; 1 Chron. xviii. 

"'" 2 Sam. viii. ; 1 Chron. xviii. 

"' 2 Sam. X. : 1 Chron. xix. 


kingdoms are called Aram or Syrian, a term that must refer to 
their original population and not to their rulers, who were all 
Hittites. When Hadadezer saw that the confederates were 
defeated, he called to his aid the so-called Syrians or Aramaeans 
beyond the river, who were the Hittite Nairi of Mesopotamia. 
These crossed over to the help of their compatriots and mustered 
at Helam, or Elam, in Zobah, under Shophach the captain of the 
host of Hadadezer.^- Then when David, gathering all Israel 
together, went forth to meet this formidable array, there was 
fought one of the decisive battles of history. Israel was 
victorious, with seven hundred captured war chariots, and forty 
thousand horsemen of the enemy among the slain, for no account 
was taken of the footmen. So the Hittites became the servants 
of David and of his son Solomon after him. Only the little king- 
dom of Geshur afforded a retreat to the rebel Absalom. As to 
the constituents of these Hittite kingdoms, the substratum was 
Aramaic and unhistorical in all of them. The Hepherites had 
the kingdom of Hamath proper in the main line, and the three 
kingdoms of Zobah, Beth Rehob, and Damascus in that of the 
second Rechabite or Beerothite division, four out of seven. The 
junior or Peltite line of the Achuzamites or Zuzim reigned in 
Maachah ; the junior or Asareel line of the Zerethites, in Geshur ; 
and the Paseachite branch of the Chelubite Achashtarites, in Tob. 
The latter, however, must have been but a remnant, most of their 
brethren occupying Mesopotamia. Changes had taken place, 
therefore, since the days of Chushan Rishathaini, for his Beero- 
thites had been expelled from Mesopotamia by the Nairi or 
Mehirites, and the Zocharites of Hazor, under their Jabins, had 
left the sea of Merom for a more northern home. With them the 
Cilicians of Haroslieth had departed. Some unehronicled migra- 
tion had removed the Kenezzites of Ophrah and Abiezer, and the 
Temenitcs wliose h(jme had V)een Kadesh. In the west also, 
between Pho'nicia and Philistia, there must have been a manning 
of vessels to creep along the Syrian shore and colonize with 
Dorians, Achaeans, Pelasgians, and lonians, the ishmds of the 
Levant and the coasts of Asia Minor; and in these vessels went 
bards, who wliiled away the time with songs of the olden days, 

'^ 2 S;iiri. X. ; 1 Chron. xix. 


the scenes of which were Palestine and Egypt, Babylonia and 
Gebalene, full of the Hittite heroes who were the great men of 
the world's youth, but songs soon to be so distorted as to lose in 
other lands all their historical significance. 

The Bible is not yet done with the Hittite, even as far as 
David's reign is concerned. When Absalom came back from the 
court of Talmai, son of Ammihud, King of Geshur, and drove his 
aged father from the throne, the faithful ones that accompanied 
the monarch's fallen fortunes were not Israelites. ^^ Foremost 
among the loyal and true were the Cherethites, brave sons of 
Zereth, mercenaries it is true, but mercenaries with hearts that 
loved the warrior king and that would not be tempted with 
Absalom's gold, and Japheth, the elder brother, came not a whit 
behind Ham's noblest offspring, for the Ionian Pelethites kept 
step with the Cherethite march, and the Gittites of Philistia, 
men of Gath, blue-eyed, fair-haired Goths as they were beneath 
a Syrian sun, passed on under the leadership of Ittai. an ancient 
Ida, befoie the king, and refused to do otherwise for all that 
king's entreaties. In the later years of Solomon's reign, Damas- 
cus became an independent Hittite kingdom under Rezon, sou of 
Eliadah, who had been an officer of Hadadezer of Zobah, and 
did injury to Israel's interests in the north.'"'* This kingdom 
became strong under Hezion, Tabrimmon, and a succession of 
Benhadads. The other northern kingdoms revolted soon after, 
for Solomon had unwittingly provided them with the means for 
defying his power. As a merchant-man, he may have shewn 
wisdom in importing from Egypt chariots and horses for the 
Kings of Syria, and for all the kings of the Hittites,^^ but, as an 
emperor over many kingdoms, he would have acted more wisely 
in discouraging their armaments, and turning their attention to 
peaceful pursuits. In the time of Ahab and Jehoram of Israel, 
Benhadad of Syria Damascus did great damage to the kingdom, 
and besieged Samaria at leno^th, brinmncr dire famine into the 
royal city. But the Syrians heard a noise of chariots and horses 
and a great host, and fear fell on them that Israel had hired the 

''' 2 Scam. X v. 
3< 1 Kin^s xi. 2.S. 
'^ 1 Kings X. 29. 


kings of the Hittites and the kings of the Egyptians, to war 
against them ; so they lied, and Samaria was saved.^^ But 
Hazael, as pure a Hittite as any, murdered his master Benhadad, 
and became the head of a new dynasty, and fought with Israel in 
Gilead. He was the conqueror of his age, taking all the country 
beyond Jordan, and Gath of the Philistines, and only abstaining 
from the siege of Jerusalem on the payment of large tribute 
money from King Jehoash/^'^ But Jehoahaz of Israel and all 
liis people were the servants of Hazael and his son Benhadad, 
who worthily as warriors sustained the reputation of the family 
of Beeroth. A saviour, however, arose for the Israelites in the 
proud and gallant yet idolatrous Joash, who beat Benhadad three 
times, though with few men and poor equipment, and took back 
all the cities of the kingdom of Samaria/'^ Still greater was his 
son, the second Jeroboam, who recovered the Hittite kinefdoms 
of Damascus and Hamath, which had been lost to Israel since 
the <lays of Solomon ; but these lands did not long remain in the 
possession of his race.^'* Menahem, the usurper, came in contact 
with the Hittites, crossing the wilderness to Thapsacus, the 
capital of the Nairi in Mesopotamia. He took the city when it 
refused to open its gates to him, and behaved with barbarous 
ferocity towards its inhabitants.'**' Then the new Assyrian 
empire arose under the Babylonian Phul, and Israel could hope 
for no more Hittite con((uests. The last Hittite monarch whom 
tht.' Biblr mentions is Rezin of Damascus who allied himself 
with Pekah of Israel in an. attempt to dethrone Ahaz of Judali.''^ 
The Jewish king sought the aid of Tiglath Pileser of Assyria 
who took Rezin atid put him to death, thus ending Hittite rule 
in southern Syi'ia. Sargon l)r()Ught Hittites from Hamath and 
Ava into Samaria to i-cyjlaee tlu^ Israelites whom he had carried 
into the east.'- After the desti"ucti(jn of Jerusalem also 1)y 
Nebuchadnezzar, certain men iiukU; an insurrection and slew 

'' 2 Kiii^s \ ii. 1). 
' 2 Kiii^s x. H2. ; xii. 17. 
" 2 Kiiij^s xiii. 25. 
'' 2 KiiigH xiv. 2."). 

'" 2 King-.s XV. It;. (Ji-.^ciiius refuses to rcco^^'in/.i' any ntlirr Ti|ihn:i,h than Thaiisa- 
cus on the I'luph rates, Lex. in loc. 
*' 2 Kin),'s xvi. ."). 
' 2 Kiri^,'-* ^vii. 21. 


Gedaliah, the Governor of Judea for the king of Babylon, among 
whom were two men of Hittite descent, namely Seraiah, son of 
Tanhumeth, a Netophathite, and Jaazaniah, a Maachathite.^^ 
Finally, when the Jews returned from Babylon, many Hittite 
proselytes counted among the Nethinim, whom Solomon had 
placed under tribute, were with them, such as the children of 
Padon, Shamlai, Lebanah, Rezin, Nekoda, Paseah, Mehuni, Sisera, 
and Darkon>* " They are not all Israel that are of Israel," is 
true in the physical, as well as in the spiritual world ; and by far 
the largest portion of alien blood that flows in Jewish veins is 
that of the Hittite, which continued to mingle with the Semitic 
stream since Judah and his brethren married daughters of Heth, 
and in Egypt and Canaan came into manifold relations with that 
once dominant race.^^ 

2 Kings XXV. 23-25. 

^* Ezra ii. ; Nehemiah vii. 

*^ Romans ix. 6. 



The Hittites in contact with the Assyrian Empire. 

Evidence has been already adduced to show that the earliest 
mcnarchs of Assyria who have left records were Hittites of the 
line of Zereth and of the family of Ziph, the eldest son of 
Jehaleleel. The Assyrian name is found in the Kenite Asher, 
who heads the list which contains Heber, the Shafra that follows 
Chufu in Egypt, and the Ibil-Sin that succeeds Sabu in 
Babylonia.^ But the name which presents a sure connection is 
that of the Assyrian Assur Yupalladh, the Kenite Japhlet, son of 
Heber and great-grandson of Asher. The Synchronous History of 
As.syria and Babylonia makes him the contemporary of Cara- 
Murdas the Babylonian, who was the son of his daughter 
Mupallidhat-Serua and of the Rehob that named Rehoboth on 
the Euphrates. This Rehob was the son of Cara-Indas, or 
Hadadezer. The Synchronous History places before Yupalladh 
the names Buzur Assur and Assur-Bil-Nisisu in ascending series ; 
but the Kenite genealogy places, in the same order, Heber, 
Berigah, and Asher. At present the discrepancy cannot be 
reconciled. Professor Rawlinson places, after Assur Yupalladh, 
one Bel-Sumili-Kapi, who probably represents Shomcr, the 
brother of Japhlet, the father of Ahi, Rohgah, Jehubbah, and 
Aram.'-^ Contemporary with this monarch, or immediately after 
him, should be placed Bil-Pas(ju, wliom an inscription in the 
British Museum calls "the origin of royalty."^ He is Pasach the 
eldest son of Japhlet, and the brother of Bimhal and Ashvath 
from the last of whom Aswad took its name. The record 
following is a mere list of names, Bollush, l^udicl, and Iva-lush, 

' For tht'HC' names sef Sinitli's Karl}' History of Babylonia, Records of the I'ant, 
volf. iii. anfl v. ; .Sayce'.s Synchronous Hist<iry of Assyria and liahyloiiia, Recordn of 
thft Past, vol. iii. ; and Pinclies' List of I'ahyloiiiaii Kind's, Proc. Sdc. Bih. y\rch. Dec. 
7, 1H80, i>. 21, and .Tan'y 11, IWl, p. 87. 

'' 1 Chroii. vii. .H4. 

' I><Tioiniant's Manual, i. .'J07. 


representing a dynast}', if the names be correctly rendered, which 
superseded that of Asher. Shalmanezer or Shallim-inanu-u'zur 
follows, and he is evidently a Hittite of the line of Chedorlaomer, 
who was the father of Salma, the head of the house of Lechem 
or Beth Lechem, but whose descent on the mother's side from 
the Horite Manahath introduced Manu into the Assyrian nomen- 
clature. With his successor, who is variously called Tuklat- 
Samdan, Tiglathi-Nin, and Tukulti-Ninip, history recommences, 
for he is said to have been the conqueror of Babylonia and 
Chaldea ; and Sennacherib states that he reigned GOO years 
before him, or about 1,800 B.C., at the time when the second 
Jabin was oppressing the Israelites. The name of this Assyrian 
monarch suggests the entrance of the Zocharites into the ruling 
family of Nineveh, for, as Tigris is to Diklath, so is Zochar or 
Tsochar to Tiglath, and both words recall the Deucalion, Thessaly, 
Taxila, Dascylitis forms of Zochar. His successor was Bil-Kudur- 
Uzur, whose name is Hepherite, and might belong to the line of 
Salma, son of Kudur-Nanhundi or Chedorlaomer, or to that of 
Ezra, whose son Jether was Kudur-Mabug. In his reign the 
Babylonians rebelled under Binbaliddin, who, after driving out 
the Assj'rian army, invaded Assyria, put BiJ-Kudur-Uzur to 
death and carried away trophies of his conquest. Professor Sayce 
calls Binbaliddin, Rimmon-Pal-Iddina, which would connect him 
with the family of Harum the father of Acharchel, for Harum is 
the Riinmon of the Assyrians, the Rim-Agu, as well as the 
Naram-Sin, of the early history of Babylonia. Rimmon is the 
Semitic word for a pomegranate, as Side is the Greek : and this 
explains the marriage of Orion and Side, and of the Indian Rama 
and Sita. Arman-Agarsal or Harum-Acharchel figures in a 
previous part of the Synchronous History, and Agarsal is 
mentioned in a subsequent paragraph as a city of Babylonia. 
The king who followed Kudur-Uzur is called Adarpalashir, 
Adar-Pileser, Nin-Pala-Zira, and Ninip-Pal-Zara. He fought a 
(j^rd'cit battle under Ellasar and repelled the Babylonians. The 
name that elsewhere is associated with both elements of that of 
Ninip-Pileser is Tiglath ; tlius we find Tiglath-Ninip, and Tiglath- 
Pileser. It is not likely that any mistake has been made in 
bringing the Zocharites into the Assyrian royal family. The}^ 


divided Assyria with the Zerethites, filling the south with their 
names, as Zereth filled the north. The very word for man 
in Assyrian was Zicarii, like the Circassian Zugcher, people. 
Now the Zocharites had no name Ninip, Nin, Adar ; but a name 
of Ninip is Nin-kattin-barzil, the man with the iron coat, 
answering to the Hittite Amraphel. Arbela or Beth-Arbel was 
a famous phtce in Assyria, and Ctesias has an Arabelus among 
his later Assyrian kings ; these represent the elliptical form 
of Amraphel. As monarchs of Assyria, however, speaking the 
Semitic language of the unhistorical descendants of Asshur, the 
Hittite con(iuerors would naturally translate their names. Such 
a puzzling translation occurs even in the family of Saul of Israel, 
a son of Jonathan being called Merrib-baal and Mephibo-sheth. 
In the next king. Assur-Dayan, the Zerethite family of Asher 
returned to sovereignty. He invaded Babylonia, on the throne of 
which Zamama-Suma-lddin was seated, and captured his cities 
Zaba, Irriya, and Agarsal. He is greatly eulogized by the first 
Tiglath Pileser. Little is known of his successor Mutakkil-Nebo, 
whose name shews that the Ethnanite Di Nhaba was not forgotten 
in A.ssyria, although Babylonia was more celebrated for the 
worship of the son of Baal Peor. But his son Assur-Ris-Ilim 
fought with Xebo-Kudur-Uzur of Babylonia, and overthrew him. 
The name of the Babylonian is significant. Its Kudur-Uzur 
proclaims him a man of Gedor, of the family of Ezra the 
Hamathite ; but the Nebo, .appearing almost simultaneously in 
A.ssyria and Babylonia,- suggests that the Ethnanites had betaken 
themselves to the east, and that the two kingdoms were contend- 
ing for their alliance. Hei"e, therefore, is the point at which the 
fugitives or emigrants from Elephantine, whose migration story 
is told ]>y the Cachifjuels of (iuatimala, must have lost their 
Hittite speech, and have picked up the worship of Tohil oi- 
T(jckilb the Tiglath of the Assyi'ians. 

The next monarch of As.syria is Tiglath Pileser the First, whose 
long insci'iption takes us out of the narrow field between the 
southern coui'scs of the Tigris and Eu|)hrates into the pvirely 
Hittite area in the north and west.' The date of his inscription 
is sup{)Osed to he J ).'}(), P>.C., wlu'U Sanuu'l the pi'ophct and 

* liocords <.f the I'ast, v. 7. 


Samson judged Israel. The king of Babylonia in his time was 
Merodach-Iddin-Akhi, who successfully invaded Assyria and 
carried off the spoil of the city Hekali, pai t of which Sennacherib 
recovered 418 years afterwards. Tiglath Pileser retaliated and 
captured Babylon, Opis, and other cities. The name Merodach 
has been found to mean the son of Beor, being thus equivalent 
to Baal Peor ; the Ethnanites, therefore, were on the Babylonian 
throne. While Iddin, as a constitutent in Babylonian royal 
names, reproduces the Atin-re or god of the solar disc worshipped 
at Tel Amarna in Egypt, rather than the ancestral Ethnan, and 
thus indicates that the Babylonian monarchs of this line had 
come out of the land of the Pharaohs, it seems that the tradition 
of Belus and Ninus, as the first rulers in the east, arose with them 
out of a misconception of three facts in ancient history. The first 
fact was that Ethnan, the son of Ashchur, really made a begin- 
ning of royalt}^ in Babylonia, out of which his posterity were soon 
driven ; the second, that Bela, son of Beor, actually reigned in 
the neighbouring country of Gebalene ; and the third, that 
Hammurabi, the son of Eshton, who founded Babylon, took 
Baal Peor, or Merodach, for his god, although he belonged to a 
totally different branch of the Hittite family. The first purely 
Hittite country to engage the attention of Tiglath Pileser was 
one that plays a prominent part in Hittite history. It is better 
to speak of the object of his attention as a people than as a 
country, for in his time populations were shifting; yet he calls 
the region in which this people dwelt the country of Comukha. 
There is no doubt that the Coiuukhans were the Commagenians, 
but there is also no doubt that these Commagenians had not 
reached northern Syria. Tiglath Pileser found them on the 
Tigris, which they crossed to escape from him, establishing them- 
selves in the city of Sherisha, which must be Strabo's Sareisa of 
the Gordyaians or Carduchi. The Commagenians of Syria had 
Samosata for their capital ; it may, therefore, be inferred that 
their original name was Sama or Samag. Their earliest 
appearance in geographical history would be at Lake Sama- 
clionites or Merom, under mount Hermon. The Konite genealogies 
present many competitoi-s foi- the honour of conferring this name. 
Sliammaijin tlie family of Ezra, was the ancestor of the Hamathite 


Shimeathites, with whom the posterity of Miriam or the Merono- 
thites and uamers of Merom were intimately connected.^ In the 
line of Ma Reshah appear Shammai, son of Rekem and father of 
Maon, and Shema father of Raham.** The Paseaehites had a 
Shemaiah and a Shimei on either side of Gog ; and Shema was 
the son of Joel the son of Aharhel." Several of these names end 
with the letter ayin, so that they may be pronounced Shemag. 
A survey of the Hittite colonies narrows the en([uiry to the 
families of Paseach and Aharhel, so intimately united in the 
genealogies. The island of Samos was possessed by the Carians 
or Ekronites, relatives and allies of both these families ; but 
Samothrace is linked through the stories of Jasion father of 
Plutus, Harmonia, and Hercules, with that of Aharhel the 
Achuzamite. Cyme in ^Eolis of Asia Minor determines nothing, 
for while its name Cyme Phriconis associates it with Larisa, its 
proximity to Hermus, Caicus, Myrina, and other places with 
Hittite names belonging to many different families, deprives it of 
any definite relation to one ; nevertheless it was most likely a 
foundation of the Ras. Cumae of Campania has Paseachite and 
Heraclid connections, and the same may be said of many places 
similarly named. The centre of the Paseachite family for several 
centuries was Thapsacus on the Euphrates, and there is no 
evidence that it ever made establishments in the neighbourhood 
of Commagene. But Coinmagene in northern Syria was in close 
proximity to Carchemish, the Hittite capital, in which the 
posterity of Regem, Aharhel's grandfather, dwelt. It is probable, 
therefore, that Shemag, son of Joel, and crrandson of Aharhel, was 
the eponym of Commagene. 

The Muskayans or Moschi luid taken posses.sion of part of 
this priniitivt' Commagene on the northern borders of Assyria 
and Mesopotamia. 'i'iglatli I-'ileser defeated them, and then 
attacked the Connnagenians. Sir Henry Rawlinson call,'^ one of 
the (Jommageniaii kings Ki]i-T(;ru, son of ivali-Tern, son of 
Zunipin-Zihusuii ; Pi'ofessoi- Sayce styles him Cili-Anteru, son of 
Cali-Anteru, son of Saru-pin-sihusuni ; Mr. Fox Talliot's title is 

1 C'hn.ii. iv. 17. 
'"' 1 (Jliroii. ii. U, 45. 
1 Chriiii. V. 4, s. 


Tirikali fil Tirikali ; and that of Dr. Hincks, Kiliantiru, eldest son 
of Campinei-yusan. These are grave discrepancies. From a 
Hittite standpoint the higher criticism would favour Mr. Talbot's 
reading, but such criticism can never lawfully override the work 
of the philologist. A stronghold of Commagene was Urrakluiras, 
which certainly contains Acharchel's name. Opposite to the 
island of Samos was the promontory Trogilium, which answers to 
Tirikali, and not far off were Heraclea and Euromus. The king 
of Urrakluiras was Shedi-Teru, son of Khasutkh, according to Sir 
Henry Rawlinson, Sadi-Anteru son of Khattukhi, according to 
Professor Sayce ; Dr. Hincks terms him Sadiyantim son of 
Khathukhi, and Mr. Fox Talbot, Tiridates son of Kuthakin. He 
belonged to the country of Panari. So far as names go, the 
evidence is in favour of makinor this kincr a descendant of Penuel, 
who, by the marriage of his daughter, became the father of Gedor. 
He was no Hittite but a Cadmonite of the family of Getam or 
Etam, whose fortunes were linked largely with those of the 
Hittites. His brother was Ezer the father of Chushah, the head 
of the Chushathites.*^ Penuel explains Panari ; Chushah, 
Khasutkh ; and Ezer, Teru or Anteru : for the nasal pronuncia- 
tion of the initial ayin of Ezer would cause it to be rendered by 
foreigners as Agra or Nagra, as in India, and by Adra and Andra 
as in Assyria and in Greek speaking countries. There must, 
therefore, have been a fusion of part of the Cadmonite family 
with that of the Heraclidae. Through the country of Aruma, an 
embryo Armenia taking its name from Harum, Tiglath Pileser 
went to one called by the different translators already named 
Miltis, Eshtish, or Yem, and afterwards to Subair, an extensive 
region, and Alza and Purukhuz. Subair was the country about 
the Chaboras, named after Heber or Cheber the Zerethite, and 
Purukliuz bore the name of his father Bengali, the ancestor of 
the Phrygians. This branch of the family of Asher had been 
expelled from Assyria, whose empire it had founded, and occu- 
pied the central part of northern Mesopotamia. As a Zerethite 
people, the Phrygians retained the name of Gordius for their 
kings, and, as the Zerethites were from anti(|uity the allies of the 
Midianites, tlieir Phrygian descendants alternated Gordius with 

^ 1 Chron. iv. 4. 


Midas. Two tribes of the Kheti, the Kaskaya and Hurunaya, 
had taken possession of part of Subair or Mesopotamian Iberia, 
and had seduced the Iberians from the worship of their ancestor 
Ashur, but they submitted on the approach of the Assyrian 
monarch. Here the name Kheti is reserved for the senior Hittite 
line, that of Achuzam, from whom Haran and Gazez descended. 
They dwelt in Charran and Gauzanitis, between the Belias and 
the upper waters of the Ghaboras. 

Once more Ticrlath Pileser ravajjed Commagene, and thence 
passed into the countr}' of Kharia and to the far-spreading tribes 
of the Akhe. He met the warriors of these people in Azutapis, 
which is apparently Thospitis in southern Armenia. The 
Kharians were not the Japhetic sons of Eker and Buz, for their 
cities Suira, Shelgu, Arzanibru and Ayu corres[)ond to Shual, 
Shelesh, Harnepher, and Ahi, names of descendants of Berigah 
the Zerethite.^ But no Kharian ancestor appears in their line ; 
and there are indications which point to the incorporation of 
these Asherite families with the descendants of Korah, the eldest 
son of Hebron, and grandson of Ma Reshah. Hittite settlements 
had already been made in Media, for the Assyrian kin^ relates 
that, after subduing the people of Adavas, Tsai'avas and 
Ammavas in Aruma or Armenia, he crossed the lower Zab, named 
after Ziph the ancient Zerethite, and brought Muraddan and 
Tsaradavas, near Atsania and Atuva, into his power. The people 
of Muraddan must be the same as the Amardi or Morundae about 
Martianus Lacus, and probably represent part of the posterity of 
the Kenite Mered. But the other names endin*! in tui, cas and 
daras recall the topographical nomenclature of ]3acia with its 
endless (hi.rti.s and douaH. Tiglath Pileser mentions also the coun- 
tries of Gilkhi and Khirikhi, but gives no information as to their 
site. More solid ground is reached when he enumerates the 
kinifs of tlie Nairi, to concjuei" some of whom at least he was 
compelled to cross the Kuphratcs. These Nairi, as the descen- 
dants of Ab.'hir the father of Kslitoii, should include the three 
families of Kapha, l^iseaeh, and Techinnah, but oth(;r Hittite 
triltcs s^'cm to have Ixm'M iiuinbci-ed with thriii. Tscni, king of 
Dayani oi- Tehinnah is the oidy monarch naiiicd, so that lie may 

' 1 Cliroii. vii. '.M't, i-tc. 


have been the head of the Nairi Confederacy at the time. 
Paseach is unraentioned, unless Khimua represent a city named 
after his descendant Shemaiah. Beth Rapha as Khani-Rabbi 
appears apart from the Nairi but along with the king of Dayani, 
and Milidia is said to belong to that people, a place which must 
have been named after Moloketh the wife of Saralali rather than 
after their son Mahalah. Paiteri probably denotes Abiezer. The 
line of Amalek stands out prominently in Albaya, Hugina, and 
Pilakinna. Aturgina is an oriental Tirchanah ; Tunubi, a 
Dinhabah ; Huzula perhaps a Hazor ; and Tuhali, a Zoliar. In 
Nazabia a Mezahab may be found, although such a name would 
rather be sought among the Moschi. Yet the Moschi were in 
part counted to the Nairi, for their city Sururia appears in the 
list. Kidari or Kindari is a transplanted Gedor ; Abaeni, a 
Jephunneh, Jabin, or abbreviated Jabneel ; and Andiabi, a 
Netophath. The unidentified eight are Amassihuni, Kirini, 
Adaeni, Huiram, Pigikanni, Kulimazzini, Unzamuni and Numme. 
The last of these may be the Zocharite Naam, or the Beerothite 
Aniam, but one would expect to see Nacham for the former and 
Anigam for the latter. This fact remains, that before the time of 
Saul king of Israel, there was in north-western Mesopotamia and 
in the neighbouring region of Syria a confederacy of twenty - 
three Hittite kings under ttie pi-esidency of a descendant of Mehir 
the Achaslitarite. 

Tiglath Pileser next mentions Karkamis or Carchemish as a 
city of the Khatte, making his conquests extend from the land of 
the Tsukha or Sliuhites in the south, northward to that city, but 
he does not say that it was among his captures. How long Car- 
chemish had been founded we have no means of knowing, but 
it certainly was not in existence in the old days of Egyptian and 
Hittite warfare. At this time it was regarded as a Hittite 
Ultima Thule. Somewhere in northern Syria, probably in what 
afterwards l^ecame Commagene and Cyrrhestica, the Assyrian 
monarch ftniiid the Comani and the Muzri. Between them, for 
the ix'cord is not clear, they possessed Elammi, Tala, Kharutsa, 
Arin, KhuTiutsa, and Kapshuna. The names Khunutsa and 
Kharutsa seem to set forth the Kenezzites of Charosheth, once 
under the command of Sisera. As for the Comani, they were an 


advanced guard of the Beerothites, bearing the name of Shimon, 
the son of Hadar ; and Arin and Tala were places named in 
honor of Rinnah and Tilon, two of Shimon's sons. The name 
Muzri may have been applied to both nations as exiles from the 
land of Mizriara. It is interesting to find Tiglath Pileser rebuild- 
ing the temple founded by Ismidagon or Shemidag, Shimon's 
gran-lson, and fighting in the north with his descendants, the 
Comani. The strong Hittite kingdoms in central and southern 
Syria he left undisturbed, feeling he had acquired sufficient glory 
by penetrating the deep forests and difficult mountain chains of 
northern Mesopotamia and southern Armenia, which no king of 
Assyria had ever reached before him. His lord Ashur impelled 
him to set about the great undertaking to conquer the powerful 
kings who dwelt upon the upper ocean, an enterprise in which 
he partially succeeded ; for, tell it not in Gath, his upper ocean 
was lake Van. Even in his day, the habitable world was small ; 
how much more so in the ages that went before ! 

Assur-Bil-Kala was the next Assyrian monarch, of whom 
there are two fragmentary records, one of which states his con- 
quest of Babylonia, and the other that of the Western Land, 
which certainly was not Palestine. ^'^ Samas-Rimmon, his brother 
and successor, did nothing of any importance, but his name is 
significant, both of its elements being found in the senior Hittite 
family as Harum and Shomag.^^ Assur-Rabu-Amar came to the 
throne in evil days, Init unhappily there are no particulars of his 
catastrophe. The Hittites threw off the Assyrian yoke, and 
abfjut tin; year 1070 B.C., while Saul was king over Israel, they 
defeated his army and I'egained their independence.^"- A new 
Assyrian dynasty is supposed to have begun with Belkatirassu, 
the Beletarus of the Greeks, who was followed by five kings of 
whom nothing is known l)ut the names.^-^ But with tlie sixth, 
Vul-\irai-i, the Etjonvin Ganon begins and infoi-nis us, tiirouefh 
calculation, that he i-eigne(l fi'om O.")!) to 930 IJ.G The hi.stoiy of 
Assyria is, therefore, a l)Iank from the early part of the reign of 
Saul in Israel, down to those of Jeroboam and Asa in tlu; divided 

'' L<-iiorii].irit's .MauiKtl, i. .'57'">. 

' L<-iinriii;uit'.- M:iiiu;il, '.i7^'< 

-' L"-rinriJi.uit'.- Manual. 

'' L'-iioi iiiaiifV- .Manual. 


kingdom." From the Hebrew Scriptures, however, we have 
learned that the Nairi made common cause with the Hittite kings 
of Syria against David, and met with a signal defeat ; and that 
Solomon reigned from Thapsacus to Gaza.^^ Tiglath Ninip 
followed Vul-Nirari, and made warlike expeditions in Armenia 
towards the sources of the Tigris against the Hittite tribes, of 
which there is but a bare record.^^ His successor, Assur-Akh- 
Bal has left two inscriptions, of which one only mentions his 
conquests. He subdued the Nairi, Kirkhi, and Subari of Meso- 
potamia, together with the land of Nireb. The Nairi are well 
known ; t^ie Subari are the Zerethite Heberites or Iberians about 
the Chaboras ; the Kirkhi are probably the Korachites of Ma 
Reshah, who incorporated some Iberian tribes ; and the men of 
Nireb are the people who named Kirjath Arba, and who dwelt at 
this time below the Chaboras. He brought under his sway the 
Achashtarite Shuhites and Laki in southern Mesopotamia and 
Babylonia, and is the first to mention TJrardi, the land of the 
Alarodians, descended from the Zerethite Jehaleleel. who had 
thus in some of their branches left Assyria and betaken themselves 
to the mountains of Armenia. In northern Syria he carried off 
Lubarna, king of the Patinians, and reduced the lands of Zamia 
and Bit-Adini, the former of which may be Commagene under 
its native name Shema, while the latter seems to have been an 
Aramaean conquest of the Ras.^'^ The history of this monarch's 
successor, Assur-Nazir-Pal, has been fully considered in connec- 
tion with the Lion Inscription of Merash, which indicates, better 
than any Assyrian monument could, the extension of the Hittites 
in his time. It shows Habini as a king of kings over the nation 
of the Ras and neighbouring peoples, from the centre of Armenia 
westward into Cappadocia, Saravene or Beth Zur being his 
kingdom proper. To the south of his dominions lay the realm of 
Commagene under a strongr monarch, whom he calls Hapisati, 
but whom the Assyrian king names Kundaspi. In Carcliemish 
at the same time dwelt Sangara, calling himself king of Syria '> 
and in Thapsacus or Khupuscia the king of the Nairi was 

'* Lenorniiifit's Maiiuiil ; The Assyrian E])onyin Canon. 

'' 2 Sam. \. IC ; 1 King.s iv. 24. 

"' Lfnoniiuiit's Manual, i. 377. 

17 Records of tlic I'ast, vii. 1], 17. 


another king of kings. Kasyari or Geshur liad become a power- 
ful kingdom under Labduri, the son of Dubuzi, having 
moved northwards from Mesopotamia towards Armenia. The 
great opponent of Assur-Nazir-Pal however, was Akhuni son of 
Adini, who possessed Bit-Adini, and was the general of the 
armies of Habini of Ras. Over the Hittites or Khatti, who 
seem to have been near the Orontes, Lubarna was king, with a 
capital called Kunalua. The two names Kunalua and Lubarna 
indicate that the Kenezzite line of Gothniel and Leophrah had 
usurped the throne of the Achuzamites, and had brought the 
Patinians, or posterity of the Zimrite Bedan, under their sway. 
The fate of a word like Gothniel is to lose one of its medial con- 
sonants, and, as these are both dentals, the first is most likely 
to disappear. In several cases, however, by transposition both 
are preserved, as in Khintiel, the name of a king of the Shuhite 
Laki, and in the Greek Candaules. The Greek Sthonelus pre- 
sents the most complete rendering of Gothniel. In Mexico the 
equivalent of Kunalua is Sinaloa. Its tribes speak the Cahita 
language and are the Yacjuis, Mayos, and Tehuecos.^'^ The Mayos 
are hard to identify, but the Tchuecs are the Zochethites, and 
the Yaquis, the men of Ishi. The wide extension of the two 
Kenezzite families of the Charashim or Cilicians and of the 
Zochethites must date from the time of this conquering Lubarna, 
who incorporated, at least in his own division of the stock, a 
large foreign element, Achuzamite and Midianite. Thus the 
great victories of Assur-Nazir-Pal were gained, not without much 
hard fighting, over Hittite states that reached from Babylonia, 
through all Mesopotamia, northward to the Moschic region south 
of the Caucasus, and fi'om the eastern borders of Armenia, west- 
ward to the centre of Cappadocia, as well as over all Syria. The 
inscription of Habini of Ras shows that the Assyrian nu)narch 
was looked up to by tli; Hittite nations as an ai'l)iter or judge : 
an<i he S(.'enis to have ke])t them under tril)ute by force of arms.'-* 
in tilt; time of his son Shalmanezei', ( "acia was king of the 
N;i.iri in Kliu])uscia. He I'ebcllL'ij, and tlu; Assyi-ian lnu'ned his 

'" Multi- linui, TaljliMU di- la distiihutinn clhiKit^'iaphiiiur dcs iiatimis ct (U'r< 
,,'uis an M<\i(iiii', C(.ii^,'n-.s <irs Aiii'ricaiii.sts, 1S77. 'I'i>iui- ii. 10. 
'' li.-';.,i(is cf ih.- I'asl, iii. -M. 


city and a hundred that were dependent upon it. This was not 
hard work , for the Hittite cities were generally built of wood 
upon a natural or artificial mound. The Armenians had a king 
bearing the ancestral name Arame. His city, Sugunia, was burnt 
and fourteen dependent ones with it. Katazilu of Commagene, 
and Mutallu of Gamgume or Zuzim, who had regained his 
independence, submitted to Shalmanezer ; but other Hittite 
monarchs strove to reorganize the old confederacy. These were 
Sangara, king of Carchemish, a descendant, probably, of the 
Japhetic Eker, and the Hittite suzerain ; Akhuni son of Adini, 
who ruled in western Armenia ; Khanu of the Samahlians, who 
occupied the country to the north of Adini and Ras on both sides 
of the Euphrates, including Melitene and Analiba or Khanirabbi ; 
Pikhirim of Cilicia, at length in the country with which the 
name of the Charashim is most identified ; and two allied peoples, 
the Midianite Patinians under Sapalulme and the Midianite 
Yazbukians, descendants of Ishbak, under Buranate. Shalmanezer 
defeated the confederates and took cruel vengeance upon them. 
The gallant Akhuni son of Adini made many a stand, but was 
at last taken at the upper waters of the Euphrates. As Tul 
Barsip was his capital, it is probable that he was a Zerethite of 
the family of Asher, whose grandson was Malchiel, the father of 
Birzavith. He certainly exhibited the indomitable valour of the 
Cherethite. Shalmanezer, having subdued the northern Hittites, 
turned his attention to those of central and southern Syria, whom 
the Assyrian kings had so far left undisturbed. Hamath, another 
centre of many petty kingdoms, first felt his power, and Irkhulena, 
the descendant of Joram and Toi, was robbed of his treasures, 
and condemned to gaze upon his blazing cities. The Assyrian 
king was met by a host contributed by eleven kings, of whom 
Irkhulena of Hamath, and Rimmon Hidri or Benhadad of 
Damascus were the only Hittites, the others being Ahab of 
Israel, who sent 10,000 men, Matin-Baal of Arvad in Phoenicia, 
Bahsa of Ammon, Gindibriah of Arabia, Adoni Baal of the 
Sizanians, and the kings of Egypt, of Goim or Syrian Achaia, of 
the Irkanatians, probably Jerachmeclites moving northward, and 
of the Usanatians. These forces Shalmanezer vanquished, and 
prepared the way for further conquests in the south. The Black 


Obelisk inscription informs us that the empire of Habini at 
Marasia fell before the same monarch, so that in his reign, about 
900 B.C., the westward wanderings of the Lydians towards the 
Mediterranean coast must have commenced. To the north of the 
Samaldians of Melitene, Shalmanezer found the Tabalu, men of 
Diblath or Japhleti, another Zerethite remnant, often identified 
with the Tibareni of the Black Sea. These were a branch of the 
Iberians in the three families Pasach, Bimhal, and Ashvath, and 
contributed largely to the population of the Caucasus, leaving 
also, as the Avars, many traces of their presence in Europe. In 
Media, Shalmanezer found the Zimri or Zimrites, the Aniadai or 
Midianites, and the Parsuai, supposed to be Parthians. It is more 
likely that they were the Persians, descendants, like the Celtic 
Parisii, of Peresh the Gileadite. Lubarna had re-established him- 
self on the Patinian throne, but the sons of Bedan rose against him 
and put him to death, elevating Surri, probably a Patinian prince. 
Him Shalmanezer impaled with his followers, and placed Sasitur 
of Uzza over the Patinians in Cinalua.^*^ 

Shalmanezer's son Assur-Dayan rebelled against his father, 
and another son, Samas Rimmon, who succeeded to the throne, 
has preserved a list of the Assyrian cities that took part in the 
rebellion. Of these, Assur, Zab, Araphka, Dur-baladh represent 
the Zerethites, and Arbela, Tel-Abni, and Khuzirina, the men of 
Zochar. Samas Rinmion ([uelied the rebellion, and then proceeded 
against the unhappy Nairi, whose kings he subdued to the 
number of twenty-eight. Their cities or peoples arc entirely 
different from those named by Tiglath Pileser, nor can they be 
satisfactorily connected with the Hittite lists of Chronicles. 
Here and there a familiar name appears, such as Suma, king of 
the Cinucai, who is a Sheina of the Chanochites ; but while the 
Arimai, Khundurai, Huilai, Singuriai, give Harum, Gedor, Joel, 
and Zochar, their rulers Ijisiraiii, Zarisu, Aspastatauk, and Sirasu, 
do n(jt stand in any necessary genealogical relation to them. 
Dirnacus again is an Irnachash, Init how does he come to lie the 
king of the Mtirruai '. Tatai seems to be a Ifadad, but can the 
(linginai l)e desceii<IaTits of Anigam '. In addition to the lords 
mentiorH-'l, the list inchi(l(;s Sirasvi of the l>abarurai, Aniakhar of 

'i" Il.-c'irds <A th.- J'ast, iii. K\ ; v. 2!t. 


Kharmis-andi, Zarisu of the Parsaniyai, Sanisu of the Cipabaru- 
tacai, Ardara of Ustassi, Parusta of the Ciraarusai, Amamas of 
Cingistilin Zakhari, Khassikhu of the Matsirausai, Mamanis of 
the Luksai, Zabel of the Diinamai, Gista of the Abdanai, Adadanu 
of the Asatai, Ursi of the Ginkhukhtai, Bara of the Ginzinai, 
Arna of the Cindutansai, Zaban of Zuza-rurai, Irtizati of the 
Ginkhidai, Bazzuta of the Taurlai, Sua of the Nanikirai, and the 
nameless kings of the Satiriai and the Arta-sirari. Such is the 
thankless list of the kings of the Nairi, which would require a 
monograph of no small bulk for its elucidation. If Samas Rimmon 
could not reconcile his list with that of Tiglath Pileser, how shall 
the nineteenth Christian century effect their reconcilation ? 
Samas Rimmon was by no means such a conqueror as his father. 
His borders extended from the Shuhites about Babylonia north- 
ward to near Carchemish, and eastward into Media ; but he 
seems to have swelled his victories in Mesopotamia and southern 
Armenia over the Nairi to the utmost extent, in order to atone 
for the absence of more distant tributaries. Dadi of Khupuskia 
paid him tribute, but there is no mention of the kings of Syria 
and Asia Minor among his subject princes."^^ 

Of Vul-or Rimmon-ISirari who followed Samas-Rimmon we 
havi; but general statements without detail. He claimed dominion 
over all Syria and Palestine, and actually marched to Damascus, 
where he received the submission of Mai'ih, a successor of 
Hazael. He did not make any con(^uests in Asia Minor, his time 
l)eing largely taken up in suppressing revolts in Armenia. Chief 
among the Hittite peoples mentioned by him are the Albanians 
on their way to the Caucasus, the men of Kharkhar, or Iberians 
of Georgia, not yet among their mountains, and those of Allapur 
or Allabria, named after the Kenite Leophrah, in Media, or it may 
be also in Armenia, for they are mentioned along with the people 
of Van."^- The Hittite inscriptions of Sagara of Carchemish shed 
light upon the obscure period that follows. The Assyrian power 
was declining rapidly. The assertion of Rinnnon-Nirari that he 
ruled over Syria and Palestine is not borne out by history. There 
is no recorrl of any Marih king of Damascus. Fi'om 857 B.C., 

-'1 Rw.rds -if tlie Past, i. 11. 
-' L<-n(irin;uit's Manual, i. 382. 


when he began to reign, until 839 when Hazael of Syria died, the 
Hittite empire of the south w^as strong, and kept Israel in cruel 
bondage. Had there been an Assyrian monarch strong enough 
to cope with Hazael, his aid would certainly have been invoked 
by Jehoahaz. When Hazael died, the valiant Joash and his 
mightier son, the second Jeroboam, restored Israel's fallen fortunes. 
They drove the Syrians, or Syro-Hittites, out of the land on both 
sides of Jordan, and Jeroboam took possession of the kingdoms of 
Damascus and Hamath, recovering the greater part of the ancient 
empire of Solomon and David. Then it was that Jonah the 
prophet of Gath Hepher, who had foretold these conquests, pro- 
tected by the now famous name of Israel, w^ent to Nineveh and 
prophesied its destruction.^^ A degenerate Shalmanezer was on 
the Assyrian throne, and, for a time, he and his people were 
moved by the prophet's warning and repented of their evil ways. 
The story of Jonah's flight by sea from Joppa to Tarsus, of his 
being cast overboard and saved by a great fish, was notorious 
among the Greeks who still inliabited the sea coast of Palestine 
from Accho to the south of Philistia, and, being carried by them 
to their subsequent settlements in Lesbos and Corinth, was there 
transformed into the legend of the poet Arion, who, sailing from 
Tarentum to Corinth, or from Corinth to Methymna in Lesbos, 
was compelled by covetous seamen to leap into the sea, when a 
dolphin received him and carried him in safety to Taenarum in 
Laconia. Rejrarded as a Philistine storv, it is sio-nificant that the 
eastc-rn promontory cori'esponding to Taenarum is that of 
Onugnathus, or the jaw bone of the ass, a reminiscence of the 
exploits of Samson."-'^ 

Returning to the liistory of Assyria, the chief information is 
that afibrdcd in the fragmentary inscriptions of Sagara of Carche- 
mish, wliich sliow tliat, towards the end of Jeroljoam's reign, 
Shahiianezer made an attempt t<j regain liis l(jst power on er the 
Hittite ti'ib(-'s, an<l sent his son Salaka or Assai-ac into Connnagene 
to install a Hittite ])rince favourable to Assyrian supremacy, and 
to incite the Hittite tril)utaries of C'areheiiiisli to rebel auainst 

- Jonali ; 2 Kind's xiv. 2'). 

-' ilirodnt. i. 2."{, 24 ; Jmi(,'e.s xv. 15 ; The iniuiy i)lacf's on tlic M(!(iit('rr:ini'iUi coast 
of I'ali-stinc, call<'(i Kliaii founas, liavc no relation to the ])io]ihct .lonali, hutaro 
ancient atxxies of the Onitos or lonians, whom Stephanas phices in (Jaz;!. 


Sagara. This caused an outbreak of violence on the part of 
Hittite populations that had received Assyrian governors, and 
Sagara, placing himself at the head of the confederacy once more 
organized, entered Commagene and drove away Assarac and his 
forces. Then he made alliance with Phalok, the revolting king 
of Babylonia, and with Assur, who was probably a younger brother 
of Assarac, eager to deprive his elder of the Assyrian crown. 
Shalmanezer died during the contest, and Assarac his heir was 
besieged by the confederates in Nineveh. Despairing of escape, 
he set fire to the city and perished in the conflagration that 
destroyed the mistress of the world. Phalok, the Bible Phul, 
united the Assyrian and Babylonian empires under his sceptre, 
but appointed Assur as his viceroy over the conquered country. 
Then, from the shores of the Caspian to the Mediterranean coast 
and the centre of Cappadocia, and from Thapsacus to the Caucasus, 
Sagara ruled as king of kings over the united and victorious 
Hittites. Elated with their success, they forgot their Israelite 
enemy in the south, whose yoke Thapsacus had broken in the 
general upheaval. Zechariah the son of Jeroboam had been cut 
off by his officer Shallum after a reign of half a year, and the 
assassin had been but a month on the throne when Menahem, who 
was governor over the Hittite conquests of Israel at Tirzah, came 
with speed to Samaria, and rewarded him as he had served his 
master. Menahem then placed the crown on his own head, but 
was at once summoned away by the Hittite revolt. Busy in other 
quarters, the confederate kings were unable to help Thapsacus, the 
head of the Nairi kingdoms. The king of Israel took the city 
and ravaged the adjoining country, but, on the advance of the 
Babylonian Phalok and his Hittite confederates, he was compelled 
to retire, losing all his northern possessions and saving his king- 
dom of Samaria only by the payment of a thousand talents of 
silver, wherewith the destroyer of Nineveh doubtless rewarded 
his allies who made but little account of gold.-^ At this time 
another Hittite state comes into prominence, that namely of Elam 
or Susiana, over which reigned Sutruk-Nakhunta, one of whose 
successors Kudur-Nakhunte restored the name by which Chedor- 
laomer was known, showing; that from the time of that ancient 

2 Kings XV. IG, 19. 


monarch the kingdom of Elam had remained in the possession of 
his family. If we identify the Lakhmians or Mondars of Irak 
witli the Susian posterity of Lechem and Manahath, the descend- 
ants of Chedorlaomer held sway over the country about the Shat- 
el-Arab down to the seventh Christian century.-^ 

The period of Hittite independence lasted little more than 
forty years. After the death of Phalok in 747 B.C., the Assyrians 
reasserted themselves, and in 744 Tiglath Pileser II. became king. 
He was probably a son of that Assur whom Phalok had made 
vice-king of Assyria. He re-established supremacy over the Nairi 
in Mesopotamia, placing his border for the time at the Euphrates. 
Then he invaded Babylonia and Chaldea, which were full of Hittite 
and Midianite tribes, the very name Kaldi being that of Gilead 
the Zimrite. The only kings mentioned by him are Nabu-Usabsi 
and Chinzirus. The name Nabu-Usabsi sugfffests a Kenezzite 
origin from Di Nhaba, which is confirmed by Chinzirus, an oriental 
Cinyras and Acencheres or Uzzen-Sherah. Yet Nabu-Usabsi 
reigned in Sarrabanu of Bit Silani, which seems to have com- 
memorated Saraph the son of Shelah the Shuhite. In the wide 
region traversed by him, Tiglath Pileser found the Pukudu or 
southern Picts, afterwards to be Indian Pactyans, in their cities 
Lahiru, Idibirina, Hilimmu, and Pillutu, which kept alive the 
memory of Jehaleleel, Heber, Helem, and Japhlet, the Zerethites. 
There also he met with the chief tribes of the Shuhites, Lehitau, and 
Marusu, or Laadah and Mareshah ; of the Temenites, Damunu and 
Amlatu, or Temeni and Amalek ; with the Birtu, Parthians, or 
Beerothites, the Gurumu or Garrnites, and a mixed multitude of 
Hagarenes, Nabataeans, and Ekronite Ubulu, named after Abihail. 
All these he brought under his sway. In the north he reduced 
all Syria and the Hittite kingdoms as far as the Caucasus, luim- 
bering among his subjects Pisiris of Carchemish, Eniel (properly 
Khintiel) of Hamath, Rezin of Damascus, Kustaspi of Commagene 
Sulumal of Melitene, Panammu of Samhalai, Tarhulara of Gam- 
guinai or Zuzini, Uassurmi of Tuljalai, Dadilu of Kaskai, Ui'iiiuni 
of HusaiHuii, and Ui-palla of Tuhanai, who were Hittites, together 
with some Phu-nician and .Japhetic princes. In eflecting the 
reduction of Syria he had to encounter the opposition of the kings 

-''' Salfi's Koran, I'reliiiiinary DiHCdurHo. 


of Hamath and Damascus, and of Pekah the king of Israel. Two 
of the Hamathite inscriptions have briefly told the story of their 
revolt. Ostensibly it arose out of the murder of the king of 
Chalcis by a renegade Hittite chief, whom Rezin defeated, after 
he had invoked the aid of Assyria to support him in his act of 
usurpation in Chalcis. Elated with this success, the king of 
Hamath engraved an account of the mustering of the Hittite forces 
to avenge the death of Caleb of Chalcis. The chief conspirators 
were the suzerain, Pisiris of Carchemish, Yanzu of Thapsacus, 
Khintiel of Hamath, and Rezin of Damascus, with Pekah of Israel 
and the king of the Patinians. Tiglath Pileser overthrew the 
confederates and put Rezin to death, thus bringing the kingdom 
of Damascus to an end.^" Shalmanezer, who followed Tiglath 
Pileser, appears to have retained the conquests of his predecessor, 
for the only event of his reign that is known is his siege of 
Samaria, in the midst of which he died, leaving the throne to his 
officer Sargon.^^ 

One of the first acts of Sargon was the capture of Samaria 
in the ninth year of King Hoshea, and the transportation of 
27,280 Israelites of rank into Mesopotamia. Then he treated 
Hamath, under its king Ilubid, in the same fashion. The next 
victim was Pisiris king of Carchemish, whom he expelled from 
his city, the inhabitants of which he transported to Assyria. Of 
the original conspirators, Yanzu of Thapsacus was the only one 
allowed to retain his kingdom under tribute. Thus in the year 
716 the Hittite confederacy came to an end ; but the Hittites 
were still strong in Armenia and Asia Minor. Commagene fol- 
lowed the fate of the neighbouring kingdoms ; Mutallu its last 
monarch, " fled alone and his trace was no more seen." Ursaha 
of Armenia, however, brought under his standard Bagadatti of 
Militene, and the great ones of Karalla, Zikirtu, and Van. 
Assurlih was king of Karalla, a name so like Asarccl as to leave 
one in doubt whether Karalla denotes the Hcraclid race or a 
branch of the Zerethites. Zikirtu and Van, or Zochar and Jep- 
hunueh, had Aza for king, a friend of the Assyrians. Him the 
conspirators slew, but when Sargon replaced him by his brother 

-" Records of the Past, v. 4.5. 
^ Lenormant's Manual, i. 391. 


Ullusun, that patriotic Hittite joined the Armenian league against 
Assyrian tyranny. Itti of Allapur, towards or in northern 
Media, also made common cause with the revolters ; and some of 
the Nairi united with them. The}' were defeated in detail, and 
the league broken. Ullusun made his peace with Sargon ; the 
men of Allapur and Karalla were scattered ; and Uisaha was 
driven into the mountains a fugitive. He is the romantic char- 
acter, the hero of this period of Hittite history. For two years 
he maintained the unequal contest, and then, hearing that his 
last ally, Urzana of Musasir, had been overcome and his god 
Haldia captured by Sargon, " he despaired on account of the 
victories of Assur, and he with his own hand, with the dagger 
of his belt he pierced his entrails as to a wild beast." Another 
Hittite enemy of Sargon was Mita the Moschian. He appears 
to have dwelt in Cappadocia, for some of his raids were upon the 
territory of the Kui or Goim of south-eastern Cilicia. Sargon 
never conquered the Moschi, but Mita at length, satisfied of the 
might of Assyria, paid him tribute ; and this tribute continued, 
as the inscription on the Stone Bowl of Babylon shows, down to 
the time of Sargon's grandson Esarhaddon. The Albanians or 
men of Ellip were submissive to his yoke till their king Dalta 
died. Then his two sons, Nibie and Ispabara, contended for the 
crown : the former being supported by Sutruk-Nakhunte of 
Elam, and the latter by Sargon. Ispabara triumphed, and Nibie 
was taken in his town of Mareobisti. Of Hittite monarchies in 
the north there remained, besides those of the Mosclii and Alban- 
ians, of Allapur and Van, Tabal, Khamman and Gamguin. Ambaris 
was king of Tabal and of Beth Buritis in Colchis. He had 
joined the insurgents under Ursaha, but he was punished for this 
some time after the fall of that warlike rebel and the submission 
of his confederates. Sargon depopulated his country and removed 
liis people to Assyria. Tarliunazi ruled over Khamman and 
Melitene, a good evidence that the Has or Lydians had with- 
ilrawn from that region. This land of Khamman appears to have 
been nam;d t'loni Coiiiaiia of I'oiitus rather than from that of 
Ca])})adocia, as, wlieii Sargon ])esi(;ged liim, tlu; town in which he 
took r(;fug<' was Tell-(j!arimiiii, whose name is an echo of the 
Gariiii that came of the family of .Jephunnc-'h, fi'om whom Pontus 


got its name. Tarhunazi was taken in chains to Assyria, with 
all his family and 5,000 of his people. The position of Gamgum 
is hard to determine, though Professor Sayce places it in north- 
eastern Cilicia, therefore in the country vacated by the Ras. 
Mutallu, its king, had dethroned his father Tarhulara, who 
appealed to Sargon. The Assyrian, nothing loath, marched to 
Varkasi, which may be Merash or Marasia, and dethroned 
Mutallu. carrying away his spoil and removing his family to 
Assyria. Along with the Gamgumian princes, he took the family 
of the land of Bet-Pahalla, or the Japhetic line of Abihail, still 
true to the fortunes of the Zuzimites, as in ancient days. Thus 
Sargon ruled almost to the centre of Asia Minor, so that what 
independent Hittite states existed in that country must have 
been west of the Halys. Chief among these kingdoms must have 
been that of the Ras in Lydia, which afterwards dominated the 
great peninsula. 

The men of Sumir and Akkad were still in the south under 
Merodach Baladan of Babylonia, and Humbanlgas of Elam. 
These kings stirred up the tribes everywhere against Sargon, 
but too late. Had they made their attempt before the northern 
Hittites were subdued and scattered abroad, they might have 
hoped for success ; now their solitary ally in the north was 
Mita the Moschian, who had not yet made his submission. The 
Gambulian lake dwellers came forth to war, and were first 
conquered. The Pukud Avere affrighted and suixendered, as did 
the Eshtemoites descended from Zochar, the Ibuliya and Patiyail 
or Abihailites and Abdielites descended from Buz, the men of 
Rat, Ur, Kullab, and Larsa, who worshipped the god Laguda, 
Laadah or Lagadah, the father of Mareshah, and representatives 
of almost all the Hittite tribes. In the south, as in the north, 
their dream of independence came to an end while within reach 
of the long arm of Assyria's warrior king. Sargon's final con- 
quest was that of Uperi, the king of Dihnun on the Persian 
Gulf, a Zerethite probably of the family of Talmai of Geshur. 
The news of this last victory brought Mita's tribute to Sargon 
into Elam ; and the kings of Yahnagi in the island of Yatnan or 
Cyprus, fearing lest the Assyrian monarch should cross the sea 
to them as he had done to reach Dihnun, brought him presents 


to Babylon, and kissed his feet. The various names of Cyprus 
are Hittite, but denoting different families. The Greek name 
Cyprus is that of Chepher, whose posterity, the people of Aradus 
and Marathus, were probably the first to colonize it. The Assyr- 
ran Yatnan is the name of Ethnan, the ancestor of the piratical 
Cilicians ; and Yahnagi pertains to the line of Paseach, being 
derived from his grandson Hanoch.-^ A large Japhetic element 
followed, among whom, if tradition can be trusted, the Goira, 
Kue, or Achaeans, occupied a prominent position. Judging from 
the names of its kings given by Esarhaddon, it must have been 
hellenized in speech in his time, and the process probably began 
before that of Sargon.^*^ 

Sennacherib had no trouble with any of the northern Hittites 
but the Albanians. Ispabarra was compelled to flee, and most of 
his kingdom was annexed to Assyria. Some rebellious Kuans 
and Cilicians were subdued and brought to Chaldea to work in 
bricktields, like the Israelites in Egypt. The Medes, whom 
Sennacherib regarded as a very distant people, paid tribute and 
accepted his yoke. These Medes, whose kings are classed by the 
prophet Jeremiah with those of Zirari and of Elam, were the 
Midianites, the only historical people of that name. Among the 
Nipur mountains, which probably represent the Zagros range in 
eastern Assyria, the conqueror found the Tocharri, once rulers of 
Assyria, now a race of wild men, who had fixed their dwellings 
like the nests of eagles on the high summits and crags. Yet he 
took their cities, Sharum, Ezama, Kipsu, Kalbuda, Kua and Knna, 
names that tell unmistakably who the Tocharri were. Near at 
hand beyond the mountains were the Kassi or Cossaei, descen- 
dants of Coz and his son Anub separated from Amnion. With 
them were the YatsuV)i-Galla, dwelling in Kilamzahk. These may 
have been the men of Jashubi-Leliem, descendants of Shuali the 
Ashterathite, who had dwelt in the vicinity of Moab. Botli of 
these peoples Sennaclierib transported to other seats. Afterwards 
in Media, wliere they dwelt even in the time of the classical 
geographers, he encount<'red the rebellious Dahae or Zohethites 

-' Yet till! nairie of T(;l:uiiiiii coiiiK'cU'd with (.'ypnis .suggests Anak ratlicr tlian 
" Kwirdrt of th.; Past, vii. 25. 


under their king Maniah, whose city was Ukku. The capital 
and thirty-three dependent cities fell before the Assyrian mon- 
arch, and again the work of transportation M'^ent on, until the 
Hittite tribes were everywhere broken into fragments. AnothH* 
rebellion broke out in Babylonia and Elam headed by the Chal- 
dean Suzub and Umman-Minan the Elamite. The Hittites of the 
south rushed to war, Damunu, Khindaru, Pukudu, Gambuli, 
Lahiru, Malaku, Lakabri, Illipi, Yashan, Pasiru, Ubudu, Beth- 
Kutlan, Beth-Adini, Beth-Amukkan, Dummuku, Kipri, Gurumu, 
Lihutahu, and others too numerous to mention, tosrether with the 
allied Gileadites, Abihailites and Ishmaelites, or Kalatu, and 
Parzush, Ubuli and Nabatu and Hagaranu. The Hittite tribes 
bear the names of Temeni, Gedor, Pasach, Samlah, Jehaleleel, 
Amalek, Legophrah, Eliphaz, Husham, Abiezer, Obadiah, Jekuth- 
iel, Ethnan, Megon, Shemag, Cheber, Garmi, Laadah. Sennach- 
erib overcame the tumultuous host, and for a time the south had 
rest. Of his conquests in Palestine this is not the place to speak, 
but, as affecting the Hittites in Asia Minor and Hellas, it is 
worthy of note that his wars with the Philistines and other 
Japhetic tribes of the sea coast must have caused large immigra- 
tions into these regions.^^ 

The Hittites were not yet subdued. When Esarhaddon heard 
how his brothers had put his father to death, he was leading a 
campaign in Pontus. It was January, and a great snow-storm 
darkened the sky, but he pushed on towards Nineveh. As he 
passed through the country of the Khani -Rabbi in north-eastern 
Cappadocia or Armenia Minor, the warriors of these sons of the 
Rephaim assembled and opposed his course with their arrows. 
The avenger broke through them, however, and made good his 
march to Nineveh. In Cilicia or south of that country in Syria, 
one Sanduarri or Ben-Zoheth, king of Kundi and Sitzu, allied 
himself with the king of Sidon against the new monarch of 
Assyria ; but to use his own language " like a bird from out of 
the mountains I took him and I cut off his head." In Colchis 
also rebellion broke out. Trusting to their mountains, the men 
of Khilakki and Duhuka or of the twin Kenezzite lines of Charash 
and Zocheth, refused to submit to the yoke of Assyria. Esar- 

:'i Kecords of the Past, i. 25, 35 ; vii. 59. 


haddon took twenty-one of their cities, carried off their spoil, and 
placed the yoke of his empire heavily upon them. Somewhere 
in the same region he met Tiuspa, the roving warrior of the 
Cimmerians or Zimri, " whose own country was remote, in the 
province of Khubusna," and destroyed him and all his army with 
the sword. It is not known where Khubusna was, but the 
probability is that it was in Northern Media ; and this seems to 
have been the beginning of those Cimmerian expeditions which 
afterwards ravaged Asia Minor and gave to Galatia its Celtic or 
Gileadite population. The Assyrian monarch does not state when 
he was at the extreme north-western border of Cappadocia. He 
went there, however, and crushed the people of Barnaki, called 
in classical geography Parnassus, who dwelt in Telassar, probably 
the Sar-alium of the Greeks. In the south also he sought out the 
Hittites, and spoiled the city of Beth-Dakkuri, " which is in 
Chaldea but in enmity with Babylon." He burned the king of 
this Semitized Zochar named Shetns-Ibni, because he refused to 
worship Merodach and spoiled the Babylonians. But he made 
use of the Gambulians as a barrier against Elam, for " Belbasha 
son of Bunani, king of the Gambulians, who at the distance of 
twelve hashu among the waters and the marshes like fishes had 
placed their dwellings " brought him tribute and kissed his feet. 
Finally the ten kings of Cyprus, of mingled Hittite, Greek and 
Phoenician blood, submitted to the yoke of Assyria. These were 
Ekistuz of Edihal, Pisuagura of Kittie, Kius of Sillumi, Itu-Dagon 
of Pappa, Erili of Sillu, Damasus of Kuri, Rumitzu of Tainisu.s, 
Damusi of Amti-Kliadasta, Unassagura of Lidini, and Butzu of 
Upri. Of these, Ekistuz of Edihal was probably a descendant of 
the Jerachmeelite Jediael, but the others might all, so far as 
names go, have been of Hittite descent.^"- 

In GG7 B.C., Assurbanipal succeeded his father. His chief 
campaigns were in Egypt, Arabia, and Chaldea. Mugallu king 
of Tubal, and Sandasarvi of Cilicia, subinitti'd to him, and he 
received a tJaughter of each in marriage, 'i'he kinj^s of Minni 
and Ararat in Armenia also made their ])eace in a siniilai' way. 
Yet there app('a)'s to hfive Ix-en iigiitiiig in ('ilieia and Armenia 
prior to these; reeoncilations. Othei-wise the northei'n Hittite 

- K.cords of til.- ]';i>t, iii. 10:<, 111. 


regions were quiescent, the bold spirits being dead or on their 
way to distant lands were they could breathe freely. The Ras 
had reached the western sea ; Sardis was built, and the Lydian 
kingdom organized. But they were not fated to be there long 
alone. Tiuspa was dead, but the Cimmerians lived, and, where 
Sumir was, Akkad was not far off. The rovers had made their 
way straight through Asia Minor, plundering on the way, and 
then, when they thought they had reached the outpost of civiliza- 
tion, the treasures of Che new empire of the west greeted their 
eyes. Gyges was on the throne, a second Gog, perhaps of the 
same Paseachite line as the first, for the Paseachites had dwelt in 
Baal Meon where the Lydians were first called Maeonians. 
Gyges knew very well who the Assyrians were, although Assur- 
banipal says that his forefathers had not heard the name of Lydia. 
The Lydian king sent ambassadors asking for help against the 
invaders of his kingdom, pretending that the god Asshur had 
revealed to him in a dream that he should seek the friendship of 
the king of Assyria. Accordingly Assurbanipal sent him aid, and 
an Assyrian army fought with the Lydians against the Zimrite 
spoilers, drivin^^ them northward towards the Black Sea. Gyges 
probably feared that he had made a mistake in letting the 
Assyrians know of his existence, for, when the Cimmerians and 
his auxiliaries had departed, he sent troops to help Psammetichus 
of Egypt to drive the Assyrians out of that country. Assur- 
banipal complains bitterly of this act of ingratitude, and states 
that he gave the Cimmerians permission to renew their ravages, 
of which permission they took such advantage that the Lydian 
king was shut up in the citadel of Sardis. Gyges was killed, and 
his son hastened to make his submission to the Assyrian king, 
who ordered the Cimmerians to retire from Lydia. The Hittites 
of the south rose in favour of Saulmugina, Assurbanipal's brother, 
who had stirred up the Semitic peoples of Syria, the Goim, and 
the Egyptians against him, and who was confederate with Elam. 
The con(j^ueror of Egypt conquered the rebels, and threw his 
brother into a fiery furnace. In Elam he found the southern 
Rms at Rasi and Kabrina, and the posterity of Henian, son of 
Mahalah and grandson of Samlah, at Hamanu. There also were 
the Beerothites at Dur-Amnani and Dur-Amnanima, at Samunu, 


and Shushan. All of these he overthrew. The marsh-loving 
Gambulians he took from their watery retreat and carried them to 
Assyria, where they would find no lakes to disport in. Then he 
carried away the Elamite gods, Susinak, Sumudu, Lagomer, 
Partikira, Ammankasibar, Uduran, Sapak, Ragiba, Sumugursara, 
Karsa, Kirsamas, Sudunu, Aipaksina, Bilala, Panintimri, Silagara, 
Napsa, Nabirtu, and Kindakarbu. It is not easy to identify all 
these deified ancestors, which almost all pagan gods were, but 
Sumudu is probably Hamath rather than Shemidag ; Lagomer is 
Laomer ; Ragiba, Rechab ; Sumugur-sara, Shamgar the Zari; 
Sudunu, Eshton ; Karsa, Korach, grandson of MaReshah ; Kirsa- 
mas, Regem as Karegemish ; Uduran, Hadarof Pau ; Ammankasi- 
bar, Manachath the Horite. The reign of the southern Hittites 
was thus apparently at an end, although, as has been stated 
already, there are indications that the posterity of Chedorlaomer 
dwelt as a princely family, with occasional royal authority, down 
into the Christian centuries. Strabo quotes Arfstobulus to the 
eftect that Assurbanipal, or, as he calls him, Sardanapalus, was 
buried at Anchiale in Cilicia, and that a stone figure of the 
conqueror, in the attitude of one snapping his fingers, was erected 
on his tomb, with an inscription in Assyrian' characters: "Sar- 
danapalus, son of Anacyndaraxes, in one day set up Anchiale and 
Tarsus Eat, drink and be merry, for everything else is not 
worth that."'*'^ M. Lenormant shews that Anacyftdaraxes is 
anak iniddcsh arru A8f:>hur, or "I, the great king of Assyria," a 
common statement of the Assyrian monarchs. The tradition is 
given for what it is worth.^* 

Assurljanipal died 647 B.C. and was followed by his son 
Assuredililani in whose time Assyrian monarchy came to an end. 
His period is one of great obscurity owing to the absence of 
historical monuments with wdiicli to check the traditions of the 
Greek historians.^'' Its liistory is further complicated by the 
conft)unding of tlie events connected with the first fall of 
Nineveh before Phalok and Sagara with those of the second fall 
before Nebuchadnezzar. \W) know that Nebuchadnezzar in the 

'' Stratx), xiv. 5, 9. 

''' L<;iioriii;iiit, Manual, i. 414 ; f(ir the whole reign of AsHurhanipal, Records of the 

Pa-it, i. 57. 

^' Li-iioriiiaiit, 41."). 


year 606 B.C., took Nineveh, and established himself as lord over 
all the Assyrian empire. His name, Nabu-Kudur-Ussur, and that 
of his father Nabu-Pal-Ussur, or Nabopolassar, together with the 
special worship they paid to Nebo and Merodach in the temple 
of Saggathu, mark him a descendant of the Kenezzite royal 
family in alliance with the Gedors of Chaldea and Elam. This 
family, which left Egypt some time after the Exodus of Israel, 
does not come prominently into view in Babylonian history till 
about 1300 B.C., when Rimmon-Pal-Idinna sat on the throne of 
Babylon. All of his successors bear the characteristic Kenezzite 
or Ethnanite names, Merodach, Bel, Nebo, Idinna, setting forth 
the son of Beor, Bela, Di Nhaba, and Atin-re or Othniel, with the 
exception of Sibir, and Kinziru the son of Amukkan, the last of 
whom, however, represents Uzzensherah, while Amukkan, his 
father bears part of the name of Megon-othai. These Kenezzites 
had been allied with the family of Rapha or Hammurabi the 
founder of Babylon from time immemorial, and the alliance had 
been confirmed in Egyptian days by the marriage of Abiezer, the 
son of Samlah, to Hathath, the heiress of Othniel. When the 
posterity of Ethnan returned to Babylonia, they established 
themselves in Ava or Aeiopolis on the Euphrates, so named after 
the son of Ethnan and eponym of the Avim. There they 
received Dardag, the son of Mahalah, into the number of their 
divinities. When Sargon transplanted the Babylonians of 
Babylonia, Cutha, and Ava, into Samaria, the Avites carried 
with them the worship of Nibhaz and Tartak or Nebo and 
Dardag, the Cuthites, that of Nergal or Acharchel, and the 
Babylonians, that of Succoth-Benoth.^^ The Kenezzites, Ethanites, 
or Avites speedily displaced the Heraclidae, or family of Arman- 
Agarsal and the Rephaim on the throne of Babylonia, causing the 
former to retire into the north, and sending the latter southwards 
to the Gambulian marshes. They then effected alliances with 
tlie Kudurs of Elam, introducing their royal title into the nomen- 
clature of the Babylonian family. As we have seen, the popula- 
tion of Babylonia, Chaldea, and Elam was by no means purely 
Hittite. Its substratum was Semitic and unhistorical. Chaldea 
derived its name from the Kaldai, called a leading tribe of 

' 2 Kind's xvii. :^0, 'M. 


Akkad, but who were reallj' the same as their allies the Sumir or 
Zimrites, for they were men of Gilead descended from Zimran. 
At some unknown period, or periods, these primitive Celts crossed 
the Shat el Arab into Susiana, whence they afterwards sent a 
colony into southern Media, and reestablished the ancient name 
of Elam in both of these countries as that of the Elymaei, 
or descendants of Ulam the Gileadite. The senior branch of the 
Ulamites, known as the sons of Peresh, separated from the 
Elymaei of Susiana, and, moving eastward, occupied the country 
known as Persis. Where these Celts, who gave their name to 
the Persian empire, came under pure Aryan influences is not 
easy to decide. This, at any rate, is not the place to enter upon 
the extensive field of Aryan migrations. There w'ere Japhetic 
tribes in Babylonia, Chaldea, and Elam, who accompanied the 
fortunes of the Zuzimite Hittites, being the descendants of Eker 
and Buz. Some of these as Busae constituted one of the leading 
Median tribes. The same people, as Ubuli or Ubulu, descendants 
of Abihail, were in Chaldea and Elam ; and as Sagartians, bearing 
the name Geker or Sagara, they w^ere counted as a Persian tribe. 
That there were other Japhetic peoples among the tribes east of 
the Tigris is proved by the statements of the Assyrian monarchs, 
who tell how they transported them from the sea coast of Syria 
and Palestine. Among these must be counted the descendants of 
^laaz or Magaz, the son of Ram and brother of Eker. From him 
came the Magi, who were to Media what the Brahmans were to 
India, a ruling priestly caste. The name Brahman or Brachuian 
originated in Egy])t, where the Coptic ai-ticlc p'l trans- 
formed such words as rorii'i, a man, into i^iroral and similar 
forms. Tliere the name Jerachmeel, which the Arabs called 
Arkam, rejecting the final el, became Brachmecl and Brachma. 
To tills Brachman race Geker and Magaz belonged, the former 
bfing a warrior and the latt(,'r a priestly line that succeeded for a 
time in dominating some of the Hittite trii^es among wln'cii tliey 
dwelt. The Japhetic famili(,'S W(;re tenacious of their language ; 
the Hittites and Midianites wei'e not. Accordingly in AiMuenia, 
Persia, and India, the .l(;raclnneelites of h^ker and .Maaz ini])ose(l 
their tongue U])()n the Hittite and Midianite tribes, and e\-en 
can-ied Japhetic sp(;ech into Bokhara, its north-east(;rn limit. 


Almost all the Hittite families had representation in Babylonia, 
Chaldea, and Elam ; and many Ishmaelite tribes occupied these 
countries with them. 

When Nebuchadnezzar succeeded his father Nabopolassar as 
viceroy of Babylon he thought of the traditions of his race, and 
recalled the great exploit of his ancestor Phalok. Looking abroad, 
he saw that there was no Assyrian nation, but a mixed multitude 
bearing that name and speaking the Assyrian language, yet pre- 
serving, in its individual elements, the creeds and conditions of 
ancient non-Assyrian days. He saw the Hittite nationality, which 
Sargon thought he had extinguished when he drove Pisiris and 
his people from Carchemish, when he depopulated Hamath and 
Damascus and transported the northern tribes to distant parts of 
the Assyrian empire, still extant in the Caucasus, in parts of 
Armenia, and especially in the large tract east of Assyria from 
the Araxes and the Caspian down to the Persian Gulf. The 
Hittites were not dead ; they had merely changed their ground 
from west to east, and there they had amalgamated in a measure 
with the Midianite hordes, whose ancestors had fought in Moab 
and on the plain of Jezreel. Could he but unite the Hittites of 
the north with those who acknowledged his sway in the south, 
Assyria would be crushed between these two millstones, as it had 
been in the days of Phalok and Sagara. But where was the 
Sagara ? It is in attempting to answer this question that the 
historian finds himself baffled by the confusion of the two stories 
of Nineveh's fall. The Babylonian kings have left no historical 
records, and no Hittite documents have been brought to light which 
can clear up the mystery. According to Ctesias, the ally of 
Nebuchadnezzar was Cyaxares the Mede, in whom we recognize 
a Sahara. Now it was Sagrara of Carchemish who aided Phalok 
in destroying Nineveh a hundred and eighty years before, and the 
name of the Assyrian king whom Nebuchadnezzar and Cyaxares 
overthrew is called Assarac, which is the same as the Salaka of 
Sagara's inscription. Nevertheless, the name Sagara was so com- 
mon a one among the Japhetic rulers of the Hittites, that there 
is no improbaljility in its repetition in a Babylonian alliance 
against Assyria. It is most unlikely, however, that this Cyaxares 
or Sagara was the third of a dynasty of Median kings reigning 


in Ecbatana, for Esarhaddon, who overran Media, only found 
there Sidirparna and Eparna, two chiefs of fortresses, and three 
chiefs of cities named Uppiz, Zanasan, and Ramatiah, who ruled 
respectively in Partakka, Pardukka, and Uraka-Zabarna. If any 
dynasty really existed exercisincr royal authority, it must have 
been in Hyrcania to the south-east of the Caspian, where the 
Regemite name was restored and a Chorasmia revived the memory 
of the fallen Carchemish on the Euphrates. When Pisiris was 
driven out of Carchemish, and Mutallu of Commagene his neigh- 
bour, not long afterwards, wandered away into the mountains and 
left no trace of his presence, what is more natural than that they 
.should strive to put the broad sea between them and the destroyer 
of their homes and people, and that they should give to that sea 
the names of their great father and mother Regem and Gazubah, 
as the Hyrcanian and the Caspian. In Hyrcania, the mother 
after whom Sazabe of Carchemish was named had another memo- 
rial in the royal town Casape. Here also Carchemish and Com- 
magene kept company still, for Comisene was the .southern 
boundary of Hyrcania. Such was the rallying point of the 
northern Hittite clans, but not the only one. In Armenia the 
Zocharites, formerly of Van, dwelt among the mountains, brethren 
of the Tocharri of the Zagros range, and they were the nucleus of 
an Armenian kini^dom. And between the divided Hittite states 
lay Zimri and the Medes, ever ready to go where there was fight- 
ing to be done and plunder to be gained. Under the banner of 
the Hyrcanian Sagara the northern men of the east advanced, a 
countless host, to make common cause with their ])rethren of 
Babylonia ; and between the two millstones Assyria was crushed 
and forever. 



The Aryan Struggle for Supremacy over the Hittites of 

Western Asia. 

Prior to the second fall of Nineveh there had been no 
Japhetic empire. The only historical line descended from 
Japheth was that of Jerachmeel, who, with his son Ram and 
grandson Jamin, gave the names Erechtheus, Romulus, Brachma, 
Rom and Mannus, which characterize the traditions of the 
Aryans.^ Some of the Jerachmeelites were the Arkam, wander- 
ing tribes in Arabia ; others, the Cyrenians of Northern Africa, 
who early lorded it over the Hittite and Midianite colonists. 
Their chief domain was the Mediterranean coast of Palestine in 
Philistia and northward to the border of Phoenicia. But they 
were scattered about in small communities in various parts of 
Syria and Palestine and Egypt, and early found their way into 
Babylonia and Assyria in company with the Hittites. These 
eastern Aryans were chieHy, as has been indicated, of the poster- 
ity of Geker, the youngest son of Ram, and of his oldest brother 
Maaz. But the Onites, or lonians as the Greeks called them, who 
descended from a half-brother of Ram, and who named the trans- 
Jordanic Ataroths after their mother Atarah, were among the 
earliest colonists of Chaldea.- The ancestral Onam or Cannes 
appears in the most ancient page of Chaldean history, as a wise 
being with the body of a fish who taught letters and science and 
the art of building cities.^ The fish fable finds its explanation 
in the name of Onam's second son Jadag, who became Odacon or 
Dagon the fish-god of Aslidod. The Onites, therefore, must have 
contributed to the Aryan population of the cast ; but they are 
not to be confounded with the Yavanas of the Egyptians and 

1 1 Chron. ii. 25. 
1 Chrr.n. ii. 20. 
' I'ero.sus, etc. in Cory's Ancient Fragments ; Smith, Chaldean Account of Genesis. 


Hindus who were Hittite Jephunnites.^ The reputation of the 
Jerachmeelites for learning was doubtless well founded. The 
Sanscrit scriptures are full of their superiority in this respect, 
and, fjoing: back as these records do to the earliest historic scenes 
in Babylonia, Palestine, and Egypt, they present a faithful 
picture of the relation in which the white race stood to those of 
alien blood. To some of the Hittite tribes in particular they were 
guides, philosophers, and highly esteemed friends ; and in course 
of time, they were looked up to with superstitious reverence as 
beings of a superior order. While some of them, especially the 
Gekerites, were brave warriors, and furnished the chief defence 
of the early Egyptian throne, they generally posed as priests and 
lawgivers, allowing the Kshattriyas or Indian Dioscuri to fight 
their battles and receive their blessing. They wrote Vedic 
hymns in honour of the ancestral gods of the Hittites in their 
own sacred language, and permitted Hittite monai'chs and sages 
who had ac(|uired proficiency in that old Pelasgic tongue to 
contribute to the poetic collections.^ Nor did they obtrude 
their own ancestors on the notice of their Hamitic patrons to any 
extent. But, in after centuries, the Brahman forgot the origin of 
the Vedic deities and regarded them as the special property of his 

On and Pharbaethus, the latter originating the story of 
Prometheus, were Jerachmeelite settlements, petty kingdoms in 
Lower Egypt, of which there were probably several more." 
During the troublous times after the reign of Jaboz, a short-lived 
Gekerite dynasty reigned in Thebes, marked in Greek story by 
the name of Creon. Men of Jemini, or of tlie race of Jamin, the 
second son of Ram, helped the Israelites against their oppressors ; 
and it seems that Saul king of Israel was of that Japlietic 
family.'' The tii'st Jei'achmeelites, howev(-i-, to encroach upon 
the prerogative of Hittite royalty, seem to have been the descen- 
dants of (jeker, Buz, and Abihail, among the Acliuzaniites of 
Carehemish and Ccjinmngene. Sagara and Pisiris, or Pisi tlie 
zarl. are (jl(.-ker and Buz; and tlie Connnagenian Kundaspi, 

' -Muir',- S;ii;.-crit Texts ; l)e Laiioyc's Ujuucscs the (Ircat. 

Mnii'.- Suii.-crit Texts. 
' IM.'I. Sic. i. 1, \). 

1 Saiii. ix. 1. 



Kustaspi and Mutallu are not Hittite. Two kings of the related 
Gamgumi, Zanizummim or Aehuzamites, also bore the name 
Mutallu. The supremacy of Carehemish and Commagene and of 
Khupuscia or Thapsacus was no doubt largely due to the 
strength afforded these kingdoms by the presence of the Japhetic 
element in them ; for the families of Aharhel and Paseach w'ere 
the ones most closely allied with that of Buz. The same 
Japhetic element appeared in Armenia, where the Minni, Jamini, 
or Minyans dwelt side by side with the Zocharites of Van, and 
hellenized the Hittite Zochar into Tigranes. So far no attempt 
had been made by the Aryans to set up an empire or to supersede 
the names of Hittite ancestors in geographical and tribal nomen- 
clature with their owm. It was neither lack of strength nor of 
intellect that made them thus unobtrusive. They seem to have 
regarded it as their mission to civilize the Hittites ; but there is 
little evidence of this in what remains of Hittite art or in the 
traditions of the Hittite people. Yet one is loth to think that 
the ancestors of the most active and enlightened peoples of the 
world were in the east a pack of idle impostors, trading for their 
support upon the credulity of the people as they are represented 
in Sanscrit story. If they w^ere such, the Assyrian kings may 
be thanked for shaking them out of their lazy fervour and com- 
pelling them to take part in the activities of life. The exile of 
Pisiris to Hyrcania was the circumstance that led to the develop- 
ment of Aryan ambition. During the century that elapsed 
between the fall of Hittite authority at Carehemish and the 
reign of Nebuchadnezzar in Babylon, the expatriated king and 
his successors had ample time to mature plans for the recovery of 
lost empire and for revenge on their Assyrian foes. They found 
themselves surrounded by tribes hostile to Nineveh, but all of 
them, whether Hittite or Median, destitute of organization. The 
old league had not succeeded in effecting any continuous union 
of the Hittite states, which were mutually jealous and resented 
the assumption of superiority on the part of any one tribe or 
family. It was useless, therefore, to reestablish the Zuzimite 
precedence. The Hittite name was no longer one to conjure by ; 
iut tiiere were younger nations, linked by ancient friendship to 
one at least of the Hittite families, the Medes namely and the 


Persians, both descended from the Midianites, whose legions had 
aided Zereth on the field of Moab, and whose names of Sumir and 
Kaldi, Ulam and Buryas, recalled the memor}" of ancient empire. 
Proud of the Japhetic descent of their mother Keturah, they had 
sought in vain recognition from their Jerachmeelite kinsmen. 
Let this recognition be granted, none would be more faithful than 
they to their Aryan rulers ; and, with such a nucleus of nation- 
ality, it would not be hard to bring the Hittites into a modern 
kingdom of Sumir and Akkad. Such was the dream of the 
successors of Pisiris, a dream that was soon to be realized in fact. 
The Kenite lists furnish no genealogies of the Midianites 
later than the third generation, with the exception of that 
of Zimran which ends with Bedan the great-grandson of Gilead. 
The other families were, therefore, unhistorical, in this sense, 
that no ancient dynasty of kings proeeeded from them. Never- 
theless, besides the five sons of Midian who gave name to the 
whole race, who are called Ephah, Epher, Hanoch, Abidah, and 
Eldaah, we find mention in the Bible of Midianite princes in the 
bgoks of Numbers and Judges.^ In Numbers the five princes 
contemporary with Joshua are Evi, Rekem, Zur, Hur, and Reba. 
In Judges the four leaders put to death by Gideon and his allies 
were Oreb, Zeeb, Zebah, and Zalmunna. Their names are 
valuable as aidino; the effort to trace the wanderinfrs and connec- 
tions of the Midianites, but they present no means for determin- 
ing the history of their owners in other records. In Irish 
histor}', which knows the Midianites as the Nemedians who 
named Midhe or Mcath with its capital Tara, the Nemedian 
(fcnealofjies are full of foreisrn names.^ Celtic Scotland and 
Wales furnish in their traditions no early line of Celtic monarchs. 
The ruling families whose names they have handed down were, 
with rare exceptions, Hittite. So the Median history of Ctesias, 
which begins with Arbaccs, from six to eight generations before 
Cvaxari'S, ac'cording to the diiierent (juotations made from his 
lost wf^rk, is a list of names Hittite and Gekerite, anujng which 
Mt'dicjus alone makes a douhtful assertion of Median indepen- 
dt-nc*,'. Aili.ict'S, the head of the dynasty, is a Zfi-ctliite Ai'liag 

^ Nnni'xTs xxxi. 8 : .luii^fs \ii. "J-j ; viii. .">. 


and Art3mes is an Ardon of the same line ; Phraortes is Beero- 
thite or Parthian ; Deioces and Astyages are Zochethite ; and 
Cyaxares marks the rise of Aryan influence as a Sagara or Geker. 
The ancient language of Media was neither Celtic nor Pelasgic, 
but Ugrian or Hittite. Its leading tribe in point of numbers, 
which gave name to the whole country, was that of the Matiani. 
But its ancient capital was Rhagae, and its northern boundary 
the river Araxes, names that belong to the Ras, descended from 
Ma Beshah, who united with the Midianites in Media, as the 
Milesians and Nemedians are said to have united in Ireland.'*^ 
Herodotus mentions the tribes that constituted the Median 
nation. These were the Busae, Paretaceni, Struchates, Arizanti, 
Budii, and Magi.^^ Of these the Busae were the Buzites descended 
from Geker, of whom came Sagara and Pisiris,or Pisi the zari; they 
were Japhetic, therefore, and so probably were the Magi, although 
this is not determined. The Paretaceni and Budii were Beero- 
thites, or early Parthians. The Struchates were in all likelihood 
Tirgathi or Arachotians, still in the west. The Arizanti, however, 
are harder to classify, so many competitors are there for the 
name of Regem or Rekem. Rekem is the name of a Midianite 
prince overcome by Joshua, and of a grandson of Ma Reshah ; 
while Rakem denotes a son of Peresh the Gileadite, and Regem 
is the eponym of Hyrcania. The presence of Cyaxares among 
the Median kings, and of several Sagaras among those of 
Carchemish, suggest the Hyrcanians or transported men of 
Carchemish as the Arizanti, but other things favour the 
descendants of Ma Reshah. 

The Median religion was a corrupt form of Zoroastrianism. 
It has been seen that this creed originated in Egypt with the 
union of the two rival lines of the Ammono-Hittite Mezahab, and 
the Horite Tahath or Thothmes. The Mithriac cult was adopted 
Ijy the Moschi or Cappodocians representing the "family of Jabez, 
Mesha, and Mezahab, by the Beerothites or Parthians to whom 
Hadar the son-in-law of Thothmes introduced it, by such of the 
Kenezzites as did not follow the disc-worshipping heretic 
Bechenaten of Tell-el Amarna, and by the Gekerite Brahmans 

1" Keating. 

11 Herodot. i. 101. 


whose early writings celebrate Mitra with Varuna. The creed to 
which this worship pertained was a mediating one so far as the 
Horite and Ammono-Hittite religions were concerned, but it was 
one of antagonism to other Hittite systems. Ormuzd, or Ahura- 
Mazda, its chief divinity, was the enemy of the demon Ahriman, 
or Angra-Mainyus, and the evil spirits classified with him appear 
to represent the chief advocates of the worship of Baal Peor or 
Merodach in Palestine and Chaldea. In Media, however, this 
religion underwent a chanoje. The Medes or Midianites had been 
ardent votaries of Baal Peor when they dwelt in Moab, and, as 
they carried his worship in later days into Gaul and Ireland, it is 
not likely that they had given it up in Media. If the Japhetic 
pontiff kings of Hyrcania and Comisene, the Sagaras and 
Kustaspis, were to gain the aid of the Medes against Assyria, it 
could only be done by a religious revolution. They must 
surrender their more humane creed, or convert the Medes to it, or 
what was more feasible than either plan, they might introduce a 
new theology that mediated. This last plan was adopted, and 
the agents in preparing the new system and in propagating it 
were the Magi. These seem to have been the priestly, and 
therefore not historical descendants of Ram, the Sanscrit Brahma, 
the children of his first born Maaz or Magaz, whose name invites 
comparison with the Mauzzim or Maguzzim of Daniel's prophecy. ^^ 
Among the oriental Ras, who were widely scattered over Media, 
Armenia, and Susiana, they found a deity of note, the Beth-Zur 
of the Kenite list, who had been worshipped in Egypt as Serapis, 
and in Babylonia as a masculine form of Zarpanit, who had given 
his name to Saravene in south-eastern Cappadocia, and who, as 
Zervan, was honoured by the Medes. He was, as the son of 
^laon, the Baal Meon whose sanctuary, Beth Baal Meon, was 
f|uite near to Mount Poor in Moab. There doubtless the Midian- 
ites had adopted his worship. So highly honoured was his race 
by them, that two of their princes in the time of Joshua l)ore 
Rassite names pertaining to it, namely, Rekem and Zur. Here, 
then, was a lever wherewith to iviisc Midian and Ras against the 
Assyrian, a bond whei'fwith to unite the n^ligions that had been 
for aifes in deadly antagonism. There were no objections to 
' Dan. xi. :. 


Zervan. This oriental Tharonhiawakon, or the House of Heaven, 
had made no enemies. His great grand-father Ma Reshah, an 
Ares and a Mars, a Marsus and a Marsyas, though a great 
warrior, received honours from many hostile tribes of Heth ; 
and even the Assyrian Sargon respected the older Laadah or 
Laguda in his Babylonian and Chaldean sanctuaries. So Zervan, 
young in comparison with most deities, became the ancestral god 
as the unlimited overarching sky, from whom emanated or were 
evolved first of all the twin deities Ormuzd and Ahriman, and, 
through them, all beings and objects that exist. Thus philosopliy 
began to replace history in religion so far as the Magi and other 
pretenders to wisdom were concerned, but the vulgar were left to 
worship what god or gods they pleased, inasmuch as they were 
equally, whether good or bad, emanations from one substance. It 
is the presence of this Zervan in the Median creed that makes 
doubtful the identification of the Arizanti with the Regemites of 
Hyrcania, and would rather associate them with the Rassite 
Rekemites, who named Rhagiana and dwelt in Rhagae or 
Arsacia. The Midianites themselves are left without representa- 
tion among the tribes, unless the Budii or Vitii be given to them, 
as descendants of Midian's son Abidah, rather than to the Beero- 
thites, as descendants of Bedad. The name of the second Zoroaster 
who originated this flexible and comprehensive religion has not 
been preserved. He was a Magus, and his Japhetic brethren 
became the apostles of the new faith. When it first began to be 
propagated we cannot tell, save that it was within the century 
that intervened between the exodus from Carchemish and the fall 
of Nineveh. The Magi were successful. The warlike men of 
Ras rejoiced to hear that their tribal divinity was the king of all 
the gods, and the Medes, who had adopted Zervan, shared their 
appreciation of the honoui'. The other Hittite tribes were 
satisfied with the recognition of their contending deities as 
emanations from a common divine source, and accepted Zervan as 
the new mediator. Under Japhetic leaders, represented by 
Cyaxares in the tradition of Ctesias, the warriors of the Median 
kingdom, constituted on the basis of the Zervanian creed, marched 
to Nineveh and united with the Babylonian hordes collected hy 
Nebuchadnezzer to effect its final overthrow. 


The capital of the Median kingdom, which according to 
Herodotus was built by Deioces, a predecessor of Oyaxai'es, was 
called Agbatana or Ecbatana. In the book of Ezra it is named 
Achmetha.^^ Herodotus mentions a Syrian Agbatana where 
Cambyses died as an oracle had testified.^'* Stephanus of Byzan- 
tium also says that the Syrian Agbatana w^as called Epiphania, 
which Mr. Blakesley, quoted by Professor Eawlinson, shows was 
a name of Hamath. It is with Hamath as a word, not as a place, 
that Gesenius connects the Achmetha of Ezra.^^ But Pliny says 
that on mount Carmel there was a town of the same name, which 
was anciently called Acbatana.^*^ Carmel was a great sanctuary 
of Baal, but Hamath was even more famous in this respect, as the 
inscribed altar stones of Pisiris testify. The Mardi or Amardi 
dwelt in Media, and they were of the family of Hamath, as were 
the Median Paretaceni or Beerothites. At Hamath in Syria the 
emperors of Carchemish had been in the habit of worshipping, so 
that it would be perfectly natural to find them reviving the name 
of their ancient sanctuary and making it the capital of the new 
nation. As the language of Media was Hittite, it would also be 
most desirable to retain the services of the Kenite scribes, whose 
etlbrts, when gained over to the new religion, would be largely 
successful in seconding those of the Magi as propagandists. 
During the seventy- three years that elapsed between the fall of 
Nineveh and the capture of Babylon, the Aryans made their 
influence felt over the Hittite and Celtic tribes. Yet it is to be 
remein])ered that the dynasty of the Babylonian Nebuchadnezzar 
was Hittite, uniting the Elamite Gedors with the Kenozzites. 
The question therefore arises, Was }iot the name of the Median 
capital as well as the exaltation of Zervan a bait by which 
Cyaxares and his Magi sought to draw to themselves the Hama- 
thite and Rassite triljes that dwelt in Chaldea and Elam ? During 
this interval the ]\le(les became strong and extended their sway 
over the whole of the western area which the Hittites had 
fcn-inerly occupied. The native Zerethites or Carduchi of 
northern Assyria, d(q)rived of their powerful and oppressive 

1- |-:zr,i vi. 2. 

" Ifi-roiiot. iii. '12, Kuwliiisuii's iiolf. 

'' C.i-^-MH-, L.'X. H.-t,. 

" I'liny V. 17. 


kings, transferred their allegiance to those of Media. The 
Armenian chiefs gladly recognized their sway ; and the tribes of 
Pontus and Cappadocia rejoiced in their new-found freedom. 
But a competitor for empire was the Lydian kingdom of western 
Asia Minor. In Sardis the king Alyattes, a late Laadah, kept 
royal state, and his arms extended over the whole country 
towards the river Halys which formed the western boundary of 
Pontus and Cappadocia. Some vagabond tribes, Celtic or 
Hittite, dislikinor the Median rule, had taken refugee with the 
king of Lydia, who refused to extradite them at the request of 
Cyaxares. We do not know the whole particulars of the history, 
but subsequent events seem to show that the new Aryan rulers 
were aware of the existence of colonists of their own race on the 
Lydian sea board, and that the war which followed the refusal 
of Alyattes, in which Hittite fought against Hittite, was under- 
taken more for the purpose of establishing Japhetic rule in the 
west than for getting back a few escaped slaves. The war ended, 
however, when a sudden eclipse of the sun took place, a pheno- 
menon terrifying to both parties alike ; and, through the media- 
tion of the Babylonian Labynetus and the Cilician Syennesis, a 
peace was arranged, by which the Halys was made the boundary 
of the respective empires, and Astyages the son of Cyaxares 
received Aryenis, Alyattes' daughter, in marriage. 

When Cyaxares died about .595 B.C., two years after the 
eclipse, Astyages succeeded him. His name casts a shade of doubt 
over the story, for it is, like Deioces, a form of the Persian Zahak 
as Asi Dahaka, the biting serpent, and in history represents 
Zoheth of the Kenezzite family. It is a name that should belong 
to Babylonia, where Nebo and Merodach were chief deities and 
where the temple of Saggathu reared its towers to the skies. It 
may be that Cyaxares, by giving his son this non-Aryan name, 
thought to attach to his fortunes the Kenezzites of the Babylonian 
empire, the Cilicians of kindred blood, and the wild Dahae of the 
east, whose ancestors had fought under the banners of Seti 
Menephtah ; but this is a mere supposition. Astyages was a tyrant, 
according to all accounts but that of Xenophon, and succeeded in 
alienating the inhabitants of Persis in the soutli and those of 
Armenia in the west. The story of his grandson Cyrus is well 


known. This son of his daughter Mandane and the Achaemenian 
Cambyses he ordered to be put to death when the Magi inter- 
preted his dream of a vine growing out of his daughter that over- 
shadowed all Asia as a prophecy that her son should deprive him 
of the kingdom. A somewhat similar dream appears in Irish 
history, the dreamer being Eachtach, the concubine of Art and 
mother of Cormac Ulfada, who beheld a tree springing from her 
neck, whose branches overspread the whole kingdom of Ireland.^" 
Harpagus the officer of Astyages delivered the infant to a herds- 
man to be exposed on a mountain, but the herdsman brought up 
the child and called him Agradates. Agradates became a right 
royal youth, and so lorded it even over young Median nobles that 
he was brought before the king to be punished. Astyages recog- 
nized his grandson and brought him up in his palace. This latter 
part of the story is the same as that told of Pravarasena the son 
of Toramana in the Raja Tarangini. Hiranya son of Srechtha- 
sena, a name that has been identified with the Persian Rustam, 
cast his co-regent brother Toramana into prison- for aiming at sole 
dominion. The wife of the prisoner, Anjana, a name not unlike 
Mandane, bore a. son Pravarasena who was brought up by the 
wife of a potter. This boy was elected king by his playmates, 
and in this position was recognized by his mother's brother 
Jayendra. After the death of Vicramaditya, the emperor of all 
India, and of Matrigupta, his lieutenant in Cashmere, Pravarasena 
became king and overthrew the kingdom of Saurashtra or 
Oujerat.^^ Agradates was allowed by Astyages to visit his father 
CamVjyses in Persis. There he united the Persian tribes and, 
incited by Harpagus and aided by the Armenian Tigranos, he rose 
in revolt against Astyages, dethroned him, and superseded the 
Median empire by the Persian, at the same time changing his 
name to Cyrus. His subsequent achievements were the overthrow 
of the Lydian Cra'sus and conquest of all Asia Minor, the 
annexation to his empire of all the countries between the Zagros 
mountains and the Punjab, the capture of Babylon and extinction 
of royalty in Babylonia, the liberation of the Jews, and his cani- 
pniifn against the Massagutae, in which he is said to have falK'ii. 

' Kcatirif,'. 

'^ Raja Taraiif,'iiii. 


The historical traditions of the Persians are Hittite ; their 
name is Zimrite or Celtic ; their lanofuagre was and is Indo-Euro- 
pean. According to the records preserved by the Greeks, Persian 
monarchy began with Cyrus ; but the book of Esther represents 
the captive Jews, whom Cyrus restored to their own land, as 
suffering oppression and in danger of extinction from Ha man the 
Amalekite in the reign of Ahasuerus or Achashverosh, the royal 
husband of Esther the Jewess.^^ The whole story of the rise of 
the Persian empire is involved in such contradictions, that, with- 
out further data, it would be unwise to attempt that reconciliation 
of historical statements and traditions in which so many acute 
and learned investigators have failed. Turning, however, to the 
Hittite element in the history, the striking fact appears of a con- 
test between the new Persian creed and that of the Medes. The 
Persians professed to restore a pure Zoroastrianism in opposition 
to the eclectic Zervanism of the Median kingdom. This meant 
the revival of the old antagonism between Ormuzd and Ahriman, 
and a definite refusal to conciliate the Kenezzites of Babylonia 
and the north. Nevertheless this religious animosity was accom- 
panied with proselytism,for theZerethites and theZimrite Persians, 
who were originally worshippers of Baal Peor, became the fast 
allies of the new king. Wliat the Median Magi had thought to 
effect by a change of religion, Cyrus accomplished by the union 
of widely different historical traditions, which were probably at 
first collected into a Persian epic that furnished Firdusi with the 
elements of his poem the Shah Nameh. In this epic the great 
theme was the contest between Zohak and Afrasiab or Zohcth 
and Ophrah, as incarnations of the principle of evil, on the one 
hand, and a beneficent race, whose royal and princely genealogies 
consisted of excerpts from the traditions of the Zerethites, Achu- 
zamites, MaReshethites, and Beerothites. Thus it happened that 
Feridun the great Zerethite hero, the Duryodhana of the Hindus, 
the Ardon of the Kenite list, who was the son of Hur and Jcrigoth, 
became the great hero of the Persians. The Persians proper or 
Pereshites had indeed so regarded him from ancient days, when 
the family of Peresh, Ulam, and Bedan, through their connection 
with Ardon, sat upon the Zimrite throne in Babylonia and 

2 I^sther : Bosanquet, Cyrus the Second, Trans. Soc. Bib. Arch. i. 173. 


Gebalene. But the Achuzamites and, especially, the MaReshethites 
and Beerothites had been the determined enemies of the allied 
Zerethites and Zimrites, as the Mahabharata, the Gododin, and 
other ancient documents, testify. All this, however, was forootten ; 
and Kai Kobad or Jabez, the first of the Cappadocians, was 
ingeniously made a descendant of Iraj, Feridun's son, while Ma 
Reshah and Harum became his sons under the names of Arish and 
Aramin, and the Beerothites were glorified in Zaul and Rustarn. 
Hadad the son of Bedad and other historic names that would have 
roused suspicion, from the notorietj^ of their antagonism to the 
Zerethite and Zimrite tribes, were carefully suppressed ; and, 
while popular current traditions were incorporated in the poem, 
they were so unified, at the expense of historic truth, as to pre- 
sent the story of one Aryan family that had been in former days 
the masters of the world. The ingenious interpolation of the 
Aryan Lohorasp and Gushtasp between KaiKhusrau and Esfendiar 
gave a Japhetic flavour to the whole history, and favoured the 
pretensions of later Hy^taspes to dominion over the Perso-Hittite 
tribes. And, to flatter the Persians who had no place assigned 
them in the poetic record, the king took to himself the name, not 
indeed of Peresh but, of his brother Sheresh, the priestly Chryses 
of the Greeks, whose daughter Chryseis w^as taken from Aga- 
memnon, who in return took Briseis from Achilles ; as Cyrus he 
thus became the royal pontiff' of the Persians. 

The Zerethite line to which Cyrus allied himself was that 
which descended from Asareel through Hur and Jerigoth. From 
Hur and his Kenite spouse the Aryans and Arachoti, who after- 
wards dwelt in Aria west of the Indus, received their names. 
There the Casirotae kept up the name of Jeslier or Geshur, after- 
wards to be transferred to Gujerat in the east and to the Jaxartes 
in the north. Th^re also two families of Anak the son of Arba, 
those of Sheshai and Ahiman, dwelt, in Sacastene and on the 
Etynmnder. purely Zerethite stock gave the spurious Aryan 
name to the whole Japhetic race, and from its most famous offshoot, 
that of Achiman, Cyrus deiluced his d('sc<'ut. Tliai there was a 
Japhetic Achaemenes is \bry proliable, as Darius calls the father 
of Teispes, from whom he and (Jyi'us e(|ually desct'iuled, hy that 
name.-"' But Achaemenes or Achiman was oi-iginally Hittite. It 

'-'" Ijclii.stiiti Iiiscriiitioii, Records (if tlir Past, i. 107. 


is no mere coincidence that an Arbag or Arbaces heads the line 
of Media, and an Achaemenes that of Persia. Ogamhan appears 
in the Irish genealogies of the Milesians.^^ He was the Achoron 
Achaman of the Guanches who were the aborigines of the Canary 
Islands, and from him the oldest Guanche tribe was called that 
of the Achimenceys.^^ In Japan he is Hachiman, the god of war ; 
in Mexico Hueuian the last king of the Toltecs ; and in Peru, the 
land of the Incas, Huaman.^^ In the Iliad, Acamas is a leader of 
the Dardanians and a son of Antenor, and he fights along with 
-^neas the son of Anchises; or he is a Thracian son of Eyssorus, 
or Jesher.^* When further we consider the tribe to which Achae- 
menes and Cj^'rus belonged, we find it is that of the Pasargadae, 
whose name resembles most that of the Sarragitu who were in 
Babylonia in the time of Tiglath Pileser 11.-^ These again are 
the Arachoti, among whom the Etymandri dwelt. Next in point 
of rank to the Pasargadae, according to Herodotus, came the 
Maraphii and the Maspii. The latter are the same as the Mes- 
abatae, and represent the eastern Messapians or descendants of 
Mezahab, who carried the name of Menthesuphis into the Xew 
World as Montezuma. But the Maraphii may have been Meropes 
or Hammurabians ; or the same as the Assyrian Nirbu, who were 
descendants of Arba the father of Anak, the eponym of Arrapa- 
chitis in Assyria, and the original Arbaces. The fact that the 
later classical geographers replace the Maraphii by the Rapsii 
favours the latter identification. The Sagartians, whom Herodotus 
makes shepherds, and the Panthialaeans, whom he calls cultiva- 
tors of the soil, appear to have been Japhetic tribes, the first 
bearing; the name of Geker or Sagara, and the second, that of 
Abdiel descended from him. In India the kingdom of Saurashtra, 
Syrastrene, or Gujerat, was contiguous to Patalene ; and among 
the Afighans, who inhaV:)it ancient Aria, the tribal name Abdolli 
occurs along with Safi, Hyber, Chigi, Sur, and Jasini, which 
resemble the Buzite Abdiel, Sheba, Heber, Ziag, Jorai and Jachan. 
Yet their generic name of Pushtan or Puchto favours a descent 

^' Keating. 

'^'' Pegot Ogier, The Fortunate Isles ; Malte Bnin, Geography. 

-'* Hepburn, Jap. Diet. ; B. de Bourbourg ; Peruv. Antiq. 

-' Iliad, ii. 823 ; vi. 8. 

' Records of the Past, v. 4", 101. 


from the oriental Pactyans or Bakhdi of Bactria. It was by tlie 
influence of these Japhetic tribes that the language and manners 
of the confederate Hittites and Celts were aryanized. Other 
Persian tribes were the Derusiae, Germanii, Dahae, Mardi, and 
Dropici. The Mardi of Mardyene bordering on Susiana were the 
Hamathites of the line of Mered ; we know too little of the Ger- 
manii or Carmanians to assert that they w^ere oriental Garmites 
or Garamaei of the line of Zochar ; nor can it be positively asserted 
that the Dropici were a branch of the Rephaim, although the his- 
tory of Cashmere always associates the Darvas and the Abhisaras, 
the latter of whom, as Abiezrites, descended from Kapha. The 
Derusiae bear a Thracian-like name answering to the i^malekite 
Zerah or Tserach, and may denote the branch of the Temenites 
to which Haman belonged ; and the Dahae of Taocene must have 
been friendly Zohethites, whom the Persian hatred of Zohak had 
not alienated. 

It is evident that many tribes, which the classical atlas places 
in India or on its borders, were much nearer to Persis and Media 
in the time of Cyrus. The prophet Isaiah, speaking of the tribes 
that were summoned to the overthrow of Babylon, derives some 
of them from the Yom Kesuphoth, or Caspian sea, and mentions 
among these the Boged and Shoded, or Bakhdhi and Sughdha of 
the Zend Avesta, and Bactrians and Sogdians of the Greeks, the 
former of whom descended from the Zerethite Pasach, and the 
latter, from Ishhod the son of Samlah of the Rephaim.'-'^ 
Only those Hittite tribes which dwelt near the centres of Ayran 
influence in Media or Hyrcania and in Persis can have lost tlieir 
ancient tongue and customs. Even within that restricted area 
the denationalizing process seems to have been very imperfect, for 
when the Parthians rose to power in the middle of the third 
century, B.C., they appeared as a purely Hittite people in 
physical character, speech, and habits. Many tribes moved east- 
ward to escape from Persian exactions, and their migrations pro- 
bably began from the very commencement of Persian empirt^'. 
The inscriptions of Darius show that there were many leaders 
disaffected towards his person and government, whose followers 
after their fall would naturally move eastward in the track of 

;<' Isaiah xxi. 1, 2. 


the dark races. ^^ Some of the seeolonies were led by Aryans ; 
others by their own Hittite chiefs. Of the former, one of the 
earliest to take to the east was the senior Hittite tribe which 
arrogated to itself the Hittite or Khita name, and which in the 
Punjab the Greeks, in the time of Alexander, called the nation of 
the Cathaei. The first division of this tribe pressed upon by 
later immitrrants crossed the upper waters of the Ganges and 
established itself in Oude, a reminiscence of Jahdai, and com- 
memorated his son Regem in Lucknow. But their successors of 
the same race dropped the ancestral names and did honour to their 
Aryan leaders by calling their capital Sangala, The dethrone- 
ment of Sagara or Cyaxares from his seat in Media, and his re- 
tirement to his original home in Hyrcania, as Ctesias relates, was 
the first act that prompted the withdrawal of the original Hittite 
suzerains from Persia. Then in the reign of Darius two men, 
with armies at their disposal, claimed to be descendants of 
Cyaxares, and fought against the royal troops. One was Phraortes, 
who professed to be Xathrites of the race of Cyaxares ; the other 
was Sitratachmes a Sagartian, who also said that he was of the 
lace of Cyaxares. Media, Parthia, Hyrcania, and Sagartia took 
part with the pretenders, of whom the last was certainl}" an 
Aryan, the name Sitratachmes denoting this as uell as the fact 
that he was of Sao-artia.^^ There is no record of anv migration 
after the defeat of the two rebels, but, with a wandering people 
such as the Hittites were, nothing could be more natural than 
that they and their Japhetic lords should betake themselves to a 
free country. In India the Brahman name seems to have come 
into use to denote the Japhetic stock descended from Jerachmeel 
and his son Ram, the original Brahma. The Magi and Sagartians, 
priests and warriors descended from the brothers Magaz and 
Geker, united under the common name, and continued to exercise 
a strong influence over their Hittite and Midianite companions. 
Among the latter were the Prasii, a powerful nation of the same 
parentage as the Persians proper and the Parisii of Gaul and 
Britain. Brahman rule cannot have lasted long in India. If we 
accept the year 543, B.C. as that of the death of Gautama Buddha, 

-' Rf'cords of the Past. 

'-'s K.'conis of tlu- P:ist, i. ] 1(), 119. 


and allow that such a person actually lived in India, thei-e must 
have been Hittite and Brahman settlements in that country prior 
to the time of Cyrus, for Gautama belono;ed to the Sakya or 
Shuchite branch of the Kshattriya race, and the Brahmans were 
in the land in his day. It was not, however, till about 300 B.C., 
that the Emperor Asoka adopted the Buddhist creed, and in doing 
so compelled the Brahmans to separate themselves from the 
Buddhist Hittites. Prior to that time they seem to have been 
scattered over the country, in some places as rulers, in others 
occupying a subordinate civil, but supreme religious position as 
priests and holy sages. The acceptance of Buddhism by the 
Hittite princes was a protest against ancestor worship, a disclaimer 
of the Brahmanical caste and priestly pretentions, and thus a 
signal of hostility between the Aryan and the Turanian. But all 
the Hittites did not become Buddhists. The Ethnanite or 
Kenezzite family, in the line of the Charashim at least, and 
doubtless in that of Zohetli also, was Sivaite, their Siva an 
incarnation of Baal Peor,and virtually the same unclean god, being 
Joab, the father of the Charashim. Among the Bharatas or 
Beerothites also there were Vishnavites, whose Vishnu was 
Achian, the son of Shemidag, the same as Baal Berith, who had 
been worshipped at Shechem in Palestine. The Brahmans made 
common cause with these idolaters, and thus created a trinity 
formerly unknown of Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, which some 
writers, ignorant of its origin in political expediency, have com- 
pared with that of revelation. The Buddhism which this new 
Brahmanical system opposed was, in its essential feature of 
humanity, nothing new, being as far as that is concerned a 
successful revival of the old systems of Paseach and Job and of 
Saul of Rehoboth, which the Pythagoreans of Magna (iraecia 
endeavoured to restore in the west. But it does not appear that 
tlic old systems included the atheism of Indian Buddhism. Job 
was a worshipper of the one God, and there is reason to believe 
tliat his father Paseach and the later Saul had a similar faith. 
Yet Pythagoras and Gautama Ijuddha must i.ave di'iived from a 
connnon source in Hittite auti(|uity their doctrine of iiu'teinpsy- 
chosis. Buddhist atlieisiii had its oi-igin in the knowledge of 
history. Gautama Jjiiddha, possessing jtrobaltly tiie vi-ry Kenite 


genealogies preserved in Chronicles, perceived that the gods of 
polytheism were deified ancestors, and he naturally asked the 
question, If these ancestors became gods, why may their descen- 
dants not attain the same position, seeing that they are the 
ancestors yet to be ? Hence the doctrine that any human being 
may, by heaping up merit through successive stages of existence, 
attain to the position of a supreme Buddha, which is the nearest 
thing to a god that the Buddhist system allows. Brahmanism, 
which, with the assistance of the Vishnavites and Sivaites, 
ultimately drove Buddhism out of India, did not follow the 
Hittites in their northern migrations through Tartary and 
Thibet towards Siberia. In the Malay archipelago, however, 
through which the Hittites of changed speech passed towards 
America, the Brahmans pursued them, and imposed their peculiar 
idolatry on the wanderers. Yet even there, Siva received more 
worship than any other god of the Brahman pantheon, and he 
was a native Hittite divinity. Buddhism on the other hand 
pursued the Hittites into Siberia, almost all the inscriptions of 
that country referring to Buddhist temples ; and thence, into 
Corea and Japan. No full-fledged Buddhism is found in America 
but traces of its influence appear in Mexican history, and it may 
be that the Mound Builders and the Neutral Nation of Iroquois 
history were affected by its teachings. The area of the aryanized 
Hittites in the east is bounded by the limits of Bengal, named 
after Abichail the Gekerite or Gangarid, and in the north by 
Bokhara in Tartary, the Ultima Thule of ancient Japhetic speech 
iy Asia.^'^ 

West of Media and Persia, the Armenians and Kurds, origin 
ally of pure Hittite blood, were modified by admixture with 
Japhetic tribes. The Kurds, Gordyaei, Carduchi, or Cherethites 
had inhabited the mountains of northern Assyria from remote 
antiquity. They constituted the chief element in the victorious 
Assyrian armies, and seem to have possessed Praetorian power. 
If they proved unfaithful or were overcome, the Assyrian empire 
fell. To the present day they are as warlike as ever, among the 

2'J Although Japhetic Hjjeech did not extend farther to the north than Bokhara, 
there is good evidence for a considerable Aryan and Celtic or Midianite element in 
northern and eastern Hittite populations. 


bravest and most trusted soldiers of the Porte. It was to gain 
them over to his interests and the interests of Aryanism, that 
Cyrus or his prelecessors pretended descent from their hero 
Ardon or Feridun ; and by their help and that of the allied 
Medes, some of whose descendants as Kaldani and Bottani still 
dwell among them, he succeeded in conquering the world. Semitic 
Assyrian influences had largely modified their speech, thus separ- 
ating them from their brethren who preserved the Hittite 
language in its integrity. Under Persian rule their speech under- 
went new transformation, so much so as to cause them to be 
ranked by ethnologists in the Asiatic division of the Indo- 
European family. In Armenia many Hittite tribes had dwelt, 
but before the rise of the Median empire most of these had 
betaken themselves to the shores of the Caspian and the Black 
Sea and to the range of Caucasus, hoping thus to esca)>e from the 
exactions of the world's rulers. Such w^ere the Albanians and 
Ossetes of Temenite descent, the Iberic Georgians, a mingled 
Zerethite and MaReshethite people, and the Colchians, who com- 
bined elements belonging to the Kenezzite Charasliim and the 
Paseachites. Of these the Ossetes, descended from Husham the 
Temenite, exhibit the most decided traces of Aryan culture. The 
tribes that remained in Armenia were the Zocharite men of Van, 
and some of the posterity of Harum the father of Acharchel, from 
whom the country received its name. The Vannic kingdom was 
in existence in the time of Cyrus under a king Tigranes, who 
preserved the old Zocharite name. But along with tliese Hittite 
tribes dwelt the Minni or Jemini, the Minyans of the Greeks, 
identified alike with Armenia and wnth the ancient Orchomenos, 
which marks them as a Jerachmeelite people. These Japhetic 
Jemini were in three great divisions, the Belaites of whom came 
the Shaharaim or Sanuatians and many other Kurojx'aii families, 
the Jetliaelitc /Etolians and Italians, and the l>eclu'rites of 
Bokhara in the east and Bucharest in the west."" Tiie Miiiyan 
family that settled in Armenia apjtcars to have been that of 
Jediael, the Andalus son of Japhet of the Ai'abiaii historians, the 
.Ktfjlus son of Enilymion of the (Ji-tM'ks. His Minni niaih^ 
common cause with tlu; men of Van, as thcii- lnTthren the 

' 1 Cliroii. vii. (J. 


Gekerites had done with the Achuzamites of Carchemish, and as 
the Mao-azites, with them and the Medes. As a nation the Van- 
nites or Huns were little influenced by their Japhetic alHes. In 
Armenia and Pontus some of them became civilized and accom- 
panied their friends to other seats in Asia Minor and Europe. As 
Ophionenses they dwelt among them in ^tolia, and, to the north- 
east of that Greek country, occupied a great part of Thessaly 
named after their ancestor Zochar. But the great body of the 
Zocharites known in ditt'erent regions as Tochari, Orpelians, 
Chalybes, Vanni, and Huns, hovered about the region of the two 
seas, the Black and the Caspian, ready to throw themselves into 
the east or the west as fancy might dictate or the hope of plunder 
might allure. One thing they picked up from the Japhetic Minni, 
and that was the name Jediael, which on their lips became Attila, 
the designation of the Scourge of God. The Abbe Cuoq has 
shown that Attila is an Iroquois name, descending in many 
families from grandfather to grandson, and that it denotes the 
raccoon as a common noun. Its various forms in the Iroquois 
dialect are Atila, Atira, Latilan, Tiron, and Ratiron. He also 
compares the Iroquois Ratakhes the runner with the Gothic or 
Vandalic Radagaisus and Rhadagast.^^ In Latin Jediael is also 
an animal name as vitidiis, a calf or a seal. A great deal of 
curious history lies about the name of this man of Jemimi, as the 
Arab Wathil, the Greek ^tolus, the Latin Italus, and the Teu- 
tonic Etzel ; but to follow up all such connections of the Hittites 
would be to write the history of more than half the world. The 
Greek legends confound Jediael with Tola the son of Anub, or 
Talus son of Qllnopion, whose connections with the Hittites were 
even more intimate than those of the Minyan leader. 

The aryanizing of Asia Minor was brought about by two sepa- 
rate influences, one proceeding from the Persian court in Susa or 
Ecbatana, the other from Japhetic colonies on the sea coast and 
in the interior of the country. The population of the peninsula 
was not purely Hittite apart from these colonies. As in otlier 
places, so in Asia Minor, Sumir kept company with Akkad, the 
Celt with the Iljerian. The chief Zimritc reirion was Bithvnia. 

" Cviofi, Lcxiquc dc la langue iro(), 62 ; Jugeineiit errone de M. E. Ktnaii 
Kur li's liuiK'K's sauvage-;, 104. 


where the Bedanites or Patinians revived their national life not 
far from their old allies the Dardanians, and where kin<i-s named 
Prusias ruled over the descendants of Peresh or Buryas. In that 
country, and scattered throuo^hout Phrygia, another Zerethite 
region, dwelt Cimmerians, Galatians, and Midianites. These Cim- 
merians had founded Smyrna, and the Midianites of the line of 
Ephah, the famous city of Ephesus in the very heart of the Lydian 
kingdom. In Phrygia their kings ruled alternately with those 
of Zerethite blood, a Midas following a Gordius, and a Gordius a 
Midas. Those who occupied Galatia in the third century B.C. seem 
to have been unsuccessful invaders of Greece, who had been com- 
pelled to retire to their Asiatic home. These Galatians kept their 
Celtic speech down to the time of St. Jerome, about 400 A.D. 
Probably the most conservative Hittites of Asia Minor were the 
Cilicians, who continued under the sway of their native kings 
down to the beginning of the Christian era. When St. Paul 
visited Lycaonia, so named after Beth-Lechem, the people of that 
countr}^ had a language peculiar to themselves, which the Phry- 
gian inscriptions, belonging to the period of Persian occupation, 
show to have been Hittite.^"' As the vernacular of Cilicia was of 
the same character, it is probable that the apostle understood it, 
and that his companion St. Barnabas from the Hittito country 
of Cyprus was also acquainted with the widespread but then 
perishing tongue. The utter indifference of the Greeks and 
Romans to all mattei's ethnological, save as these concerned them- 
selves, has left us almost entirely destitute of data for determining 
the nature of the al)original speech of the nations of Asia Elinor 
and the time of its cessation. There is no evidence that any of 
these nations adopted the Persian language. Prior to tlie time of 
Alexander, theref(jre, the peoples of Pontus, Caj^pudocia, and 
Cilicia, of Paphlagonia, Phrygia, and L^'cia, of Mysia and l^ydia 
must hav(j spoken dialects of the Hittitf language, wliicli the 
inscription on the Stone Bowl from Babylon and those found in 
Phrygia and Lycia show to ]iav<; been archaic |]as(|U(' a]i]u-oaeliing 
inform the Etruscan, in Pisidia, Pain})liyllia, and Cai-ia. and 
along the coasts of Lydia and .My.'^ia, a Pclasgic tonguf allied to 
the (jlrei'k was in use. Ami in parts of iiitliynia, Galatia, and 

'' Acts xiv. 11. 


Phrygia proper the Celtic dialects, Cymric and Gaelic, were cur- 
rent. After Alexander opened up the eastern world this primitive 
state of things underwent a change. In all the Hittite area Greek 
became the language of the cities and towns, with the exception 
of the eastern part of Cappadocia which fell under Armenian 
influences, and the corresponding region of Pontus, which retained 
its Hittite affinities with the peoples of the neighbouring Caucasus. 
Elsewhere in Asia Minor the Hittite language was banished to 
rural districts, and there, for all that is known to the contrary, it 
may have continued to exist far into the Christian centuries. The 
hellenizing process begun in the time of Alexander must have 
been the cause of many migrations into Europe, although such 
migrations must have taken place many centuries earlier, owing to 
Assyrian, Lydian, Cimmerian, and Persian encroachments on that 
personal liberty of which the Hittite was most tenacious. We 
must look, therefore, to other lands and other influences for the 
extinction in the west of the Hittite language and nationality. 



The Western Dispersion of the Hittites. 

W:ftEN Herodotus the Carian wrote his history in the micklle of 
the tifth century B.C., he was able to indicate two great Hittite 
migration routes, and to give much information regarding the 
peoples whom he found upon them. He also indicates another in 
Africa which has been already mentioned, although it should be 
added that, while the Canary Islands formed its western terminus, 
it was also continued across the Mediterranean to the southern 
shores of western Europe to which it brought a mingled Iberian 
and Celtic population, some considerable time before the same 
elements descended into Italy, Gaul, and Spain, from the north. 
The two routes which Herodotus points out are the Thracian and 
the Scythic ; of these the Thracian was probably the more ancient. 
It is impossible to tell when the first Greek settlements were 
made in Hellas, on account of the transference of traditions from 
site to site, those pertaining to Egypt, Palestine, and other eastern 
countries, being located in the European seats in which the Greeks 
at last built up a national existence. As diflicult is it to tell when 
the Hittite who preceded the Greek first established himself in 
Delphi and Thebes, in Athens and Mycene. We know, however^ 
that wlien Darius the son of Hystaspes entered Europe, towards 
the end of the sixth century B.C., he found the Thracians and 
Scythians there in large numbers, and the latter so strong that 
he was compelled to retire before tliem. It is evident, therefore, 
that some of the Hittites must have passed into luirope wlim the 
g<)\-crrniient of Asia Minor was di\i(l<'d lictwecn the Assyrians 
and tlui Lyiliaiis. The latter ])e()])le left Saraveiie and Mclitene 
in eastern (jap])adocia, soon after the reign of Asliur-Na/.ir-l*al, 
])i'i)baljly about the yeai' OOO i5.('., and niovcil \v('st\\ai-<l towards 
tli<' .M<'dit('iTancan. It is not likely that fliry found the intei-- 
\(,'riing )-cgion unoceu])icd, for Hittite i'ugiti\('s e\ci-y where' 
Ix'Caine tlu; world's ])ione(;is. {.\\i-'\v loxc of lihei'ty leading llieiii to 


seek new and unfrequented regions, where for a time they could 
live the nomad hunter's life, merely clearing as much land 
as would suffice to let in the air to drive away the flies from about 
their dwellinj^s, and to produce the crop of grain and vegetables 
which would keep them in daily bread. They did not move by 
nations but by communities consisting of the representatives of 
various tribes, so that their track is hard to follow. Among the 
oldest exiles from Asia Minor may be placed the Hittite 
aborigines of Peloponnesus, whom later immigiants drove out of 
Thrace, then out of Macedonia and southern Illyria, and after- 
wards from Epirus, Thessaly, and the southern states of northern 
Greece. These were of many different tribes. The Ethnanites 
were scattered from Athens in the east to Lepreum in Triphyllia 
in the west ; the Temenites dwelt throughout Achaia, and south- 
ward to the Alphaeus ; the Hepherite family of Lechem seem to 
have been the original dwellers in Arcadia ; and the descendants 
of the Paseachite and Heraclid Joels possessed Elis, and sent 
colonies into Messenia. In Megara, Corinth, and Argos, the 
Rephaim and Regemites were found, and the men of Ir Nahash, 
the nephew of Raphah. With these Hittite families were 
mingled the Etamites of Horite descent whose centres were 
Sparta and Ithome ; and the Buzite-^ and Gekerites generally, 
with the Orchomenian Minyans, and the Japhetic Goim. exercised 
lordship over them and their Hittite congeners. The next 
colonists in point of antiquity were those of northern Greece, 
which contained the two great regions of Thessaly and Epirus, 
named after the Hittite ancestors Zochar and Hepher. Leucadia 
and Cephallenia in the extreme west were colonized by exiled 
Rassites, Leucadia being named after Laadah or Lagadah, and 
Cephallenia after his grandson Chebron. Acarnania was largely 
a Japhetic settlement of the Ekronites or descendants of Geker, 
and /Etolia was so called from Jediael the son of his brother 
Jamin, although it contained Hittite and Midianite settlements. 
Doris also seeins to have been purely Japhetic, being colonized 
from the Palestinian Dor, no doubt by sea. But the three regions 
of the Locri with Phocis and Boeotia were meeting places of many 
tribes. Etamite, Hittite and Jcrachmeelite, where Thebes comiiiemo- 
rated Jabez, Delphi, the Temenite Eliphaz, and Parnassus, the 


Mehirite Ir Nachash. The neighbouring island of Euboea was 
divided between the Kenezzite Charashim and the Ishhod of 
Sara 1 ah of Masrekah. 

West of Macedonia, the Dardanii and Illyrii dwelt, two names 
denoting one people, the Zerethites and those called after Zereth's 
descendant, Jehaleleel. Cavii from Ziph, Jehaleel's son, also dwelt 
there, with Temenite Albani, and Hamathite Parthini. Macedonia 
was brimfull of Hittite tribes, the very Macedonian name being 
that of the Maachathites which was preserved also in that of the 
Mygdones. Chalcidice and Elymea were Midianite, but Emathia, 
Pieria, Pelagonia, Paeonia, Orbelia, were settlements of the 
Hamathites, Beorians, Baalchananites, Jephunnites, and Amra- 
phelites. The Paeones were a remnant of the Teucri. The 
Thracians then were the latest of this succession of Hittite 
colonists. Herodotus calls them the most powerful people in the 
world except the Indians. Their name came from the Temenite 
Zerach, from whom probably the Thracian Trausi and Dersaei 
were derived. The Edoni were Ethnanites, and the Sithones 
descendants of Eshton ; the Brygi were European Phrygians, 
descended from the Zerethite Berigah. and the Cicones, Chusha- 
mites. The Sapaei were Ziphites and the Satrae bore the name 
of Achashtari ; but the Crobyzi, Coeletae, and Triballi seem to 
have been Celtic or Midianite, and the Bessi and Bisaltae,ott-shoots 
from the Japhetic lines of Buz and Abichail. After the time of 
Herodotus, the regions to the north of Trace, namely Moesia and 
Dacia, were tilled with MaReshethite and Moschic tribes, among 
which were mingled Paseachites about Tihiscus, Iberian Zerethites 
at Bersovia, Burridensii or Beerothites, and Arpii or Rephaim. 
That the Getae who accompanied these ])eop]es wei'e ilittites is 
doubtful, for the Goths first appeare(l in that country, whose 
name may Ite connected with the Philistine (lath. It was the 
men (jf ( Jftth who slew the sous ol'Tahath or the second 'I'liotlnucs 
at the siege f)f Thebes, and thcs(; were the Bu/.itcs in tiic line of 
Abiliail, the Gi-eek ^Ebahis.' Apuluin was a great stroiigliold of 
thf Dacians, and tho-e arc otlirr imlieations that this .la])hrtic 
p(;ople was seatt(,'rcd among tlic llittitr ti-ibcs. l''roni about the 
tiiiK- of Hi'i-odotus, a (Jothic language must have hrcn cxoKcd out 

1 1 Chron. vii. 21. 


of the old Pelasgic speech of Philistia and Caria, and this language 
the Goths imposed upon many Hittite tribes, some of which are 
known in history as the Lombards, Burgundians, Franks, and 
Gepidae, who were original Leophrites, Kegemites, Irnahashites, 
and Jabezites. In the north of Dacia, the Thracian stream met 
that which caine from the Caucasus and the country north of that 
range between the Caspian and the Black Seas, and flowed west- 
ward along the northern shores of the latter. All the rivers in 
these two regions bore Hittite names; the Isteror Danube uniting 
Achashtari with Dinhaba, and the Marisus, Moschius, Tibiscus, 
Savus, and Porata honouring Mareshah, Meshag, Pasach, Ziph, 
and Beroth, while the Hypanis, Naparis, Ararus, Borysthenes, 
Tiarantus,and Tyras commemorate Jephunneh, Hepher, Jehaleleel, 
Rishathaim, Tirhanah, and Zerach. Everywhere over the world 
the Hittites may be traced as the namers of rivers. Before the 
time of the patriarch Abraham they began this practice in 
Babylonia, Palestine, and Egypt, and, far down in the Christian 
centuries, they continued it, giving to the streams of the New 
World, down into Chili, the ancient names that their forefathers 
imposed upon the rivers of Europe and Asia. 

The tribes to the north of the Black Sea which Herodotus 
calls Scythic were not all Hittite. His Sauromatae or Sarmatians 
were descendants of the Jerachmeelite Shaharaim, and thus a 
purely Japhetic people.^ The Budini again, with deep blue eyes 
and bright red hair, were Midianite or Celtic Bedanites, Patinians, 
or Bithynians of the same Persic race as those who named 
Batthina in Persis.^ His Scyths proper, however, were the 
Beerothites westward bound, whose wanderings were not to cease 
till in Albion they left the name of Briton. He calls them Scytlis 
or Borysthenites as the inhabitants of Olbia or Borysthenes. This 
name was probably formed out of that of Rishathaim or Rustam, 
tlie last great monarch of their golden age. Herodotus gives seven 
generations of these Scythians, beginning with Spargapithes, the 
form of whose name suggf^sts that, as Partliians, these Borysthe- 
nites had been for a time under Persian influences. The essential 
part of the wcn'd is Rechab. His son Lycus bears the Beerothite 

'^ ] Chnjii. \iii. 8. 
' llerodot. iv. ]0M. 


name Likhi, butGnurus, that of his grandson, has no special 
connection with the family. Saulins, however, the son of Gnurus, 
recalls Saul of Rehoboth, and his son Idan thyrsus appears in a 
Tyndarid and Tentyrid form of Hadadezer. Ariapithes, the son 
of Idanthyrsus, gives Rehob instead of Rechab, with the Persian 
termination. His three sons were Scylas, a second Saul, 
Octamasadas, an Eshtemoag*, which was indeed a Zocharite name 
but belonged also to the Hamathites of Ezra, and Oricus a designa- 
tion of no ethnic import. The Scythians, from whom Herodotus 
got the story of Targitaus and his three sons as ancestors of all 
the Scyths, must have been Zerethites of the very family from 
which Cyrus claimed descent, for this Targitaus is either Jerigoth 
or a Tirgathi descended from her, and interposing between her 
and Jesher, Shobab, and Ardon. The eldest son Leipoxais, the 
head of the Auchatae, is, however, an Elihhaz, from whom, through 
Chushamof the land of Temeni, came the Chushathites or Ossetes. 
Arpoxais, the progenitor of the Catiari and Traspians, is Arbag 
who was a great man among the Anakini, and the Catiari are the 
Gesshurites to whose line he belonged. He is the only genuine 
descendant of Targitaus. The third son Colaxais, father of the 
Paralatae, is a puzzle, for his is the Cilician and Colchian name 
belonging to the Kenezzite Charashim, while the Paralatae or 
royal Scythians should be the descendants of Aharhel who con- 
tinued the line of Regem and Harum. The two families may 
have become connected in Upper Egypt, but no I'ecord of such 
connection has yet been found. The Scythic Issedones, whom 
Aristeas of Proconnesus found in the far north, were nt) doubt a 
branch of the Esthonians, descended from Eshton the father of 
Beth Kapha. The (Jallipedae, dwelling on the Hyj)anis, seem 
idf-ntitied, through their river, with Caleb the son of Jepliuinieh 
as Zocharites, and thus with the Chalybes of i^)ntus. N(\\t to 
tlicin wci-f tlx,' Alazoniaiis, a people known to lloiiier who lin'ngs 
tlieni lo 'J'roy from .\l\-)Ki under Hodius and i^pisti-oj)lins. The 
Ala/onus i-i\er was in Albania ; and it has been shown that tliis 
woi'd Alazon is a form of Uaalclianan answei-ing to it as the 
Sanscrit .Vrjuna answers to j'halgnna. The Ahizonians. therefore, 
W(;re, i|ually witli tl:e Auchatae, descendants ol' beipoxais or 
Eliphiiz. An Amei'ican oll'->hoot of the same peo|)h' named the 


Allegheny mountains. They were the constant eompanions of the 
Jephunnites, so much so that some of the ancient geographers 
make them as Pelagones the same people as the Paeones.^ They 
were a branch of the Alans, who, with the Huns or Jephunnites 
and the Iberians or Avars, became for many years the scourges 
of Europe. Northward of the Alazones dwelt the Neuri, beyond 
whom lay a terra incognita. These* were the descendants of the 
Egyptian Naharina and the Assyrian Nairi, and of the same race 
as the Maurui or Moors, who, while those dwelt above the Black 
Sea, were threading their way along the Mediterranean coast of 
Africa. Eshton was embraced under this name and his sons 
Ra])ha, Paseach,and Techinnah the father of Ir Nachash. The 
Neuri reached Italy and constituted part of the Etruscan popula- 
tion as the Naharcer of the Eugubine Tables. They changed their 
doubtful medial guttural into a labial when the}' founded Novaria 
in Cisalpine Gaul, and when they took possession of a part of 
northern Spain and called it Navarra. But the Ugrianized portion 
of this family, claiming kindred, through language as well as by 
name and blood, with the Esthonians and the Lapps, called 
themselves Majiars ; and they, in the ninth century A.D., from 
some eastern I'egion descended upon the plains of Hungary, where 
like the Basques in the Pyrenees they hold their own to this day. 
Unfortunately Herodotus does not give the native names of other 
Scythian tribes, but calls them Ploughers, Husbandmen, Man- 
eaters, and Black robes. He has said enough, however, to indicate 
without any doubt the fact that the so-called Scythians were 
Hittites with a few intermingled Celtic and Japhetic tribes. The 
customs of the Scythians as described by him are those of many 
of the Siberian and American aborigines. Such are the burial of 
their kings and great chiefs under huge mounds, the scalping of 
their slain enemies, the use of the vapour bath, and the setting up 
a stuffed liorse-hide on stakes beside a warrior's grave. The 
cloak generally black and the capuchin like head-dress attached 
to it, as figured in tombs at Kei'tch and elsewhere in the Scythian 
area, cr^rrespond with the Hittite attire set forth in carvings in 
Asia Minor, and agree with the dress of the ancient Mexican 
priests as described by native authors. The trowsers depicted on 

.Str;il)(, Fraf^. xxxviii. 


the Kertch figures must have been borrowed from the Celts, from 
whom those Persians who were not Celts adopted them. Sir 
Henr}^ Rawlinson remarks that the Scythic manner of stringing 
a bow by passing the arc under the left leg below the knee and 
thus depressing it is common to the Bhils, Huzarehs, Kurds and 
other orientals. The orientals he names are Hittites by 

The regions that stand next in geographical relation to Dacia 
and European Scythia are Pannonia and Illyricuin, but while the 
latter bears a purely Hittite name and is well attested as the 
abode of a mixed Iberian and Celtic people, it does not exhibit 
traces of occupation by the principal Hittite tribes that possessed 
Italy, all of which were in that country in the time of Herodotus. 
The story of the Etruscans brings them from L3alia by sea to the 
Tyrrhenian coast, and that of the ^lessapian Japygians of Apulia 
is that they came in the same way from the island of Crete.^ 
But according to Latin tradition the Umbrians w^ere among the 
oldest inhabitants of Italy and predecessors of the Etruscans ; 
they are also said to have dwelt originally far north in Cisalpine 
Gaul, out of which they were driven by the Boii, Senones, and 
more recent Celtic colonists. The recently translated Umbrian 
tables of the Euo'ubine series state that thev were ensfraved in 
the three hundredth year of the Umbrian era, and as their date 
is 177 B.C., it follows that that era was 477 B.C.- This is 
certainly recent, but it suffices to take us back to the shadowy 
Roman period of Cincinnatus and the Fabii. The knowledge 
which Herodotus possessed concerning the Umbrians, beside 
whom the Etruscans settled, w^as vague, for he repivsonts two 
unknown rivers, the Alpis and Carpis, as rising in their counti-v 
and thnving into the Danube. If by the Al])is he means tlie 
Colapis, a triljutary of the Save, his Umbrians must have bi'cn in 
the north of IllyiMCum. Be this as it may, it is evident tliat the 
Umbrians, whom theii" ta])les, which are insci^ilied witli a ]mi'ely 
('eltic hmguage most alli(;d to JM'se (iaelie, ])i'()\(' to ha\-e been a 

' Kau'linsiiirs Hcmdotus, iv. .'i, imti' H. 

' H.To(|.,t. vii. 170. 

Th.'j..- hav.. l)...Ti tnmslat.-d hy tli.- licv. Xril .MacXi^li. I' I.L.D., iiitli.- 
I'r.pcci-diiit,'-^ 'if till' (J:uiailiaii Instiriitc, ami liy iiii' in tlic 'I'raiisarl imis nf tlii' fcltic 
Snci.tvof .M.,iitn'a.l. 


Celtic or Midianite people, came into Italy overland. The 
traditions of the Cymri bring them from DefFrobani in the land 
of Hav, which is well identified with Taphrae or Perekop in the 
Crimea. Whether they came there through the passes of the 
Caucasus or coasted round the Black Sea when expelled from 
Asia Minor, or, leaving Media, went all the way round the 
Caspian, we cannot tell. But the Cimmerians were certainly 
there, together with the Hittite Scythians, and in the time of 
Herodotus the Budini were still in that ancient seat, while other 
tribes, the Crobyzi, Sensii, and Triballi were farther to the south 
and west. The next region occupied by these Celtic tribes was 
Pannonia or Hungary which was almost purely Celtic for 
centuries. Mutenum, the Coletiani, the Hercuniates, Perso. 
Ulmum, Bodonhely, setting forth Midian, Gilead, Rakem, Peresh, 
Ulam, Bedan, are a few indications of that Celtic population of 
Pannonia for which the classical geographers vouch. ^ The very 
name Pannonia is one that has suffered from phonetic decay, 
being a corruption of Padonia. These Celts, not unaccompanied 
by Hittites, crossed the Carnic Alps into Histria or eastern 
Venetia, and made their way to the broad region between the 
Padus or Bodencus, which they named after Bedan, and the 
Tiber. There, about the year 477 B.C., they set up a kingdom 
which the Romans called Umbrian but also Sappinian, and which 
the Etruscans called that of the Amra and of the Ugabemini : but 
the Umbrians themselves entitle it the kingdom of the Ijovein, 
whence the name of their capital Iguvium.'^ The Sabines seem 
to have belonged to the same race. Other Celtic tribes held a 
great part of Cisalpine Gaul and Venetia, with parts of Rhaetia 
and Noricum. These, from time to time, submitted to the lord of 
the Ijovein in Iguvium, who by a large aiiny maintained his 
authority over them. When the Eugubine Tables were written 
in 177 B.C. king Herti had just concluded a war against his 
revolted colonists, many of whom had exchanged Umbrian for 
Etruscan rulers, and who, with the Umbrian and Etruscan states, 
soon fell under the immediate power of the Romans. 

At the time that the (Jelts established tliemselves in Pannonia 

** Strabo : liobiou, Histoire des Gaulois d'Otient. 
'' Livy : The Eugubine Tables. 


and Italy, the eastern coast of the Adriatic was inhabited chiefly by 
two powerful Hittite tribes, the Liburnians in the north, and below 
them, extending over the greater part of the country, the Illyrians. 
The Liburnians were the men of Leophrah, who, as the Allapur, had 
dwelt in that Armenia whence came the Alarodians of Herodotus.^'* 
They had tyrannized over the Patinians and Zuzim in Syria, and 
had imposed their kings named Lubarna upon them. Their 
record in Asia Minor is small, being restricted in the west to 
Labranda in Caria, and Leucophrys or Tenedos, with part of the 
Mysian coast lying opposite to that island. They seem, however, 
to have accompanied the Carians in some of their migrations, for 
Lepreum in Elis, and Aliphera, near by in Arcadia, were two of 
their memorials. But the main body formed a Hittite advanced 
guard which reached the head of the Polatic Gulf of the 
Adriatic. There the Absyrtides, the chief of which was Absorus, 
and Monetium retained the memory of Leophrah 's grandfather 
Abiezer and his father Meonothai and the Daesitiates set fortti 
Zoheth. The Liburnians, favoured by the many islands that 
shut in their coast, became expei't seamen and developed into 
pirates who were for a long time the terror of the natives of the 
opposite Italian shore. On it they made many settlements, 
chiefly represented by the Zoheth name as in Venetia, where the 
Atestini are called by the Umbrian king Herti the Daet-om, and 
further south where the Teateas of Sabinum and Apulia appear. 
But they played a more important part in Italian colonization 
when they planted on the western coast the Osci or Ausones and 
tlie Aurunci, took possession of the Liparae islands and 
strongly established themselves in Sicily. Then they moved 
northwards to Portus Herculis Labronis or Liburni south of 
Pisa(! in Etruria, and from thence to Liguria of which they were 
pi-obably among the earliest colonists, for their Libarna was far 
inland Ijcyoiid the Apennines and tluiir Stati(;lli or, as the 
L'lnlii-ian I'ecord calls th(;in, Sihit-ii" and An-Sihit-ir, repi'esent- 
ing (loulitiess Zoli(;th and Henzoheth, wen; the chief people or 
jieoples of iJguria. Many other I'cgions were occupied bv 
the pii-atical Libui'nians, who finjilly pj-occcdiMl to the extreme 
south-Wfst of (Jaul wli(;re they founded Lapuivlum now 

1" R.oiidK (,f the J'ast, vii. lil, Wl ; U.Tod. iii. 'Jl. 


Bayonne, and where in the Labourd their descendants may be 
found to the present day as the Lapurtanian Basques. Strange 
to say lapur in Basque means a robber. 

The Illyrians had as evil a reputation as the Liburnians, 
Bearing the name of Jehaleleel they numbered among them the 
cave-dwelling Dardanii called after his ancestor Zereth. The 
Illyrians were not Ziphites apparently but the descendants of 
Tiria and Asareel. The former were represented by the Derrii, 
and the latter, by the people of Ancus and Arba, but especially 
by the Dalmatians between Delminium and the sea, whose great 
father was Talmai the son of Anak, the son of Arba. These 
Zerethites took possession of Sardinia and planted colonies in 
Itah^ including the places called by the Romans Solaria and 
Ad Solaria in northern Etruria and on the Ligurian coast, but 
which the Etruscan Eugubine Tables call Ilerda. It is pro- 
bable that they named the Rhodanus or Rhone, and that they 
renamed the Padus, calling it Eridanus after the ancestral Ardon. 
They must, therefore, have had colonies in eastern Gaul. Out 
of these, however, they were driven to the Pyrenees where they 
were known as Sardones, where Iluro was one of their founda- 
tions, and whence the tribes of the Ilergfetes and Ilercaones 
passed into Spain. They were also represented in the latter 
country by the Arevaci, the Oretani, and the Segobrigenses 
settino- forth Arba, Ardon, and Segub, and by other tribes includ- 
ing the Turdetani, the Toltecs of the west. South of Dalmatia, 
where the Adriatic coasts narrow its channel, the Albani had their 
habitation, and the kilted mountaineers who call themselves 
Skipetar dwell in that Albania to the present day speaking a lan- 
guage half Greek, half Hittite. Some of them were Epidamni,aname 
of which the epi is superfluous, for their British brethren were 
simply Damnii AlVjani. Epidanmus too was called Dyrrachium 
from Zerach, and above it lay Petra named after Zerach's 
father Bozrah. The x\lbani seem to have been men of the sea 
like the Liburnians and Illyrians ; they must also have been in 
the van of Hittite migration from Paphlagonia in Asia Minor 
and from All)ania in the Caucasus, for they appear in Elis as the 
namers of the Alpheus, in Arcadia about Thelphusa, and 
at Delplii in Phocis. They were also among the most 


western of the Daciaii tribes as the Albocensii. But the chief 
reason for recjardino; them as early colonists of Itah- is that, 
although a coast people by nature, they occupied an inland 
position in that peninsula, being shut out from the sea 
on every side by later intruders. How their name of 
Temenite was changed to Samnite may not be easily told, but 
there is no doubt that the Samnites were the Temenite Albanians. 
Their Alban name survived in Allifae, but the distinguishing 
name that henceforth follows them in history is that of Pentri, 
given to one of their tribes to replace the Petras of Acliaia and 
Albania, a name already associated with the Temenites in the 
story of Pandareus, whose legend is that of Tereus or Zerach. 
The Caraceni, another Samnite tribe, conniiemorated Zerach, and 
Abellinum was the record of Baalhanan. The Phaebatae in 
Albania of Illyricum preserved the memory of Jobab as a Delphic 
Phoebus : in Saninium, Bovianum was called after him. At an 
early period these Samnites sent colonies into Liguria which 
reproduced the nomenclature of central Italy. Livy calls the 
mountain region of the Apennines in which the Ligurian Temenites 
dwelt, and which is now called Diamante, by the name Suismon- 
tium.^^ These Temenites wei'e Epanterii, with a capital at 
Bobium, and many Albas round about them. In many parts of 
the south of France their traces are found, and in northern Spain 
they constitute the Alavan division of the Basques: but their 
principal colonies were to the north of Italy and in Gaul. The 
Umbrian Eugubino tables call the Epanterii of Liguria the 
Fondli, <jr, in the plural, Fondlire, a name which carries at once 
to Vindeiicia, which anciently included those parts of l^avaria 
and Wurteniburg that lie to the south of the Danube, and to the 
Vandals. Confusion is likely to result, however, in tracing the 
Vandal name, which arises almost as naturally out of -lediael as 
out (jf Ijotsrah, and certainly with far more appaiH-nt resemblance. 
The Samnites in the peninsula wrrc hemmed in by those 
Hittite trilies which had allicid tlmmselves in Eg_\'ptan<l Palestine 
with th(' Japhetic (jlekei'itcs. Thrsc liad possessed the Saronic 
sea coast in Palestine, and in Asia .Miiioi- oeenj)ied (,'aria ami part 
of Pamphyllia. That they eai'l\' sent colonies into (Jreece is 

" Li\ \ , xxxix. 2 ; xl. 11 . 


apparent from the position of their colonies in the extreme west 
in Elis and the Epirotic coast. The three districts in 'northern 
Greece called Locris seem also to have been indebted to these 
tribes for part of their population. The word Locris is of doubt- 
ful ethnic character. In British history it is made Locrin, and 
denotes the eponym of one of the three great divisions of the 
ancient British population, the others being Albanact and 
Kamber.^"^ The Loegrians, descended from him, seem to have 
belonged to the same race as the people of Lochlyn or Scandinavia. 
The Palestinian name that answers to these is Lasharon and this, 
with initial and final augments, is Halicarnassus of Caria.^^ No 
special Hittite series of names accompanies this geographical and 
tribal designation, which seems to have been applied to off-shoots 
from various tribes that placed themselves under the government 
of the Gekerites who once owned Lasharon and carried that name 
with them to other lands. Wherever the name appears it carries 
with it the record of an Aryan influence, by which Hittites were 
converted into Greek, Latin, and Teutonic tribes. To the east of 
Samnium, and extending far beyond it to the south, lay Apulia 
with a chief city Luceria. There the Japhetic descendants of 
Abihail had come to power, and with them their bi'ethren of the 
same Buzite family, the Pediculi or men of Abdigel whose record 
in Elis was Epitalium. Under their sway were Hittite Daunians, 
Peucetians, and Messapian Japygians. The latter call for some 
attention. They were the descendants of that Ammono-Hittite 
stock over which Jabez and Mezahab had ruled in Egypt, and 
were thus the Caphtorim w^ho had gone out of that land with the 
Philistines into Canaan. Nothing more is heard of these 
Caphtorim until the Assyrians make mention of them under 
a new name, that of Moschi, derived from Meshag, the son of 
Jabez and grandfather of Mezahab. In Asia Minor, however, they 
got back the Cappadocian name. To the Greeks the Cappadocians 
were known as the White Syrians, which shows that they must 
have owned a large pr-oportion of Aryan blood ; Philistine and 
Caphtorim must, therefore, have kept company.^'* No people of 

i~ (j!(;f)fFrey's British History. 

'' Josh. xii. 18 ; coinj). 1 Chri)n. v. 10. 

'* Strabo, xii. 3, 5. 


Asia Minor was subjected to harder treatment than the Cappa- 
docians, for they lay in the westward track of migrating nations 
and of eastern conquerors. The pressure exercised upon them 
from Lydia, on the one hand, and Assyria and Media, on the 
other, was probably the cause of a great migration to the sea 
coast of western Cilicia or Pamphyllia, and a water transit from 
thence to the shores of Europe. Herodotus and other writers, who 
followed his statement, derive the Messapians from Crete 
at a point of time not kmg subsequent to the Trojan war. Crete, 
however, although it contained other colonists besides the 
Zerethites who gave to it its name, exhibits no traces of the 
Caplitorim. Herodotus says that those who became Messapian 
Japyges were originally Polichnetes and Praesians, but the latter 
names have no historical connection with the former. On the 
other hand it is certain that the Cappadocians were Caplitorim. 
The tirst migration, therefore, was from Asia Minor, and not from 
Crete, but it was under Carian or Gekerite leadership and this 
may have originated the Cretan story. There was a Messapius 
mountain in Boeotia, and from that country, of which Thebes was 
the capital, Strabo makes Messapus lead the Messapians to Italy. 
In Pausanias, Methapus is an Athenian author of mysteries. Most 
geographers place the Greek Messapii in Ozolian Locris ; and 
there is an obscure mention of a Messapeae in Peloponnesus. The 
story of the foundation of Metapontum by Metabus, the son of 
Sisyphus, is not to be separated from those relating to the 
Messapians, for Metapontum with its harvest of gold is but a 
form of Mezahab the golden Horus and the father of Matred, the 
Greek Danae of tlie shower of gold. Profe.ssor Rawlinson would 
bring the Messapians from Peloponnesus, but it is hard to find any 
traces of them there.^'' Adjoining the Locri Ozolae in /Etolia, 
however, the Apodoti dwelt, whose name, together with the 
tradition that Apis of ancient royal fame was a stranger from 
/Etolia, tlie ])roximity of the Locrian Messapians, and of a 
Hali'.yrna an<l a Uria in the south of /Ktolia, favours their 
identification with the Japygians who founded Hyria or Uria in 
Apulia, jjut anotlicr conipi-titor foi- the honour of stMiding the 
.JajjVLjians to Italy is the Illyrian Albania. Tlif Allianiaus do not 

'' Itiiwliii.soii'H lli-ro(i.itu.-. 


call themselves by that name, which belonged to former occupants 
of their country. They are Skipetar, a word said to mean 
mountaineers, but which so resembles Caphtor that their 
Cappadocian origin is determined by it and confirmed by the 
name of their city Mezzovo. The date of the arrival of the 
Messapian Japygians in Apulia must be found not later than the 
beginning of the sixth century, B.C., for the Eleatic School of 
Philosophy was founded in the midst of a kindred population in 
Lucania belonging to the same migration, in 536. That they came 
from Locris or ^tolia, from Albania of the Skipetar, or from the 
more northern parts of Illyricum where in the time of the classical 
geographers the lapodes dwelt, is very doubtful. These Jabezite 
or Cappadocian colonies were probably subsequent to that which, 
from Asia Minor and Cappadocia direct, in the troublous times of 
contest between the Lydians and the Medes, set sail under the 
leadership of the Apulians for the Italian coast. The Messapian 
Japyges and their Apulian protectors may thus be regarded as 
among the earliest of Italian colonists. As preserving the names 
of the greatest and the last of the Hittite Pharaohs, more romantic 
interest attaches to the Messapian Japyges than to any other 
Hittite people. Herodotus relates the story of Aristaeus of the 
island of Proconnesus in the sea of Marmora. Aristaeus was a 
poet of a noble family in Proconnesus who suddenly dropped dead 
in a baker's shop, to the great alarm of the tradesman. When his 
friends came to give him burial his body had disappeared, and a 
man from Cyzicus averred that he had met Aristaeus at the time 
he was reported to have died, and had spoken to him. Seven 
years after, the poet made his appearance at Proconnesus, and 
composed his work called the Arimaspeia, in which he gave an 
account of his northward wanderings among the Arimaspians, the 
Issedones, and the gold guarding griffins. Once more he vanished, 
and three hundred and forty years later, he went to the 
Metapontines and commanded them to erect an altar to Apollo and 
a statue to himself, which they did.^^ Herodotus says that the 
Arimaspi were so called from two Sc)"tliic words arirtia, one and 
spu, eye, as they were a one-eyed people. Their relation to the 
gold guarding griffins and Metapontum shews that they were a 

16 Henidot. iv. 14, 15. 


northern branch of the Messapians, still adhering to the Egyptian 
form of Mezahab's name as Har-em-hebi or Hor-em-neb, the 
golden Horus. The Germanized Menapii and Gepidae were the 
same people. 

South-west of the Apulians the Lucanians were situated 
These were the Regemites, another branch of the family of 
Achuzam, whose descendant Aharhel was honoured in Heraclea^ 
while Joel the son of that hero was the eponym of Elea, the 
seat of an early school of philosophy, in which some of the sublime 
teachings of Paseach and his son Job, the maternal ancestors of 
Joel, were revived. These Regemites or Lucanians had been 
completely hellenized by the Gekerites, whose Aciris, Acheronia, 
Pyxus, and Pandosia, repeat the geographical nomenclature of the 
Epirotic coast. South of Lucania again was Bruttium, not 
named after Beeroth, but, by the change of I to r, after Pelet, the 
brother of Regem. The Bruttians, therefore, were the Maacha- 
thites of Italy, commemorating Sheber in Sybaris, Tirhanah, in 
Terina and Tauriana, and Madmannah, in Medma. The hellenic 
descendants of Geker and Buz and Abihail dwelt among them as 
among the Lucanians and Japygians, transforming a land that 
might have been a western Cathay into a Magna Graecia. Of 
the same mixed Hittite and Japhetic race were the Campanians 
to the west of the Samnites, as their Acerrae, Herculaneum, and 
Cumae attest. Through all of these regions members of other 
Hittite families were settled, some of whom like the Zocharites 
who founded Hipponium in Bruttium, had crossed over from the 
African coast. Campania and Latium contained representatives 
of almost all the seven Hittite tribes, many of which had not been 
anciently subjected to Japhetic influences, so that Hittite or, as it 
may be called in Italy, Etruscan speech long survived among 
them. The Romans professed to be the descendants of the 
Dardanian ^Eneas, which their very name of Roman contradicts ; 
yet the widespread tradition nmst have had some origin in fact. 
Tlie fact can only be that in Latium some of the Dardanians and 
Illyrians, whom we found on the east of the Adriatic, had made 
settleinents prior to those of the Romans or coincident with them. 
Alba Longa, the original seat of Roman authority, l)ears a 
Temenite name, unless we su})pose it to \n'. a form (t" Ai-ha, for tlie 


father of the mythic ^neas as Anchises represents Anak the son 
of Arba, a true Dardanian. The Zerethites are best represented 
in Italy by the Frentaui in Ortona and Anxanum, the Frentanian 
name being, like the Persian Feridun, a form of Ardon. The 
names of the kings of Alba Longa belong to many different 
Hittite families, and do not exhibit the prominence of any one 
stock in Latium. But Kome, with its mythic Romulus and 
Remus, declares plainly that its founders were of the race 
of Jerahmeel and Ram, and shews that, at an early period of 
Italian colonization, the Aryan asserted his supremacy as the 
Brahman of the western world. 

Little can be said of" the Sabine cantons or, speaking more 
correctly, of those east of Sabinum. The Marsi were no doubt 
MaReshethites, but their Marrubium really belonged to the 
Beerothite family as a disguised Mercaboth. The Peligni were 
really Samnite, like the Pelagones and Paphlagonians, so that they 
had no right to Imaeus, an Italian Hamath, to Sulmo, a related 
Salma of Beth-Lechem, or to Corfinium which, like Cerfennia on 
Lake Fucinus, was a European Saravene or Beth Zur that the 
Marsi must have introduced. More important is Etruria. The 
majority of authorities is in favour of the descent of the Etrurians 
from the Lydians, and there is nothing to disprove this testimony. 
Their ancient name is said to have been Rasena, which must be 
the Ras of the Assyrian inscriptions and of the Hittite one of 
Merash with the sign of the old Hittite plural en. When, how- 
ever, the nomenclature of the twelve Etruscan States and their 
dependencies is analyzed, it becomes evident that many Hittite 
tribes besides the Ras contributed to their population. The 
Umbrian Eugubine Tables classify the Etruscans as the Tuscer, 
Naharcer, and Japuscer, among whom we do not find the Ras, for 
the Naharcer and Japuscer are both Nairi tribes, answering to 
the Navarrese and Guipuscoans of the Pyrenees, while the Tuscer 
may represent the widespread name of Zocheth in its Persian 
Zohak form. The replacement of final t or th by k is a very 
common process even at the present day. The uneducated French 
Canadian errs in tliis way continually, turning pf^e \uio pafak 
and ovielette into omelah'. How the Ras failed to be noticed by 
the Umbrian Herti is not eas}- to say, for they did constitute an 


important, and probably the original, element in Etruria. In 
north-eastern Etruria there were three cities called Arretium, 
in Etruscan, Aretiag. So in Chaldea the name Ras was 
modified to Rat, and their identity established by Rat being 
made one of the abodes of the god Lagudah, who is 
Lagadah, the father of Ma Reshah. The same nomenclature 
appears in northern Venetia, where Artegnia was a faithful 
colony of Arretium, and in Rhaetia, which Livy and other writers 
have connected with the Etruscans, where the chief of Arteba- 
nesa or the house of the Ras, proved unfaithful.^^ The termination 
van, the Circassian vuna, a dwelling, answering to the Hebrew 
beth, has so far appeared in connection with Zur the descendant 
of MaReshah, as Zervan and Saravene. In Phrygia, however, it 
is joined to Ras as Ardaban, and among the Narisci of southern 
Germany it appears as Ratispona or Ratisbon. The Assyrian 
month Marches van seems to have been compounded of the same 
elements. The ruling family in Arretium was that of the Cilnii. 
This is a thoroughly Shuhite word derived from Shelah the son of 
Shuah and father of Laadah. In Chaldea it appears as Bit 
Silani, and in Greek it became Silenus.^^ Marsyas was a Silenus, 
not an object of contempt but, a being endowed with superior 
wisdom. The chief of the Cilnii was Maecenas, and his name was 
probably that of Maon, pronounced with regard to the power of the 
medial ay in as Magon. It was the fate of the Ras to be ger- 
manized on their way northward. After they left Rhaetia and 
Noricum they met the Gothic wave from the east and became 
Narisci and Marsacii, losing their old language but carrying their 
glorious Hittite traditions into the heart of Germany to enrich 
its folk-lore with niilhrchen for many a Grimm. 

Liguria is a remarkable region viewed ethnologically. One 
of the best guides to it is the Eugubine Tables, for much of their 
story concerns Liguria. Its name is the old Locrian one that 
has appeared in Greece and in Bruttium, and must have come 
from the Japhetic lords of the Hittites who constituted its chief 
population. These Japhetic lords must have dwelt at Genoa, 
whicli was named after the Gekerite Guni."^ In the region of 

'" Livy, V. ^^^. 

"< K'-conls of til.- Past, vii. 27. 

''* 1 CljiMii. V. 15 


the Apulian Pediculi, who are the Abdigelites that came of the 
same family as Abihail, throut^h Abdiel or Abdigel the son of 
Guni, we find Cannae and Canusium, Vergellus, and Barduli. Genoa 
was inimical to the Umbrians and Etruscans at the time when 
their armies united to subdue their revolting colonies in Liguria, 
Venetia, and Cisalpine Gaul. The cause of the Umbrian revolt 
was the election of a generalissimo over the Perscler, as the 
Umbrian tables call them, who were the Umbrian army of 
occupation in the regions indicated. It being the turn of the 
Venetian tribe of the Asseriates to elect the general, they chose 
one Parfa, who was distasteful to the other tribes. These tribes 
accordingly seceded under their former commander Appei and 
ravaged a great part of Venetia and Cisalpine Gaul. The 
Perscler or Perscli were, so far as can be judged, a very ancient war- 
like community or force, first embodied from among the Jerachme- 
elite or Philistine tribes byBarachel the Buzite for service in Egypt. 
This was prior to the time of Job, for Elihu the son of this 
Barachel was the patriarch's friend. Comparative geography 
shows that Achi the son of Abdiel, the son of Guni, belonged 
to the line of Barachel. These warriors followed the fortunes 
of the Hittites, who excelled them in civilization and the arts of 
life, but who were well satisfied to live under the protection of 
the strong and valorous .sons of Japheth. In India they existed 
in the fifth century under the name of Abdiel being the White 
Hnns, Abtelites or Enthalites who then occupied the Punjab.-'^ 
In Asia Minor, Barachel was commemorated by the city Bargylia. 
From this point, therefore, the Bargylians or Barachelites must 
have set out as mercenary warriors into Europe, to sell their 
services to any monarchs wealthy enough to pay for them. They 
had many settlements in Italy, one of the chief being Fregellae 
in Latium, where they were allied with the Volsci of kindred 
blood, and with the iEqui who were probably the posterity of 
Achi son of Abdiel. In Cisalpine Gaul they possessed lirixellum 
south of the Po, and Vercellae to the north of that river, above 
Liguria. These cities were probably camps, for the Eugubine 
Tables, in enumerating the Perscler, associate them with the 
Hittite and Celtic tribes within whose territory they were 

'-''^ Cnsmas Indicopleuste.s. 


quartered. Geoffrey of Monmouth knew the history of these 
warriors, which he tells after a strange fashion. He says that 
Gurcjiunt Brabtruc King of Britain and son of Belinus, after he 
had conquered the Dacians, met the Barclenses under their leader 
Partholoim seeking for a habitation, and that he sent guides who 
led the wanderers to Ireland, an uninhabited country which they 
occupied.-^ The Irish historians agree that the Partholanians were 
the tirst inhabitants of Ireland, but give no trustworthy account 
of them, save that one of the chief descendants of Partholan was 
Adhla, probably Abdiel, and that they were akin to the Nemed- 
ians or Midianites. They are apparently the same as the Firgail- 
ians, who were always under arms to protect the Fir-Bolg and 
the Fir-Dhomhnoin at their work.-^ This agrees with the con- 
nection of Fregellae and the Volsci. That the Japhetic Perscler 
or Barachelites did establish themselves in Britain, occupying 
Bute and other western Scottish isles as a prelude to their rule 
on the mainland, cannot be denied. We need not, therefore, look 
elsewhere for the Teutonic Britons who changed the language of 
Celt and Pict. 

Apart from Genoa and the Perscler, the population of 
Liguria was almost entirely Hittite, and more Albanian than 
Iberian. The Epanterii, whose capital the Eugubine Tables make 
Bobium, answer to the Pentri of Samnium with their Bovianum 
and reappear in Ireland as the Vinderius and Buvinda rivers in 
the country of the Daiiuiii, who in Scotland were Damnii Albani 
or Temenites of Eliphaz. Tlie four Albas of Liguria are not all 
connected with the Temenites, for that of the Ingauni probably 
belonged to the Paseachite family of Hanoch, and that called 
Docilia to the Zocharites, who named the Apennines as well as the 
Aventine, and Tirjulia, which tlie Euofubine Tables call Tunnoo;ura. 
The latter were Tungri on their way to northern Gaul, Hittites 
bereft of their language and nationality. The Ethnanitcs were 
represented Ijy Libarna, answering to Liburnus in Samnium and 
to Laberus in Ireland on the Buvinda or Boyno. But the Sihitir 
and Ansihitir of the Umbrian Tables, whom the classical 
geoL,a"aphers give only as the Statielli, were tribes named after 

^1 (Jc.ffn-y'rt J'.iitiMh History, iii. 12. 


Zoheth and Ben Zoheth, the grandsons of Leophrah. Two other 
tribes mentioned by the Umbrian Herti are the Hostatir and 
Anostatir. The first denotes the people of Asta, who are the 
Jahdaites, but in America the Aztecs ; the Anostatir are some 
members of the same family holding a similar relation to the senior 
line to that which the Ansihitir sustain to the Sihitir. There are 
traces of the Jachdai-arri or sons of Jachdai in the east. The only 
Celtic tribe of note in Liguria was that of the Vedianti or 
Vedicanti, whose capital Pedona carried the memory of Bedan 
into the west. Cisalpine Gaul contained mixed Celtic and Hittite 
populations, and the same was the case with Venetia. Of the 
latter the Brixentes, first of Brixia or Brescia and afterwards of 
Rhaetia, are noteworthy, seeing that they were Phrygians of 
Iberic descent, soon to become Brigantes in Vindelicia, thence to 
pass into England and Ireland under the same name, and to occupy 
in the former country one of the most prominent positions taken 
by an ancient British race. About the mouths of the Po the 
Fossiones Philistinae shew that the men of Gath had found their 
way to Italy. To the north of these Adria testified to the 
presence of the Beerothites, Bharatas, or Britons, whom king 
Herti calls Peret-om. This is not the place to which an ancient 
writer takes them, for he says that when Tsintsan Hadadezer 
fled from David of Israel he took refuge in Italy and built Pazzuolo 
or Sorento in Campania. -^ The name Tsintsan presents curious 
analogies with the Chushan of Chushan Rishathaim, and the 
Dastan that is appended to the name of the Persian Rustam. The 
old reign of Sumir and Akkad must have lasted for two or three 
centuries in northern Italy ; but not only from external Rome, 
from among these peoples themselves in the persons of the 
Japhetic Perscler, the Genoese, the Philistines of the trenches, 
arose elements that speedily changed the ancient state of things 
and inaugurated the Germanic as well as the Latin Aryanism 
that now prevail. 

The alliance of the Celts with the Japhetic pioneers known as 
the Perscler is significant, for in ancient times these Philistines 
had been the friends of the Hittite and the enemies of the Celt. 
The first indication that history gives of the union of the Aryan 

^'' Early Travels in Palestine, Bohn, 69. 


with the hybrid Midianite is that which announced the rise of 
Median empire. Until then the Hittite had been looked up to as 
a king among men ; he had been tried in the balance and been 
found wanting. The Median and Persian periods were periods 
of Celtic supremacy under Aryan leadership. The only Hittite 
empire contemporary with them was the Lydian, and that did not 
long survive the establishment of Persian royalty. The seat of 
Hittite authority was then transferred to Etruria, where a power- 
ful confederacy maintained itself for a time, not in undisputed 
empire but side by side with a more extensive Celtic dominion, 
that of Umbria, and threatened on the south with an extinction 
that came at last from the rising power of Aryan Rome. In 
Illyria a mingled Hittite and Celtic population lived independent 
of foreign jurisdiction, much after the manner of the Caucasian 
tribes. About 230, B.C., these Illyrians measured their strength 
with Rome under their queen Teuta, but were defeated, owing to 
the treachery of their Greek allies. Nevertheless a century 
passed before the Romans made Illyria one of their provinces. 
Many Hittite states, apparently without political cohesion, 
existed in southern Gaul, from the Maritime Alps to the Atlantic 
coast ; and in Spain there seem to have been several confedera- 
tions of Hittite and Celto-Hittite cities for the conquest of which 
the Carthaginians and Romans contended from 235, B.C. The 
name given to the Spanish Hittites is the Iberic. They were, 
therefore, the descendants of those Zerethites whose ancestor 
Asher had imposed upon Assyria its name, and bore the name of 
his grandson Heber, the Apil-Sin of the lists and monuments. 
"While some of the Iberians had taken refuge in the Caucasus, 
their main body had occupied Phrygia, replacing the name of 
Heber with that of his father Berigah. If, as is most likely, they 
came to Spain from the lllyrian coast, they must have been 
expelled from tliat coast by their brethren of the junior line of 
Asareel who named Dalinatia, and who, in Asia Minoi", had dwelt 
at their back as tbc Isaurians about lakes Caralitis and Trogitis. 
In other parts of Europe the Il)erians were known as the 
Brigaiitcs, always licing accom})ani(Ml, liowever, by Iberic tei'iiis, 
as in Britain where Eboracum or York was their capital. The 
traces of Iberic or Hittite peoples are found in geogi-a])hical and 


tribal nomenclature and in archaeological remains throughout 
Gaul, but in the north the Celt preponderated, and the Hittite 
was compelled to amalgamate or was driven across the sea to the 
British islands or into the north-east to join the Ugrians of the 
Baltic coast. 

On the borders of the lakes of northern Italy and of Switzer- 
land, as well as in those of Scotland and Ireland, the remains of 
water dwellings, similar to those of Prasias in Thrace and of the 
Gambulians in Chaldea, have been discovered. The Mexicans 
built such wooden cities on pile foundations in their lakes ; and 
on the Orinoco in South America they may be found to this day. 
An antiquity has been accorded to the Swiss lake dwellers of 
two thousand years before the Christian era, which suffices to 
show how unsafe it is to place credence in what is called 
archgeolocfical science."^* An examination of Lake Prasias, where 
the water-loving Thracians were under the eye of Herodotus, 
and of the Gambulian marshes whence, three centuries before, 
Assurbanipal had dragged the men of Sapibel, would reveal 
evidences of antiquity as great as those exhibited in Switzerland 
anrl Italy. The poems of the British Merddin or Merlin clearly 
indicate that the practice of building houses in the water arose 
out of the desire to escape from the superintendence of reform- 
ing rulers, who sought to abolish human sacrifices ; and, under 
the names of Gwenddoleu, Alban, and Cymro, he makes the 
Samlaites, Temenites of Eliphaz, and the Zimrites the upholders 
of the proscribed creed. There is no evidence that the Cymri or 
any other Celtic people took to pile villages ; when they desired 
to become builders, their structures, however rude, were of stone 
not of wood, and their foundation was necessarily the solid earth. 
The Greek stories of the Harpies and the Stymphalides, and the 
Persian one of the Simurgh, still further link the Samlaites, 
descended from Papha, wnth the water dwellings, and the Gambul- 
ians of Chaldea may thus be justly regarded as the representatives 
of that people. The Samlaites must have dwelt near lake 
Prasias, for the Sithones were there, to whose race Orpheus or 

"* The baskets of the Swiss Lake Dwellers are said to have resembled the Egyptian, 
their arrows to have been like those of the Mississippi Mounds, Smithsonian Re[)ort, 
18(10, p. 351. 


Kapha belonged, but they are not connected with the lake 
dwellers. The name Prasias indicates nothing, but another name 
of the lake, Cercinitis, and its position among the Odomantians, 
show that the Temenites in the line of Zerach had adopted the 
practice of the family with which they were anciently associated 
in Gebalene in the days of Samlah of Masrekah and Saul of 
Rehoboth. In Switzerland, lake Zurich preserved the Temenite 
Zerach, and the very name Helvetia is that of Eliphaz. This is 
proved by a statement of Plutarch thattheLigurianAlpini or Ilvates 
meeting the Helvetians in battle, they were mutually astonished 
to find their opponents using the same war-cry.--^ The men of 
Urba and the Tugeni, representing Rapha and Techinnah, dwelt 
beside these Temenites, and some Zocharites or Tigurini with a 
capital Aventicum. The lake dwellers on the Orinoco belong also 
to the Tamanac family, whose word for king is the same as the 
Libyan, Battus, and whose account of the creation of men and 
women by the fii-st pair throwing stones behind them is iden- 
tical with the story of Deucalion. In Ireland the water dwellers 
were the Damnii, and in Scotland the Damnii Albani, who were 
little known to the ancients, dwelling among lakes and 

The British Islands were largely occupied by Hittites, who 
were accompanied in their migration to the shores of England 
and Ireland by Celts, and by the Japhetic descendants of Geker 
whose languafje was Gothic. There was, therefore, no necessity 
for introducing a fictitious Hengist and Horsa to account for the 
gernianizing of their pojiulation. That the Pints were Iberic 
has long been suspected, and the same origin has been assigned 
to the Silures of South Wales. The Silures were northern 
Illyrians, whose settlements in Etruria and Liguria the Romans 
called Solaria. Alongside of these dwelt the men of Dyved or 
Demetia, a Welsh Tibhath, where the Brython or Briton, a 
northern Beerothito, made his appearance us the enemy of the 
Cymri. The Damnonii of Cornwall and Devon, e([ually with 
the Damnii of Scotland and Ireland, were Temenites ; and the 
l-Jiiifantes, who occupied a large region in the centre of the 

'' I'hitarcfi, Vita Marii. 
2* Richani nf Circiicster. 


island, were Iberian Zerethites. The name Pict is harder to 
locate. It is true that the British Hi ttites painted and punctured 
their bodies, as did the Thracians, Illyrians, and Iberians of 
Spain, but the word Pict has nothing to do with that practice. 
It occurs all through the Hittite area, from the Pactyans of the 
Punjab to Pictavum in Gaul. At times it appears to denote the 
Iberian Pasachites, when it is generally accompanied by Bimhal 
and Ashvath, names of the brothers of Pasach, and by Japhlet, 
that of their father. At other times it takes the place of the 
Basque name, which is generally restricted to the descendants of 
Paseach, the son of Eshton and brother of Rapha ; although the 
posterity of that ancient reformer are better known by such names 
as Khupusci, Schapsuch, Guipusci, Seepohskah. The statement 
of Ammianus Marcellinus that the Picts were divided into 
Dicaledones and Vecturiones is a very doubtful one, as the 
Caledonian name is either Celtic or Japhetic, in the latter case 
belonging to the family of Buz.^^ Most of the original tribes of 
Scotland and Ireland were Hittite. The renowned Milesians of 
Irish history were MaReshethites, and from them Ross in Scotland 
obtained its name. The Voluntii of both countries were Peltites. 
The Ottadeni or Gododin between England and Scotland were, 
as Aneurin shows, Hadadites of the Beerothite family. And 
Camelon, the Pictish capital, bore the name of Samlah, the 
Jumala of the Lapps and Finns. The Arthurian legends prove 
that the Hamathites had extensive settlements in England ; 
Scottish history is full of the Zocharite line of Jephunneh ; and 
the Irish stories of Labradh and the Tuatha de Danans assert the 
prominence in the Green Isle of the Ethnanites.. 

When we ask for the monuments of these wide-spread Hittites, 
the answer is disappointing. The traditions of the race this work 
has sought to collect in small measure, and to compare with 
geographical and tribal nomenclature, and with national or tribal 
customs. In Asia Minor a very few Phrygian and Lycian 
inscriptions have been found, besides the famous one of Merash. 
These are engi-aved not in the old Hittite hieroglyphics, but with 
conventional characters having- an origin similar to, perhaps 
identical with that of the square Hebrew and European alphabets, 

-'' AinTiiianus xxvii. 8. 


but possessing totally different phonetic values, syllabic in 
character. The attempt that has been made to read them as 
Indo-European alphabetic characters has signally failed, but the 
work of translating them by the Hittite syllabary is not yet 
complete. Enough has been read, however, to shew that they are 
Basque of an archaic kind, and that the Phrygian pertain to the 
Persian period, while the Lycian are recent and of the time 
of Grecian supremacy.-*^ Nothing meets the eye except the 
peculiar language of Albania on the Adriatic until Italy is reached. 
Of its many non-Italian inscriptions, the Etruscan and Umbrian 
only have been read. The former are in current characters 
similar to the Phrygian, and display a more elaborate form of the 
Basque language, not differing so widely from that now in use in 
the Pyrenees as to present any serious difficulties to the interpreter. 
The only historically important document is that contained in the 
Eugubine Tables, which are partly Etruscan and partly Umbrian, 
being the joint record of Herti King of Umbria and one of the 
Arretian Cilnii of their endeavour to suppress a rebellion of the 
colonies of both States. The Umbrian Tables are in Roman 
characters, and their language is archaic Irish, which it is a mystery 
that no one discovered before this time. There is also a book 
written by one Inghirami purporting to contain fac-similes of 
Etruscan documents, and a Latin commentary, which he found on 
his father's estate, having l)een buried there since the time when 
Etrui'ia fell wholly into the hands of the Romans. The work was 
retjariied as a foro^erv almost from the beo-inninsf, and the 
commentary has an undoubted flavour of Livy, but, on the other 
hand, there are indications, taken in connection with the recent 
discovery through the Hittite hieroglyphics of the values of the 
Etruscan charactei-s, that nobody in Inghirami's time possessed the 
knowledge necessary to forge such .i work. A complete re-ex- 
amination of the book ami an indicarion of what is genuine in it 
may soon be looked for. Till that appears, it is premature to 
mak<' any use of its contents. In Spain a few small inscriptions 
called Celt Ihei'ian ha\e been found Itelonging to the period of 
Roman occupatifMi under Scipio, and a large nund)er of coins 

'l"'\i'r, .\sii' .Miiifurc ; I'elloux, Lycia. 


inscribed with Celt Iberian characters.^^ Many similar coins have 
been found in the south of France, testifying to the high 
civilization of the Iberic states along the Mediterranean. The 
Celt Iberian characters differ little from tlie Etruscan, and are very 
like those on Parthian coins. Inscriptions exist, or have existed, 
in the Canary Islands, but these the writer has not had opportunity 
to examine. In Britain several runic inscriptions have come to 
light, which, until recently, have been attributed to invading 
Norsemen. Those that have been best studied are the monu- 
mental records of the Isle of Man, which, in ancient days, was a 
great centre of education.^o The letters are more elons-ated and 
rune-like than the Etruscan and Celt Iberian, but belong to the 
same series, and yield formulas and proper names thoroughly 
Hittite. Their age cannot be determined with any degree of 
certainty, owing to the chaotic state of the British, Scottish and 
Irish history in the light of which they should be read, but some 
of them seem to antedate the Christian era.^^ It is very probable 
that many of the runic inscriptions of Europe, which have been 
translated only to prove them historically worthless by the Norse 
staff, are not Norse but Hittite, and that important historical 
discoveries may yet be made by means of them. Even the famous 
Kingiktorsoak stone from Greenland may be found to honour 
the Hittite rather than his Norse masters.^^ There is, at any 
rate, abundant evidence that the Teuton and Scandinavian adopted 
the Hittite characters, and that these formed the basis of all 
northern alphabets other than the Roman and the Greek. Some 
writers maintain that America was peopled in part from the west 
of Europe. For this so far there is no evidence, but the deter- 
mination of the Greenland stone as a Hittite monument would 
do much to prove the possibility, even the likelihood, of such a 
colonization. Of European Hittites retaining their ancient speech 
the Basques form one division, and the Ugrians the other. The 
Akkadian cuneiform inscriptions have been read by the aid of the 
Ugrian (Finn, Lapp, Mordvin, Vogul, Majyar), but the purely 

29 M. Henry du Boucher of Borda, the President of the Societe de Landes is 
applying my process of interpretation to these. 
* Buchanan, Rer. Scot. Hist. iv. 18. 
:ii Trans. Celtic Society of Montreal, 1887. 
^2 Antiquitates Americanse. 


Hittite inscriptions are most easily rendered through the Basque. 
The tribes of the Caucasus have preserved this Basque Hittite 
fairly well, with the exception of the aryanized Ossetes. The 
Albanians of Illyria have only retained enough of the old tongue 
to shew that the Hittite was once in the land they occupy. All 
other European Hittites have been linguistically submerged. 



The Eastern Migration in Asia. 

Cyrus created a Persian empire Aryan in character, but in 
which there was not a single Aryan province. Its name was 
derived from the Pereshites, Parsi, or Parisii, a branch of the 
Celtic Zimri or Cymri, and its constituents were Celtic and 
Hittite, with a large unhistorical Semitic substratum. By the 
time that Persian domination came to an end with tlie conquests 
of Alexander of Macedon, the Persian languaoe and institutions 
had been carried from Asia Minor to Bokhara, but the people had 
not been unified. Alexander came and went ; the Seleucidae 
followed him as lords over the former empire of the Persians ; 
and then, in the middle of the third century B.C., and in the reign 
of the degenerate Antiochus Theos, a double rent took place, and 
the Bactrian and Parthian kingdoms came into existence. The 
first of these was Hellenic in character, although the people over 
whom its Diodoti ruled were Bakhdhi, Pukudu, or Pactyan 
Hittites. Till about eighty years before Christ the Greek rulers 
struggled in the east, and then the Hittites swept them away. 
But the Parthian kincrdom had nothincr to do with the Greeks. 
The Bharatan race, that had contended for the throne of Egypt 
and given it three Osortasens and the vice-regal Hadar and Shimon, 
that had placed Hadad and Saul and Hadar on the throne of 
Gebalene, that had reigned with Ismidagan in Babylonia, and 
with Chushan Rishathaim in Mesopotamia, and whose Hadadezers 
had lorded it over Zobah and Damascus down to the time when 
the second Tiglath Pileser began to destroy the Hittite kingdoms, 
reasserted itself after five centuries of obscurity. The Hittite was 
not dead, nor was he aryanized sufficiently to hinder his being 
influenced by the traditions of the past. The Parthians were the 
most numerous and warlike of the Hittite tribes of Persia, but 
tlicy were not the only revolters against Antiochus. The Dahae , 
Mardi, and Tochari, with many others, made common cause, and 


the leader of revolt was not even a Parthian but a Rassite bearing 
the ancestral name of Arsaces, like the Arish under whose name 
the Shah Nameh represents Ma Reshah. The next kint( was 
Teridates, an inverted Hadadezer, but in honour of his predecessor 
he kept up the Arsacid name. The Maspii or Mesabatae must 
have fallen into the league, for Mithridates, who3e name is com- 
pounded with that of Matred the daughter of Mezahab, was the 
sixth of the Arsacidae. The Rassites appear again in Artabanus, 
the house of Ras ; after whom many Hittite monarchs sat upon 
the Parthian throne and ruled from Asia Minor to India till the 
year 226 A.D., when Artaxerxes the son of Sassan rose in revolt 
and made Persia once more an Aryan empire. The Parthians, 
therefore, were the last upholders of Hittite sovereignty in the 
west. From what we know of the character of their monarchy 
there is no reason to lament its fall. It was built up on the old 
state system, its ruler being, like those of ancient Hittite days, a 
king of kings ; and the marvel is that with such a constitution it 
should have maintained itself for nearly five centuries. The over- 
throw of the Parthian empire must have set loose upon Asia 
and afterwards upon Europe those bands of roving warriors 
known as Alans and Avars and Huns, Lombards, Heruli and 
Vandals, the descendants of the Temenite Elon, the Zerethite 
Heber, and the Zocharite Jephunneh, of the Ethnanite Leophrah, 
the Achuzamite Aharhel, and the Temenite once more in the line 
of Bozrah. More quietly, the Moschi and Ras passed into 
Sarmatia and imposed their names of Muscovite and Russian, 
while horde after horde dashed itself like succeeding waves of the 
sea against the rising power of the Brahman in India, and, 
breaking, overflowed into the northern regions of Asia. 

Long before Alexander visited India as a C()n(|ueror the 
Hittite and Brahman had found that land of gold. It has lieen 
shewn how, back in Median days, the strife of the Aiyati 
or<{anizei's of new nationalities led to eiin'o-ration from the Persian 
empire. It is not likely that thcxse who then passed into India 
wei-e the tii'st colonists of that countiy. ('usliite and SJiemite 
liad doubth'ss found refuge thert; long ages before, but kingly 
rule ami historic (mipire (jnly began when the Hittite and his 
.Japhetic companions made it ilic'ir home. There is no trustworthy 


history of India, for the Raja Tarangini, full as it is of genuine 
historical matter, is as untrustworthy as regards its arrangement 
as Geoffrey's History of England or the Psalter of Cashel. There 
are other works that contain historical information, such as the 
two great epics so often alluded to, and the Puranas, but they 
deal with ancieht things, and with events that did not happen on 
Indian soil. Valuable for the history of the race, they tell 
nothing of the history of Hindustan. Monuments there are in 
India, inscribed with strange characters shewing analogy to those 
of Parthia, Asia Minor, and Etruria, but of a more ancient type 
than any of these. Ignorance of their Hittite origin has caused 
them to be re(;arded as ancient forms of the Devanao-ari letters, 
which probably they are, and to be read with similar values, the 
result being a language that is neither Sanscrit, Pali, nor anything 
else, but, like the ;so-ca]led Pelasgic tong-ue of the Eugubine 
Tables, whatever the decipherer chooses to make it. It is no 
wonder that these inscriptions afford no historical information, 
nor that, when they seem to do so, they teem with absurdities 
and contradictions, necessarily arising out of readings which, 
though false, have the merit of consistency. The work of 
deciphering these inscriptions as Hittite has only been begun, so 
that sufficient material for rewriting tlie history of India has yet 
to be procured. The kings who have left the inscriptions 
frequently call themselves kings of the Kita. Others are kings 
of the Saki or Shuchites, of Siberia, of the Tsutemames, Indian 
Zuzims or Chichimecs, of Aramaka, of Tsutaruki, which recalls 
the Elamite Sutruks, of Futa, of Mekisa, of Marwar and 
Bushiyama. The oldest inscription deciphered is 140 years later 
than the nirvana of Buddha or 403 B.C. It simply states that 
the Kita chose Nebutaki for their king.^ Twenty years later 
Tsumaki of the Sakis proclaims his accession to the throne ; and, 
twenty years after that, Kabutaku declares that in his person the 
Andataka line was superseded by that of the Sakis. There are 
several inscriptions relating to the Guptas who reigned over the 
Tsutarukis. It is vain, however, to attempt at present to give a 
history of the Hittites in India. 

1 Tliese translations have not yet been published, but the values of many of the 
Lat characters are set forth in Etruria Capta. 


If Gautama Buddha really lived, as all traditions assert, in 
India, and attained nirvana, or, in other words, died in 543, B.C., 
at the a^e of eighty, it is evident that there must have been a 
Hittite kingdom of Saki or Shuchite origin in that country as 
early as the end of the seventh century B.C., or about the time 
when the Assyrian empire fell before Nebuchadnezzar and 
Cyaxares. This is not unlikely, for the Shuchites, to whose line 
Ma Reshah belonged, were a warlike people, the determined 
enemies of the Egyptians who called them the Shasu, and of the 
Assyrian monarchs whose early records are full of contests with 
and victories over the Sukhi. Once driven out of Assyria and 
Babylonia, their wanderings eastward became continuous, for no 
track intermediate between the Tigris and the Indus a])pears to 
have borne their name. They and the Massagetae are always 
spoken of as the most eastern of the Scyths.- Ancient as they 
were, for Gautama was of their race, they were posterior to 
another tribe or family called Andataka, to which probably 
Nebutaki belonged, seeing that he was twenty years before the 
Sakis in Mathura. This Nebutaki speaks of himself as the choice 
of the Kita, whicli may mark him as a member of the leading or 
Achuzamite family. After its expulsion from Carchemish the 
chief Achuzamite line held sway in Hyrcania, and subse(]uently 
in Chorasmia, so that its lineal descendant, the kingdom of Oude 
with a capital Lucknow, must have been more recent, unless we 
suppose, what is not improbalile, that the royal Hittiti; family, 
tired of the Japhetic rule t)f Sagaras and Pisiris, betook itself to 
the Ganges there to exercise independent authority. 

Probaljly th(! oldest kingdom in India was that of Magadha, 
which seems to have been Bahar to the east of (Jude and south 
of Nepal. Thert' can be no universal emperor say the liiiulus 
but in Magadha which is the chief of the kingdoms.'* In its old 
capital liajagriha, to the south and a little to the ciist of I'atna, 
are the I'cmains of the .Jarasaiidli ka IJaitliak oi' throne of 
Jarasanillia. On that tlu-one in the time ol' lluddlia reigned 
})imsai'a oi- Vimbasara and his son Ajasat oi' Asoka, aecoi'dnig to 
the Buddhist traditions. The i-rligious i-ef"oi'mer, li()\\<'\ cr, who 

- Hi-rodotus, I'liriy, Stralin, Ariiaii. 
H.', .Manual ..f r.n.l.lluMn. 


became the first Buddhist king, and set up inscriptions in the 
old Hittite character called the Lat Indian, terms himself 
Tsurama, and indicates that Asoka was his religious name. It 
is likely that Asoka is the Japanese yasungi, to preserve peace. 
He and Gorami, who may have been his brother reigned 240 
years after Buddha, and belonged to the line of Tsumeki which 
commenced 160 years after the death of the Indian sage. No 
reliance, therefore, can be placed upon the statements of the 
Buddhist histories. The Indians anticipated by many centuries 
the falsehood of some modern philosophies, which has given rise 
to all sorts of mythic theories, that the idea is everything and the 
fact of no importance. The original kingdom of Magadha was 
one that had been transferred from Megiddo on the Kishon in 
Palestine to Maachah north-east of Lake Merom, thence to a 
Massagetic region in northern AfFghanistan, and finally to the 
banks of the Ganores. Here then we find the Massagetae with the 
Sacae. The Kenite genealogy makes Pelet son of Jachdai the 
founder of this kingdom which bore the name of his son Maachah; 
the sons of Maachah given are Sheber, Tirhanah, Shaaph, and 
Sheva ; and from the two latter came Madmannah and Mach- 
benah. There is apuzzling statement of the Kenite scribe or his 
interpreter to the effect that Maachah was the father of Abi 
Gibeah, or that Sheva was, or that Sheva, besides being the 
father of Machbenah, was also the father of Gibeah or Gibegah. 
This Gibeah is the same as Gibeon whose wife was Maachah, 
and from whom the family of Saul was derived.* Tsumeki, the 
ancestor of Tsurama or Asoka, calls himself a Saki. He must, 
therefore, have dethroned the rightful kings of Magadha, who, 
taking the name of Sheber the eldest born of Maachah, called 
themselves kings of Sibir and Kita. Such an one was Pala 
Humara the son of Hoshrori : his descendants named Siberia. 
Returnino- to Tsumeki, he is the Susunas'o of the Mahavansa or 
History of Ceylon, the only ancient history, besides the Raja 
Tarangini, that India possesses.-'' He is said to have headed his 
dynasty seventy-two years after Buddha, which is eiglity-eighb 
years too early. But between liim and Asoka the usurping 

* 1 Chron. ii. 4i) ; comp. viii. 29. Tins complicates the genealogy of Saul. 
^ ,M:ihavaiisa, Intrnd, xlvii. " 


Nandas are placed, and these may be the Andataki kings of the 
inscriptions, who for a time displaced the Sakis, as the Sakis had 
displaced the true Magadhas. The Mahavansa, however, places 
Asoka 224 years after Buddha, which differs by nineteen only 
from the statement of his inscriptions. The Vishnu Purana 
makes the kings of Magadha begin with Pradyota, who is the 
ancestral Pelet from the borders of Egypt and Palestine, in 
2100 B.C. Then after 138 years came the Sisunagas for 360, the 
Nandas for 100, and the Mauryas for 137.^ As the first of these 
Mauryas is Chandragupta, and the third Asoka, the chronologi- 
cal value of this history is evident. In a somewhat mutilated 
inscription from Mathura in Agra, Tsurama calls himself the 
lord of the world and king of Tsuteraame, Futatami, Marwar, and 
Bushiyama, dating his document 240 years after Buddha. 
Here then is a Hittite monarch whose sway extended over the 
greater part of northern India, from beyond Patna in the east to 
the Indus on the west, und if 543 B.C. be Buddha's true date, 
contemporary with Seleucus Nicator. 

The Indian king whom the Greek writers place in the time 
of Seleucus is Sandracottus who reigned in Palibothra. In defi- 
ance of Ptolemy's measurements, which set Palibothra much 
farther west, it has been regarded as an ancient Patna. Moreover 
Sandrabates, which as a tribal name may be supposed to connect 
with a Sandracottus, is placed above Methora or Mathura and 
thus to the west of the Jumna. Alexander the Great did not 
advance farther than the extremity of the Punjab, so that he had 
no opportunity of meeting Tsurama's predecessor. That prede- 
cessor is called Fune on the monuments, one of his dates being 
242 after Buddha, so that Tsurama, Gorami, and he, must have 
Vjcen contemporaries.'^ General Cunningham mentions this king, 
calling him Wem or Wen, which are renderings of Vun in Yun- 
kao-ching, the niune given by the (Jhinese to. the great Scytliic 

'' Vishnu Puraiiii. 

^ All tlie iiiscriptii)iis here f^ivcn arc fi-Diii vol. iii. of the An'im'olo^ical Survey of 
India or from a i)a|)cr by Professor I )o\v.son in tlu' Journai of th(; Iloyal Asiatic Society, 
New Sfrii's. vol. V. In the former Tsunieki's is No. 11 Plate \iv. Nehutaki's No. 14 
Plate xiv. and Kahutaki's No. 18 Plate \iv. Tiie iiis(Ti|ition of 'J'surania mentioned 
ahove is No. 10 in the same plate. 

X .Vrch. Sur. India, vol. iii. Plate xv. .No. IS. 


conqueror of India who extended his empire far into the east 
and the south.^ The Chinese historians say that the king of 
Sogdiana in the beginning of the seventh century A.D. traced his 
descent from Shaovu Wen of the Yuechi horde, as did ten other 
princes. His coins also have been found in large numbers 
inscribed in Greek characters OOHMO or Wemo. This Wen or 
Fune calls himself a descendant of Tsuraeki, but Gorami who 
claims to follow Fune, says that that monarch was the son of 
Varma and the grandson of Kufuri.^'' Now the Raja Tarangini 
makes the wise king Avanti-Varma the son of Sukha Varma, 
and the grandson of Utpala.^^ Neither Utpala nor his son 
Sukha Varma actually reigned in Cashmere, although they, as 
regents, exercised almost absolute authority, but Avanti was 
raised to the throne. Yet the Raja Tarangini mentions neither 
Tsurama nor Tchandragupta or Sandracottus. Several inscrip- 
tions mention a line of kings called Tsutaruki or Sutruk, which 
the Greek would naturally change to Sandruk as he changed 
Zoheth to Sundes and Gedor to Centaur and Gandar. In an 
imperfect inscription from Mathura the line of the Tsutaruk 
kino's is Qfiven.^^ Fune or Wen is mentioned amonof them as a 
recantino' kingf, which must mean that he recanted his idolatry 
and became a Buddhist, for this, and another inscription also 
from Mathura, state that Fune's father Viripa, which must be a 
surname of Varma, and his son Watsureba, a surname of Goi-ami, 
were idolators.^^ The first inscription is of late date, for it ends 
with the statement that Vicrara broke in pieces the authority of 
the Varmas over the Kitan. There is a dated inscription of 
Vicram, the Vicramaditya of history, in which he states that he 
ruled in the city of Mathura, that he called his people to exter- 
minate the Tsutaka Sakis, and to serve his heir Yofumi in the 
480th year after Buddha, that is to say in the year 63 B.C.^* The 
Tsutaruki inscription calls Yofumi by the name Gupta, as 
Yofumi Gupta, and places him 226 years after the great chief 

^ Arch. Sur. \,. 44. 

1" Arch. Sur. PI. xvi. No. 21. 

" R. T. iv. fil. 714. 

1-' Arch. .Sur. India, iii. PI. xvi. Xo. 22. 

13 Arch. Sur. India, No. 24. 

'< Arch. Sur. India, Pi. xiv. No. 12. 


Tsutaru, which would set Tsutaru 289 j'ears before Christ and 
make him posterior to Tsurama.^^ The Varinas were apparently 
usurpers over the Tsutarukis, while the Guptas were their law- 
ful kings. An inscription of Takadova Gupta states that he was 
king of the Tsutarukis and successor of Yofumi Gupta.^** 

A synchronism is vainly sought for in the son of Gorami 
named Varma Bikko or the lame. He was not king, his authority 
coming through his consort Sena, the daughter of Basara or 
Bagsara of Futa, so that he was gomvari or regent for their son 
Parta. No dated monument of Bikko or of Parta has been read 
so far, but as Gorami, the father of the first and grandfather of 
the second, was contemporary with Tsurama about 800, B.C., their 
history must lie within the third pre-Christian century. The 
Raja Tarangini places Nirjita-Yarma or Pangu, the lame, and his 
son Partha in the year 908, A.D. Japanese history reduces this 
somewhat, making Bourets, who is the same Parta or Partha, 
ascend the throne in 499 A.D.^' The agreement between the 
tales of infamous cruelty told of these monarchs in the Indian 
and Japanese histories has already been referred to. From the 
few inscriptions available, it appears that Parta, son of Varma 
Bikko and Sena, called himself king of Futa, which was the 
kingdom of his maternal grandfather Basara or Bagsara, a claim 
which was contested b}" Bagori, probably a son of Bagsara. An 
inscription from Sravasti .says that Parta treacherously attacked 
the peaceful Bagori king of Futa, whereupon Rataha Varma who 
seems at that time to have been the Indian suzerain, sent liis 
generals Kumiri and Metori against Parta and his father. A 
second Sravasti inscription .says: "Rataha, the powerful king: 
Kumiri and Metori conquered Varma Bikko the father of Parta. "^'^ 
The first inscription from Sravasti reads, " Metori a{)p()ints 
Satakwata : having treacherously attacked Bagori the jieaecful 
ruler of Futa, as an offset to this victoiy the rule ovt'r the 
Tsutaruki is taken from Parta." The Japanese history mentions 
Matori as ona who had gov*Tned the empire before the tiiiic of 
Bourets, and who after his accession relicUed but was coiiiiut'i-f(l 

' -Vrch. Sur. India, I'l. xvi. No. 22. 

" -Arcli. .Sur. India, I'l. xvi. .\.,. 2;i. 

'" Tit^inK^>, -Vnn.'il.s. 

'" Thi'.-^f Srava>ti in-^criptiiais ap'- in I'mffssnr howsi.n's paixT. 


and put to death. The Raja Tarangini makes no mention of 
Metori in connection with Partha and his father, but places him, 
under the name Matri Gupta, in the year 118, A.D., as the 
lieutenant of the universal monarch Harcha or Vicramaditya over 
Cashmere to succeed the brothers Hiranya and Toramana. Harcha 
himself is said to have held his court at Ujein in Malwa, but it is 
hard to reconcile him with Rataha or Artaha Varma. A long but 
defective inscription of Rataha Varma says that he took Pala 
Humara, the king of Sibir and Kita, prisoner, and describes 
Rataha himself as the king of the Tsutemame or Achuzamites. 
It also mentions the death in his time of Sagara king of 
Aramaka, and refers to Cashmere, but a break in the inscription 
makes it impossible to say in what connection. Its date seems to 
be 312 after Buddha or 231 B.C.'^ The conquest of Sibir and 
Kita was made in retaliation for the act of Hoshrori, king of these 
regions or peoples, who had, as we learn from another inscription, 
conquered the Tsutemame. Hoshrori was the father of Pala 
Humara.-*^ Rataha called himself king of Sibir after his conquest, 
for a third Sravasti inscription reads : " Sataswata saluting 
Rataha, desires to inform him of the death of Satakara the father 
of his servant : Sataswata, the successor ot Satakara of Aramaka, 
the subject of the father king of Sibir." Sataswata is not the 
same person as Satakwata, whom Metori placed over Futa instead 
of Parta, for a Mathura inscription makes the latter the son of 
Kumiri the companion in arms of Metori.-^ 

These excerpta from the inscriptions suffice to indicate that 
Hittite monarchy began in India in the seventh century before 
Christ, and that, down to the Christian era when the Guptas were 
reigning, the monarchy was still Hittite. An inscription of Rataha 
Varma's makes an enigmatic statement regarding the relation 
between the cycle or era of the Saki and the age of Buddha, 
causing them to differ by 61 years. Grammatically it reads " the 
age of Gautama is 61 years more than the era of the Saki," but as 
Gautama was himself a Sakya or Saki, these 61 years should 
rather be added to his 543 and make the Saki rule begin in 

li* Arch. .Sur. India, iii. PI. xiii. No. 6. 

-" Arcli. Sur. India, No. 4. 

-' Arch. Sur. India. I'l. xiv. 15. 


604, B C.2- The Sakis were plainly usurpers on the throne of 
Magadha, which, equally with that of Oude and of Sangala of the 
Cathaei in the Punjab, pertained to the Achuzamites, who in the 
inscriptions are called Tsutemames and made the chief people of 
northern India. The Egyptians had called them Hyksos and 
Gagama, the Israelites, Zuzim and Zamzummim, and the 
Assyrians, Gamgumi. In Mexico they became the Chichi mecs, and 
are now represented by the Shoshones of the Rocky Mountains. 
Their Japanese name was Tsuchigumi or earth-spiders, and they 
are set forth in history as enemies of the early monarchs of 
Japan. -^ The Sakis, whose royal line was that of the Varmas, 
called themselves kings of the Tsutemames, and fought against 
the kings of Sibir and Kita, whose name Sibir declares that they 
were the rightful' lords of Magadha. Having conquered these, 
the Saki kings reigned over northern India till the time of Vicram 
or Vicramaditya in the first century B.C. He brought the Saki 
and Varma rule to an end, and established that of the Guptas. 
The Gupta line is one that presents difficulties. In itself the word 
Gupta at once recalls the Persian Kobad, the Cappadocian name, 
and Jabez or Igabets the original term from which they were 
derived. The Etruscan Kupido, a masculine proper name occur- 
ring on many monuments, and that of a god impropeily represented 
by the Latin Cupid, is the same. Madhava Gupta and Matri 
Gupta are names that explain themselves by Mezahab and 
Matred, who belonged to the family of Jabez. But the inscriptions 
agree with history in jnaking the head of the Gupta line in India 
a certain Tsutaru or Tchandra, who is also the chief of a people 
called Tsutaruki. Some Susian texts contain the name Sutruk 
or Suti'uk-Nakhunte, son of Halludus and kinjxof the Susians in 
the time of the Assyrian Sargon. His son was Kudur-Nakhniite 
who worshipped Lagamar or Laoiner, so that the name Sutruk 
appears to lielong to the Hepherites of Beth Leciiem.'-'* No ancient 
alliance makes phiin the association of the words Tsutai'uki and 
Gupta. Sandracottus or Tcliandra (ilu])ta was the eoiitcnqtorary 
of Seleucus Xicator. The date tlHl) ij.C, which is given in the 

-"- Arch. Sur. Iii'li.i, PI. .xiii. No. (>, >,'rou|) to the. ri^ht. 

-"' TitHiiiifli, .\niialis. 

-* Ri-cords of the I'list, vii. 81. 


inscription containing a list of the Tsutarukis, must, therefore, 
refer to the year of his death, for Seleucus died 280 B.C., and his 
contest with Sandracottus was in 310. The mysterious Tsurama 
also called Asoka may have been contemporary with Sandracottus, 
although his inscriptions contain the dates 803 and 300 B.C. It 
is unlikely that two great kings ruled at the same time in northern 
India, and monumental evidence shews that the Guptas became 
vassals of the Saki Varmas and remained such till the time of 
Vicram; while it also declares that Tsurama ruled from Magadha 
to the Indus and, therefore, over the kingdom of Sandracottus, 
which lay about the Jumna and other western tributaries of the 

The information furnished by the Greek historians concern- 
ing India is scanty in the extreme. The recorders of Alexander's 
expedition make Taxila the first city of any note which he 
encountered.-'' This oriental Thessaly was an outpost of the 
Zocharites or Tochari, indicating that they were late arrivals in 
India. While in the friendly Taxila, an embassy from the 
Abissares or Abiezrites, who dwelt in Abhisara, which the Raja 
Tarangini places south of Cashmere, visited the conqueror and 
tendered the submission of that people. But Porus, king of an 
unnamed country Ij'ing about the Hydaspes or Jhelum, opposed 
the progress of the Greek, and was overthrown. It is there that 
Ptolemy places the Caspiri and the Indian writers, the Sauviras. 
This, therefore, must have been the region of Sibir and Kita, over 
which Pala or Para Humara afterwards ruled, and the Porus of 
Alexander shows that Para was a hereditary title. The Palas or 
Paras retook Magadha, their ancient home, long afterwards in the 
Christian centuries. Between the Hydraotes and the Hyphasis, 
or the Ravi and the Beas, the Cathaei of Sangala made a stand, 
and with them the Oxydracae and the Malli. The first named 
were Hittites under the Japhetic sway of the Gekers who had a 
city of their own in the north-west called Peucela or Abichail. 
The Malli were perhaps the Mahalaites related to the Abiezrites 
or Abissares ; and the Oxydracae seem to be the same as the 
mystei'ious Tsutaruki or Sutruks. Alexander took Sangala, and 
afterwards followed up the Oxydracae and Malli, but did not 

a Arriaii, Curtius, etc. 


extend his conquests beyond the Punjab although he had heard 
of powerful monarchs in the east. Justin says that he was about 
to proceed against the Cuphites, probably the Guptas, when his 
army, tired of marching and fighting, declined to go any farther.-*^ 
Other authorities state that the Indians reported the existence of 
a great kingdom on the Ganges bej^ond a desert of twelve days' 
journey, which could send to the field two thousand war chariots, 
four thousand armed elephants, twenty thousand cavalry, and 
two hundred thousand infantry, the king of which is variously 
called Xambranes and Agrammes.-^ The latter name would suit 
Tsurama. While Megasthenes resided at the court of Sandracottus 
as the ambassador of Seleucus, there obtaining the information 
which the Greeks possessed concerning India, the king of Palibothra 
told him that if Alexander had pushed on to the Ganges he would 
probably have defeated Agrammes, wdio was a barber's son 
indebted to his good looks for his union with the reigning queen, 
whom after his marriage he basely put to death, on account of 
which and other acts of tyranical cruelty, his army was in a state 
of general disafiection. The barber part of the story is told 
against Sandracottus or Tchandragupta himself by Indian writers. 
Their account is that the last of the Nanda kings had by his 
legitimate wife Ratnavati nine sons, Nandas like himself, and, by 
a Sudra woman called Mura, Chandra Gupta and his brothers. 
The latter were called Mauryas after their mother : but a Maurya 
is the son of a barber and a female slave. After his father's 
death Chandra Gupta contended with his half-brothers, the 
Nandas, and received assistance from a Brahman named Janakya 
or Kutalya, who longed to requite the Nandas for an insult of 
which they had been guilty towards him. The Brahman over- 
threw the Nandas, and placed Chandra Gupta on the vacant 
throne. That the lazy Brahmans w^ere in India at the time of 
Alexander and Seleucus is witnessed by Megastlienes, who tells 
how these revered sophists exercised priestly functions and 
walked among the p(M)ple in naked dignity, frc'e fi'om all 
obligations, living gratuitously on the fat of tin; land. Janakya 
seeins to be the same person as Sisunaga or Susunago, and the 

-' Justin xii. H, 10. 

-'" l)io(i. Sic: CuitiuH. 


Tsuraeki of the inscriptions. After Megasthenes, another envoy 
was sent to Allitroehidas the son of Sandracottns, named Diaina- 
chus, and then nothing more is heard of India till the time of 
Antiochus the Great, who made peace with king Sophagasenus 
about the year 210 B.C. 

The other Hittite kingdoms mentioned in the inscriptions 
are those of Futa, Aramaka, Marwar, Mathura, Bushiyama, and 
Makisa. Most of these countries, perhaps all of them, were 
under the sway of Tsurama, and afterwards of Rataha Varma, 
but Vicram is the first to call himself king of Mathura. The 
name of Mathura is very old, for it denotes a city occupied for a 
time by Krishna, who was driven out of it and compelled to take 
refuge in Dwaraca."^** The only ancient name that answers to 
Mathura is Hamath Dor. In the classical scheme of geography, 
Methora on the Jomanes lay to the north of Agra also called 
Adis-dara ; to the south of it flowed the river Samtus, and below 
it dwelt the Mathae. These seem to be oriental Hamathites, 
whose name is given in Samtus, Mathae, and Methora, while 
Agra sets forth Ezer, and Adisdara, the Rechabite Hadadezer. 
The Bharatas were the great Indian race, so honoured by the 
Hindus that they call the whole of their country Bharata Varsha; 
nevertheless the Bharatan name does not appear in any of the 
incriptions read. Parta or Pharta, however, was the grandson of 
a king of Futa, where dwelt the Futamame or Futa people, and 
himself assumed sovereignty in that country. The Vindhya 
mountains to the north of which Ozene, the present Oojein, is 
placed in the country of the Mathae, bears the Futa or Pandu 
name first borne by Bedad the father of Hadad. Oojein itself is 
probably a memorial of Achian the son of Shemidag or Ismida- 
gan, the last Beerothite monarch mentioned in the Kenite list. 
Vicramaditya reigned in that city, and the Palibothrian region 
connected with Sandracottns and the Guptas was somewhere 
between it and Mathura. Bushiyama is harder to locate. It 
should stand in intimate relation with Futa and Mathura, as 
these contained the people with whom Japanese ancient history 
deals, and as Bushiyama appears in Japan as Fusi no yama, the 
highest of its mountains. It is a great pyramid in the island of 

-*' Mahabharata. 


Niphon on the borders of the provinces of Suruga and Kai, the 
summit of which is covered with perpetual snow, and which is at 
the same time the most active of the Japanese volcanoes. In India 
Bushiyama was probably a Himalayan country. The word 
yama means a mountain, and the very names Imaus and Emodi, 
by which the Himalayas w'ere known to the Greeks, were forms 
of Yama and Yamato, the mountain and the mountain door. 
The name Bushi probably appears in Becius, the Greek name of 
a range in the north of Gedrosia, named by the Hamathite Gedors 
in eastward migration. Marwar still retains its name, being part 
of Ajmere. It is inhabited bv the Rathore Mahrattas, the Rudras 
of Sanscrit mythology, and the lineal descendants of the British 
Arthur or Jered the father of Gedor. They regard themselves 
as the descendants of the Persian Nushirvan or Nauzer, who is 
no doubt their ancestor Ezer. The rajah of the connected 
Meywar has the kesJikeh or symbol of royalty drawn on his fore- 
head with human blood, a practice repugnant to the Hindu and 
characteristic of the Hittite. Mekisa the kingdom of Gorami 
cannot yet be determined. Aramaka was under Satakara and 
Sataswata, names that belong to the Andhra kings of India, 
among whom appear Satakarni and Skandhaswati.^'-* Pliny 
mentions a powerful nation of the Andarae upon the Ganges. 
The Andhras became the rulers of Magadha shortly before the 
Christian era. Krishna is said to have been the second king of 
the Andhra line ; and Sakrisma occurs in an inscription of Rataha 
as a king of Aramaka. ''' Now the kingdcjm of Oude has not 
appeared in the inscriptions, which is hardly consistent with its 
fame in Indian story. Rama was its great hero, and lie has been 
identified with Harum the son of Regern, who as Loknian or 
Lakshman is the eponym of Lucknow, and at the saiac time 
the ancient Krishna. Raniiiagui- opjxisite Beiiaix's,andmanyneigh- 
bouring places similarly named, sugLjcst that ( )u<l(\ stretched some- 
what be3'<)nd its present proportions, was the ancitMit Araina of the 
Aramaka or Aivuiiak, thus re])resenting the seiiioi- line of the 
Tsutemames or Zuzim. 

From the time of Tsuraiiia, and even prior to it, since 1^'une or 

v;i Fcrj,'-us..ii's I'lssay an Imiiaii ('AivinnAni^y. 
" Hiival Asiitlic Siicv'.-, .Iiiuiiial. 


Wen is represented as having professed a faith which his father 
and son alike abjured, Buddhism began to contend with 
Brahmanism. Although there is no reason to call in question the 
existence of prince Sidhartta son of Sudho-dana king of Kapila 
and his queen Mahamaya, who gave up rank and fortune to 
become the apostle of peace and self-abnegation early in the sixth 
century before Christ, it has been shown that he preached no new 
doctrine, but the same that descended to Pythagoras in the 
western world from Paseach the son of Eshton, an ancient 
Sudhodana, and the Pthah Soccari of the Egyptians. Sidhartta 
if a Sakya was not indeed of the same family as Paseach, the 
Buddha Sukra of the east, for the Sakyas belong to Achashtari's 
Shuhite horn, and Paseach to the Chelubite, but he was like him 
a Kshattriya, the member of a caste scarcely less honourable than 
that of the Brahmans, and whose one occupation was war. The 
traditions of ancient days, when Pthah of the handsome face, as 
the Egyptians called him, and his son, the princely Job of Uz, 
followed in later days by the Beerothite Saul of Rehoboth, went 
forth among the Hittite tribes proclaiming human brotherhood 
and putting down with a strong hand the bloody sacrifices that 
defiled the altars of the ancestral gods, were still fresh in the 
memories of the descendants of those who had sympathized with 
their lofty mission. The memory of these reformers came to 
Sidhartta while reflecting upon the uncertainty of earthly 
prosperity, and the reality of old age, disease, and death. He did 
not pretend to be original, but allowed that there had been 
Buddhas before his day, far back in the past, and that he was 
going to walk in their steps. He did more than this, for he had 
before his eyes the Brahman priest, proud as Lucifer in his 
stoicism, ready at any time to curse and destroy, but pi'iding 
himself most on his external shew of humility, and acting the 
mendicant while the treasures of the world were at his feet. He 
would out-Brahman the Brahman, and change a crown for an 
almsbowl, and live in all cleanliness and decency such a life as 
would shew men how to mortify the flesh and renounce the world. 
The act of seli'-(lenial is always respectable, even when it is 
(juixotic and productive of no results. With Sidhartta the result 
was the attainment of merit, whereby he would raise himself 


above the sphere of humanit}' and become divine. Brahmanism, 
which was at first mere pagan idolatry, the worship of many 
Hittite, a few Horite Egyptian, and some Japhetic Jerahmeelite 
ancestors, who had been men of power, in ancient days when the 
world was young, for good or evil, taught Sidhartta the doctrine 
which their historical theology plainly declared, that many men 
of the past were the gods of the present. The Brahman also 
taught that his own person was divine with its own inherent 
holiness as god-descended, and through the practice of the 
ostentatious virtues in which he delighted. The young prince 
had come somehow to the heretical conclusion that a Kshattriya 
was as good as a Brahman. How could he help it; were not full 
three -fourths of the Brahman deities Hittites like himself, and 
who among the Hittites was greater than the Kshattriya ? Out 
of such reasonings and questionings arose the Buddhist theology, 
which is virtually a declaration that there is no theology, because 
there are no gods; such gods as there are any man may become 
by the practice of virtue. It is a strange thing that the morality, 
the humanity, the self-devotion of the former Buddhas were so 
well remembered, while all forgotten was the great God of Job, 
and the Lord of Heaven to whom Saul of Rehoboth lifted his 
heart and h-mds. The purest morality next to that of tlie Bible 
is that of Buddha's code, spite of its absurd enactments regarding 
all sorts of life, and not unlike it is that of the Golden Verses of 
the Pythagoreans. It is no disparagement of the men who could 
ajjpreciate such systems to tell the truth, and say tliat they 
came down from distant ages. We may laugh at the sanctity 
of the lives of animalculae, at the transinigration of souls, 
and other absurdities: may reprosc the vii-tne of refined self- 
love which dwe-lt in hearts that never went out of tlunuselves, 
but ('ver checkc'il new additions to the pile of merit as a cierk, 
with book in hand, might iiote the goods that come in to till 
his shelves : we may shmldei- at the thought of a unive:-se in 
which men oidv i'(-ign. call them Ihiddhas, or Pase l->u<ldhas, or 
whatevt-r elst; you please : but when we see all India at war, men, 
like demons, burning, ravaging, desti'oying. enslaving, cutting 
each other's throats, and ])riding thejuselves on the ])yramids of 
skulls liefore their doors and the bunches oi' scal])> dangling by 


their sides, we may thank God for Gautama Buddha. As the 
apostle of peace, young Sidhartta was Paseach and Job and Saul 
repeated after a thousand years, and takes rank as one of the 
world's great reformers. 

The Hittite elements of India's population were favourable to 
the revival of the ancient systems, being largely Achuzamite, 
Hepherite, and Achashtarite. There were, however, hostile 
elements among them, but these were of small account compared 
with the hostility of the Brahman. Wherever Buddhism was 
preached and the people entered the path of merit, the Brahman's 
occupation was gone, with his sanctity and his living. It was an 
appalling thought to the Brahman that he would have to work for 
his daily bread, that his lifelong holiday masquerading was 
coming to an end. He had been so long the real lord of the 
simple-minded and superstitious Hittites that he could not 
realize their dispensing with his valuable services ; yet here was 
a prince of the warrior caste of the Kshattriyas calling upon his 
countrymen to end the solemn farce which they and the 
Brahmans had acted for ages together. From Cashmere to 
Gujerat, and from the Indus to the Brahmaputra, they spread the 
message to resist Buddhism to the death. But in spite of their 
opposition the new doctrines found their way among the Sakis. 
The oldest inscription translated, that of Nebutaki, 140 years 
after Buddha or 403 B.C., by the very mention of the sage's 
name shows that this king had adopted the creed of peace. 
Twenty years later Tsumeki of the Sakis tells the same story, as 
does Kabutaku after another period of the same duration. 
Tsutaru was apparently a Buddhist, but Viripa obeyed the 
Brahmans and set up the old gods. His son Fune or Wen came 
back into the Buddhist fold, but Watsureba, his successor 
apostatized like his grandfather, and bitter were the wails of 
the Buddhist priests, now grown as idle and worthless as their 
Brahman predecessors and antagonists, over these defections, 
that lost them many valuable gifts. Then it was that Tsurama, 
king of Magadha, a parricide, a great warrior who had subdued 
tlie whole of northern India, caring little apparently for 
Alexander or Scleucus, repented of his evil deeds, became a 
patron of Buddhism and changed his name to Yasuka or Asoka, 


the giver of peace. He set up inscriptions all over the land, of 
one of which the following is a tentative translation.^" 

" Hear, I pray, the desire of the mighty Asoka ; pardon do ye 

See, violence has divided the kingdom, the violence of 

sti>ength ; within cease law and justice ; alike are lord 

and king. 
Leave the assembly of the doers of violence ; avoid the com- 
pany of the measurers of strength. 
Hear, I pray, the desire of the new king named Asoka the 

mighty : to you pardon is ofFered.^^ 
The violent years are ended : let the unhappy years end 

now, let them end forevei'. 
The violent years, O the violent years, blushing I despise 

them ; let there be years of pleasantness. 
The violent years, O the violent years, blushing I despise 

let pleasant years and years of peace remain. 
As the house lord hearing the housebreaker guards the door 

so do ye lock Buddha's gate. 

Do I pray what the amnesty defines. 

Hear the desire of the great Asoka of which the writing 

efives information. 
Cease to imitate the wicked customs of the unrighteous. 
Take to yourselves individually the confession which the 

writing has given. 
Do not deliberate (procrastinate) I pray : accept pardon 

Let all repentant ones accept universal pardon freely. 
Obey the amiable lord : I pray you listen to the desire of 

the mighty Asoka. 
See that ye leave the false gods ; for pardon, I pray you, 

obey the wish of the great Asoka. 
Leave the seductive rites of evil, despise their secret sports. 
He who (juits the army of the powerful will obtain protection 

from him who is the loi'd. 

'" Royal Asiatic Kocy's .(ounial. 
'' Tlir; original means " nicknanifd " Asoka. 


Hear ye who delight in delusive lust, and give up the sweet 

rites of wickedness, 
O, do ye forsake these evil rites : Tsurami, the rightful owner 
of the kingdom of the Sakis." 

This inscription makes it plain that Tsurama or Tsurami was 
in earnest on behalf of peace, purity, and humanity. Sidhartta's 
teaching bore fruit at last after 240 years, and very lovely fruit, 
had there only been a God behind this blessed gospel of free 
pardon to every blood stained-wretch and degraded votary of 
worse than bestial divinities. The gods had not changed, for 
Mexico with its human holocausts is yet to come. The iniquity 
of Canaan was filled up. Now India's cup is brimming over. 
Honour to the royal warrior who, repenting his own evil deeds, 
and seeking the better life, stems the tide of iniquity, giving 
to his wide-spread subjects' the Buddhist gospel, since he has not 
the Christian to bestow. 

From the time of Tsurama Buddhism became the religion of 
all northern India, and found its way into Thibet, China, and 
distant Ceylon. According to Japanese history, it was introduced 
into Japan about 550 A.D., in the reign of Kinmei, but this is a 
mistake, for the Japanese were in India and received the new 
creed before the reign of their king Bourets, the Parta of the 
monuments and the Partha of the Raja Tarangini.^^ ^he 
struggles of Buddishm with Sintoism or pagan idolatry form 
important chapters of Japanese history for comparison with that 
of Hittite India. The kings of Saurashtra or Gujerat are 
supposed to have begun their reign about 157 B.C. by some 
writers, by others, a hundred years later. They represent the 
Zerethite line of Jesher which must have accepted Buddhism, if 
indeed Buddhism was accepted by it, with a very bad grace. The 
Zerethites were the earliest Hittites expelled from India, for they 
are found in the Loo Choo archipelago, in Mexico as its first royal 
line, that of the Toltecs, and in Peru, as the Incas. Everywhere 
they appear to have been hostile to Buddhism, as they were in 
ancient days to the humane creeds of Jabez and Saul of Rehoboth. 
The Brahmans during these dark days for their creed, took refuge 
in the south, in Gujerat, and with the Guptas who had no love for 

^^ Titsingh. 


Buddhism as a rule, although some of their petty kings adopted 
it. The Brahmans also drew together and formed a nationality 
of their own, losing their character as priests and a Hittite high 
caste. War was waged outside of India proper by the Sakis. 
Uniting with the Parthians in warfare against the Greek Bactrian 
kingdom, which might have proved a refuge for the Brahmans, 
and a formidable rival of the Magadhan kingdom, they broke it 
into fragments in the year 127 B.C. One principality remained 
in the Hindu Koosh north-west of Cashmere which, in the time 
of Menander 140 B.C., had extended its sway far into India. 
Against this the Hittite tribes warred incessantly, and, about the 
time of Yicramaditya, it came to an end, and the Brahman was 
isolated from his Japhetic brethren. Meanwhile the Guptas had 
been nursing their wrath against the Varma dynasty of the Sakis. 
Yicramaditya or, as he calls himself, Vicram arose in Oojein which 
properly belonged to the Futas or Bharatas. He is called a Hindu 
or Brahman by the historians of India, but, in his proclamation 
at Mathura calling for the extermination of the Sakis, he names 
Yofumi Gupta as his successor or heir. This proclamation is 
dated the 480th year after Buddha or 68 B.C., at the time when 
the Parthians were contending with the Armenians and the 
Bomans. The reign of the Sakis came to an end, and for a time 
Brahmanism was re-established. It is, therefore, more than likely 
that the Brahmans aided the Guptas in their revolt, and that the 
Saki overthrow is to be regarded as a Brahman victory. 

This victory was of short duration. Vicramaditya is said to 
have been assassinated, and there is no independent record of the 
reign of Yofumi Gupta, but two inscriptions of his successor 
Tokadova Gupta contain an injunction to his people the 
T.sutarukis to enter the Buddhist path.^' A period of upheaval 
now set in, of which no trustwoi'thy particulars have come down. 
Hittite tribes from beyond the Indus and from tlie Ijanks of the 
Oxus and Jaxartes, those that Buddhism had expelled into 
Tartary, those that had become discontented with vXnnenian and 
Parthian rule, descended, now tliat the strong hand was gone, 
that union was lost and dissensions had weakened the governments, 
upon the civilization that had (le\-eJoped dufing the years of 

'-'' Arcli. Sur. of India, vol. iii. I'l. xvi. No. 23 ; I'l. xviii. I). 


peace ; and these successive waves of Yuechis, Tokhares, and other 
so called Scythic tribes, which are mentioned as if they were the 
only Scyths that India had known, built up new kingdoms on the 
ruins of the old. The Yuechis, to judge by their coins, seem to 
have brought with them a degenerate Mithriac cult, such as the 
Magi had instituted in Media. The American Yuches originally 
of Georgia claim to be children of the sun ; their most ancient 
town was Kofita and their name for one of their race is Kawita.^* 
According to Chinese history the Yuechis or Yuettis were in 
Cabul a century B.C., and a Chinese emperor concluded a treaty 
of peace with them.^^ Were th^y not the ancient Jahdaites, 
represented in America by the Utes of Utah as well as by the 
Yuches of Georgia, and thus the genuine Guptas or Jabezites, 
seeing also that their art is identical in character with that of the 
later Guptas ? The Brahmans, although active, had not succeeded 
in putting an end to Buddhism. In the end of the fourth century 
A.D. a Chinese Buddhist monk Fahian visited India, the holy 
place of his religion. He found almost the whole country 
Buddhist, with Brahman heretics here and there, who were no 
longer priests but merchants, writers, seamen, working like other 
people for their living : there was not a Brahman kingdom in all 
the land.^^ In Java and the adjoining regions, however, the 
Brahmans propagated their faith. ^'' Two later Chinese pilgrims 
in the sixth and seventh centuries report the decline of Buddhism 
and the degeneracy of its priesthood ; yet even in the seventh 
century the Brahman states were few and small. The monastic 
system was the cause of the overthrow of the religion of peace- 
It reproduced the worst features of ancient Brahmanism, and, 
spite of the gorgeous ceremonial of the religion, lacked the dignity 
that attached to the Japhetic recipients of charity. The 
Brahmans also, having betaken themselves to work, and becoming 
engaged in the activities of life, forced also as students by the 
success of Buddhism to remould their creed and create new 
philosophical systems or revise the old, gained by these means a 
hold upon the minds of the intelligent and the respect at least of 

"* Gatschet, Migration Legend. 

"'' Foe Koue Ki ap. Trover, Raja Taiangini ii. 447. 

" Fa Hian, Vjy Beal ; Hwen Thsang, Julien ; Foe Koue. 

''~ Crawford's Indian Archipelago, ii. 207. 


those who could not appreciate their teachings, but who could 
compare them with the stupid owlish creatures that ministered 
in the Buddhist temples and whose everlasting alms-bowl they 
knew only too well. They did not trouble themselves with the 
victories of Buddhism in the past, since the violent years to blush 
for were no more, and they did not see from what the religion of 
Gautama had delivered them. Contented to judge the tree by its 
present crop, they saw that the fruit was very worthless, and 
cared not how soon the stem that bore it was cut down. A 
religious war began in the south where the Brahmans were 
strongest, and spread to the north where the Mahrattas, recalling 
the glory of their ancestors the Maruts of the Brahman pantheon, 
took up arms against the men of peace. The strife continued 
until, in the end of the tenth century, the Mahommedans entered 
the land, soon after which Indian Buddhism became extinct. The 
Brahman triumphed in the east as in the west, imposing his 
language or dialects of it on many tribes of Hittitc origin, driving 
the remnant, that would not leave the land wliich their race had 
held for a thousand years, into the mountain and the jungle, 
and guarding the passes of the Himalayas against the return 
of the Hittite host that had shaken the dust of India from 
their feet and had passed into the north, wanderers upon the earth 
once more. 

Independent and Chinese Tartary are full of the geographical 
records of the Hittites, but their history in these regions is yet to 
write from Chinese and Mongol sources. Khiva tells of Ziphites 
in the north, Aral and Karakal of the line of Aharhel, and the 
Mongolian Doerben Oeroet meet us on the way as Hittites over 
whom the Mongol even triumphed and whom he reckoned among 
the triVjes of his race. No certain point is reached until we arrive 
in Siberia at the head waters of the Yenisei, where a miserable 
remnant of the Khitts still dwells, and at Sibir and Tni-uchausk 
that commemorate the Shebcr and Tirchanah wlio founded in 
distant Palestine the original Magadha kingdom. The n>gion 
about the Yenisei is one of mouiuls like Eui-opean Seythia and tiie 
valleys of the Ohio and the Mississippi. The Khitun dead were 
Vniried there, and from thcii* tombs many objects oi" art attesting 
an ancient art<l peculiar eivilizution, havi! heeii taken. ( )n 


individual stones and on rocks by the river side inscriptions were 
made by the scribes and artists of other days, that resemble more 
closely the Sinaitic written rocks and those of America than any- 
thing else. Happily they are not only mere pictographs of 
hunting scenes rudely executed ; many are in characters coarser, 
freer in style, yet analogous to those which the Hittite has left in 
India. They are brief yet intelligible, and their language is 
hardly different from the archaic Japanese of the Indian inscrip- 
tions, nor does it differ materially from the Japanese written 
language of to-day. But they are Buddhist, so the Kenite must 
have thrown himself into the Buddhist movement, devoting his 
art, as a royal scribe, to the service of the servants of Gautama. 
How great a wooden civilization reared itself upon and about the 
mounds we cannot tell, nor have we data on which to erect a 
commencement for it. The historian must first be the epigrapher 
and tell what the wandering Hittite has to say about himself. 

The authors of the inscriptions in the Yenisei mound country 
were the Raba Kita, also called Kita ga Raba and Rabamame, 
which mean the Raba of Kita and the Raba people. The inscrip- 
tions mention as a hostile people the Futamame, using to denote 
them the same term that appears in some of the Lat Indian 
inscriptions. We have found the Futa in India representing the 
Bharatan race in Oojein, and have seen the Varma Sakis dethron- 
ing the usurping Parta, whose grandfather Bagsara had been king 
of Futa. They may in migration be the same people as the Pety 
of the Chinese historians, who regarded the word as one of Chinese 
oriofin meanincf northern barbarians. It included as a designation 
the Khitan, the Hi, and the Mokho, and did not come into use 
till the seventh century A.D.^ But the Mongolian and Thibetan 
authors, who mention the Mongols prior to the time of Jenghiz 
Khan, call them Bide or Bede, and do not seem to have been 
indebted to the Chinese for the appellation. It is said that a 
revolution having taken place in Thibet in which the prime min- 
ister put the reigning prince to death and seated himself on the 
throne, the three sons of the murdered man fled to other lands. 
These were Borratschi, Schivaghotchi, and Blirtii Tschino. 
According to Japanese story the dynasty of Nintok became 

S'* Klaproth in Titsingh, Annales, and in the San Kokf. 


extinct in the person of the cruel Bourets, whom, as Parta of 
Futa in India, Rataha Varma dethroned. Biirta Tschino the 
youngest son went to Govangbo, but, mistrusting the Govangbo 
people, he left them, crossed the sea called Tenggis, and came at 
last to the great water named Baikal. There about the Borchan 
chalduna mountains he met the Bida. They questioned him as 
to his origin and he informed them of his direct descent from 
many illustrious lords of Enedkek or Hindustan as well as from 
the Thibetan Tuehl. Thereupcm the Bida people consulted 
together, and at last said : " This youth is of noble birth and will 
make a beginning for us, let us exalt him to be our prince." So 
they made him their prince and obeyed his behests. -^'-^ The con- 
stant association of the Beerothite name with Futa and Bida, and 
the fact that the name of Hadadezer is found in Japan as Zada 
Akira, and among the American Iroquois as Atotarho, evidencing 
a Beerothite element in the Japanese and Iroquois populations, 
tend to prove that Futa, Pety, and Bida, arc the same word as 
the Kenite Bedad and Sanscrit Paiidu, reproducing in Asia the 
Betah which was counted with Berothai as a chief city of the 
Hadadezers of Hamath Zobah. Their appearance in Mongol his- 
tory, in which also the Doerben Oeroet or men of Arba have a 
place, suggests that the Mongols were a hybrid race, consisting of 
mingled Hittite and Japhetic (Jerahmeelite) elements, which did 
not become physically' fused into typical Mongolism until after 
the time of Kublai Khan. This, however, is but a passing sug- 
gestion. These Futa-mame are represented as the enemies of the 
Raba Kita, a people whose violence was feared by the worshippers 
of Buddha, who protected the funeral convoys of tlieir chiefs with 
armed bands when passing through the Futa country to the place 
of sepulture. The Futa, therefore, nuist have renounced the 
Buddhism piofessed by their ancestors in India. 

To determine the Khitan family wlioiii the Ral)a (jr iVrba 
Kita represented, the monuments nuist be consulted. One of 
these reads as follows : " Tiie temple attendants of Buddha ])r('- 
sent a petition, to lionour Buddha Anata, to king Sakata. The 
youthful consort (A' Sakata ha<l destroyed the foundation of the 
round house. The disci))I<'s r)f the; law desire the re-ci'cction of 
''> Kliiprotli, Asi;i l'..lygl.itt:i. 'J';!. 


the broken ruin. To proclaim Buddha Anata, the righteous king 
Sakata convoked the poor and the rich. To him who gives three 
days labour, Buddha promises to overlook the united deeds of 
three hundred years. Sakata acquires discipleship the 970th 
year from the death of Buddha. The Baba people are convinced 
by reason of (the doctrine of) peace." This important document, 
which belongs apparently to the early days of Khitan monarchy 
in Siberia, for no king with dated record older that of Sakata 
has been found, shows that Buddhism, to which we are indebted 
for these monuments, was struggling to maintain itself. It also 
indicates, along with other inscriptions, that it was the practice 
of the Khitan kings of Siberia, as of those in India and Japan to 
associate with themselves in royalty the taishi or heir apparent 
who became a Cajsar to the monarch's Augustus. Such a taishi 
was the youthful consort who had destroyed Buddha's round 
house and him Sakata seems to have survived. In another 
inscription Sakata is said to have lived more than ninety years 
and to have been succeeded by his grandson Matome, whom 
Jidzuta followed. Makuba is given as the name of Sakata's 
widow. An inscription without date tells of warfare, and of 
Buddhist priestcraft in making use of the widow of the slain king- 
to obtain contributions for the support of the disciples of the 
alms-bowl. " King Kumida overcame and destroyed king 
Yosuno. Attend to the prayer of the writing, the letters which 
Matoriki, the wife (widow) of the lord of the kingdom, granted 
to be engraved. Four peaceful years (she spends) in special 
retirement, relying on the promise of Buddha that she will meet 
her lord. The writing announces loss (a calamity) : a high wind 
has destroyed the temple. The widow desires contributions to 
repair the temple of Buddha. Let there be peace." A similar 
request is made by Batoba, the widow of the warrior Sasu and 
mother of his successor Nobagu with the usual promise of an 
indulgence, but in this form, that he who gives five days work 
will be regarded as having offered six hundred prayers. We 
have thus the fact of a Raba Khitan dynasty and people holding 
the upper waters of the Yenisei early in the fifth century of the 
Christian era. It is also seen that Buddhism prevailed among 
them and that they were the enemies of the non-Buddhist Futa, 


to whom, although it is not stated, Kumida the slayer of king 
Yosuno, belonged. He may have been a Beerothite Shemidah. 
The Raba royal names masculine are Sakata, Matome, Jidzuta, 
Yosuno, Sasu, and Nobagu, and the feminine, Makuba, Matoriki 
and Batoba.**^ Sankata is the name of a king of Cashmere who 
appears among the Varmas, and Sangata finds a place in the 
Maurya line which was headed in Magadha by Chandra Gupta 
but which speedily fell under the power of the Varma Sakis. On 
a sandstone rail from Buddha Gaya in India the name Sankuta 
appears as that of a descendant or successor of Gorami.^^ No 
Raba is known in Hittite history as a Shuhite ancestor, but 
Kapha belonged to the allied Achashtarite line of Cheiub, and his 
son Ishhod, as the ancestor of the people of Sughdha, or the 
Sogdians, might furnish the name Sakata. Buddha is called a 
Sakya, but his father Sudhodana bears the Chelubite name 
Eshton. It is likely, therefore, that the Shuhites, being the most 
extensive of the Achashtarite tribes in the east, srave their name 
to all of them, and that the comparatively small body of the 
Hammurabites or Khanirabi, known in India as the Kamarupas, 
was thus classed with the Saki. Their original abode in India 
seems to have lain between Sogdiana and the western part of 
Cashmere, the Darvabhisara of the latter country representing 
the Abiezrites of Rapha, and the Sogdians of the former, the 
senior lino of Islihod. This identification of the Raba or Siber- 
ian Re|)]iaiiu with the Sakis of India is in harmony with the 
Buddhist account of the ancestral monarchs from whom Gautama 
descended, which includes Chetiya, Upachara, and Mucliala, or 
Ishhod, Abiezer, and Machalah, the sons of Samlali and grand- 
sons of Rapha. The Varma name, for wliicli in one placu' that 
of Viripa or Virupa is substituted, will thus be akin to tlic 
Sanscrit Ijribhu as a name of Ribhu or Orpheus : and the Raba 
Khita or Raljamame coi-rcspoiid to the Esthoniaii liajipigunda 
and the Hauimui-abi of tlie cuneifonn legends. It must have 
been a gi'eat mcjral victoiy that ])rought the descendants of (he 

<'^' Si), Journal of the Iin|..Tiiil Suci<-ty ..f (J-'uirriipliv. St. i'l^tiTsburK, vol. \ii. 
]>. Ill, scq. : Other iiisc:ni.ti<iiiH coll. (t<(l l.y M. \'l. ^'.luf.lo^ of St. INtrrsliui>; for tli.- 
autlior. Tli>'.-'' W'Ti' iinpci'fi'C'tly ;iii(l vrry iiicorii'ctl\' ti-;iiislat<'il sDiur yi-:iis :ii,'o li.'foi'c 
thi- luitlior had stu'licil tho Indian inscri]itioiis which h'ad up t" tiicni. 

' Arch. Sur. of Intiia, iii. I'l. xwi. 


man-devouring Simurgh and Harpy into the peaceful path of 

We can now decide with tolerable certainty that the Raba 
Kita were driven out of India by Vicramaditya shortly after 63 
B.C., when that monarch issued his edict for the extermination 
of the Sakis, and revived the empire of the Guptas of which the 
Saki Varmas had deprived them. The Futa cannot have been 
long in following the worshippers of Buddha, for the same Vicram 
reigned in their capital Oojein. Taking refuge in Thibet and 
Tartary, new exiles from India gradually drove them northward, 
until, in the beginning of the fifth century, they reached Siberia 
and there established a civilization, the nearest approaches to 
which are the Scythic to the north of the Black Sea and that of 
the American mound builders. How long this Yeniseian Raba 
kingdom lasted we have at present no means of knowing. They 
were not the first of the Khitan in northern Asia : the Jephun- 
nites or Huns had preceded them. These Jephunnites, the 
Armenian men of Van, the Aven of the Bible, were known to the 
Indians as the Yavanas, being recognized as a tribe of Bharata 
Varsha or Hindustan. In some lists of the inhabitants of Bharata 
Varsha the Hunas replace the Yavanas, and they are generally 
thought to be the same people. The name Yephunneh became on 
certain lips Vun, on others Wun, as the Chinese Yun represents a 
more ancient Wen. This gradually, through the Greek Gun, 
assumed the form of Hun. The Huns first appear prominently 
in Europe in the middle of the fourth century A.D., when they 
pressed upon the Goths from the east and compelled them at last 
to seek shelter within the bounds of the Eastern Empire.^- But 
in Chinese history the Hiun-yu are mentioned in the time of the 
Shang dynasty, which is said to have reigned between 1766 and 
1234 B.C.*'^ If at such an ancient period the Chinese came into 
contact with Huns, it is certain that they were not then natives 
of what is now China. A more reasonable date is found for the 
appearance of the Hiong-nou,who were contemporary with theHan 
dynasty, between 163 B.C. and 196 or 220 A.D. It has already 
been intimated that part of this dynasty, called that of the 

*- Gibbon, Decline and Fall. 


Eastern Hans between the years 25 and 220 A.D., exhibits 
evidence of having been itself a Hunnic line of invading princes, 
in its royal names Hoping, Heping, Hingping, and Yuni'pinfi-. 
When expelled from China, the Hans took refuge eastward in 
Japan and westward in Armenia, the old home of the Vans. The 
Japanese annals state that the Hans arrived in their islands 
about 300 A.D." It is incontestable that the Jephunnites 
colonized Japan : the very name Japan, or Niphon its nunnated 
form, plainly declares the fact. But before entering Japan they 
almost of necessity passed through Corea. The Coreans were 
known to the Japanese and neighbouring peoples as the Hans. 
Their chief tribe or nation was called Kaokiuli, and derived its 
name from Keilah or Kegilah the Garmite son of Naham.^'' A 
little confusion arises from the change of r to i in the word Hazor 
or Chazor which became the property of the Jephunnites in 
northern Palestine at the time when Israel conquered the country, 
for as Hazol or Chazol it is not unlike Kegilah and may compete 
with it for identification with the Indian Kosol and Armenian 
Cozala. In the west the Huns were called the Khazars, and 
sometimes the Akatir. In Mexico the Corean Kaokiuli were 
known as the Acolhua Tepanecs.^** In Pontus of Asia Elinor, 
however, a distinction is drawn between Gazioura or Chazor, and 
Gazelonitis or the district of Kegilah.*'' It is evident that the 
Jephunnites preceded the Raba Kita of the Yenisei, and their 
conefeners, the Futa or Beerothites of Bedad and Betali in north- 
eastern migration. 

Tiiere were other tribes of Hittites that formed an earlier 
advance into the east. As we cannot tell wlien the Jephunnites, 
a remnant of whom Alexander found in Taxila, were driven 
towards China, nor what was the cause of their migration, so is 
it to a large extent with the Zeretliites. As Toltces they are 
mentioned in Mexican history the lirst of all th(^ Hittites; 
Chichimecs, Tepanecs, Zacatecs, Aztecs being later arrivals in 
Anahuac. They appear again in tin? Loo Choo islands us an 
out-post of the Japanese race. In India the Daradas were once a 

" TitKingh. 

<' Han Kokf, etc. 

^* I. <](! Bodrbiiurg 

" Stnihn, (tc. 


powerful people. They named the Zaradrus river in the Punjab 
and possessed Lahora, which was an oriental home of the Illyrians. 
Dellii was their foundation, a name intimately connected with the 
migrations of the Zerethites in Thibet, and the original of the 
Toltec Tollan. There was Kurukshetra or Thaneswar, which 
reproduced the original battle-field between the Kurus and Pandus 
of Gebalene. The Raja Tarangini tells of wars waged by the 
kings of Cashmere against these Zerethites, and, when Indian 
history dawns, the Futa or Pandus are found in occupation of a 
great part of the Kuru country, planting their Agra in the very 
midst of it. The Zerethites did not submit to Buddhism, and 
must thus have been the first to seek an abode in which human 
life was not valued, where they could carry forward the 
sanguinary rites of their forefathers. In Gujerat, an out of the 
way. region, they left a remnant of their race, while the main 
body, passing through Thibet and northern China, gained Corea, 
Japan, and the Loo Choo islands, and finally the shores of 
America, not alone but in company with a band of Hamathites or 
Amoxoaques who recorded their deeds. No monumental record 
of these Zerethites in eastern migration has yet been found : the 
Mexican annals alone tell their story. Yet in Siberia, Inbazk and 
Pumpokolsk seem to be records of Bimhal and Pasach, the sons 
of Japhlet; and the great desert of Kobi, that sent so many 
invading tribes into China proper, may have received its name, 
not from the Mongol but, from the descendants of their ancestor 
Ziph. When the Japanese arrived in their islands they found 
them already occupied by a peculiar race whom they called, after 
the Chinese, Mozin or hairy men, but who are generally known as 
Ainos. With them the Japanese had long wars which lasted into 
the eleventh century. Those who inhabited the Island of Yedo 
were called Atsouma Yebis, a name which seems to connect with 
Yebis-san-ro, the god of the sea.'*^ Yeso is the present habitation 
of the Ainos and its name is native, as is Nossabou, that of one 
of its bavs. Among' their islands also are found Mosiya, Mozia, 
Masaotsi, Motofa, Nayakoba, Yefaito. Their account of their 
orii^nn is that an aged couple came to the sea at Yesasi vainly 
looking for something to eat. In a dream they were told to stir 

""^ Titsinf(li, Annales ; San Kokf, 181, seq. 


the sea with a stick or oar. This they did, when a white froth 
or scum rose on the surface of the water, under which they founrl 
multitudes of little herrings called nisin. Satisfied with these 
they remained in the island, and had a great family of descen- 
dants. The old man received the name of Yebis, and his wife, 
that of Omba Kami ; and over their tombs temples were erected 
in their honour.'*^ This tradition is valuable as shewing that 
Yebis is a native name and not a mere Japanese title for 
barbarians. The language of the Ainos is distinctively Kliitan, 
resembling some Dacotah and other American dialects, but also 
showing curious analogies with the Berber speech of northern 
Africa. It is very likely that they are a mixed race, which has 
degenerated through ages of privation from a nobler original, and 
that a large AmmonoHittite element in the line of Jabez enters 
into its composition. Their names for man ainuh,gur, and oikyo 
are not peculiar to them, for hihnah and ivineha are Dacotah, 
eniha, anihuh and onhwe, Iroquois: ccari is Peruvian, heka 
Lesghian, agii Circassian, ickkiga Loo Chooan, oicckotsli Koriak. 
The Ainos may, therefore, be regarded as a branch of the Zuzim 
or Chichimecs, and the leaders in the eastern migrations of the 
Hittite tribes. 

Returning to Siberia which the Eaba and Futa tribes of the 
Khitan inhabited early in the fifth century, we acc^uirc by 
inference the story of a migration for which the oriental historians 
give very different dates. The Chinese say that the Khitan took 
Liao-tong, which lies north and east of China proper, in the year 
907 A.D., and from thence concjucred northern China, giving to 
it a Khitan dynasty and the mediaeval name Cathay introduced 
to Europe by Marco Polo. That these Khitan were the Raba 
Khita seems likely from the fact that the first of their eliirfs who 
became a king of any note in China was Slieketang, whose name 
is too like that of the Raba Sakata to be a mere coincidence.'"'^ 
Japanese history has naturally nothing to say of migi-ation, ])ut 
places Sagateno in the year (SIO A.l)., and makes his successor 
Otomo, a name not uidike the Matome of the inscriptions.-'' 

" .San Kokf, 212. 
'" fhitzlaff. 
1 TitHiiiKh. 


Turning, however, to Corean history we read that, in 685 A.D., 
the Khitan, who had dwelt for some time in Liao-tong, descended 
as an invading host upon the Corean kingdoms, took possession 
of northern Corea, and held sway there with changing fortunes 
till 1216, when they were expelled or subdued.^^ The Chinese 
historians do not make them disappear from Cathay till 1125. If 
we accept the Corean date, the Khitan must have been on 
the borders of China early in the seventh century if not before, 
so that their stay in Siberia cannot have extended over two 
centuries at the utmost. There must have been Hittite inscrip- 
tions, Siberian in character, in northern China, but, if they have 
come to light, no public mention has been made of them. The 
Raba Khita cannot yet be traced in the histories of Corea and 
Japan as Rabas, but in America they seem to have constituted 
part of that Dacotah family in which the Seepohskah or American 
Shapsuch, the Mandans are found, as the Upsarokas or Absarooke, 
the remotest of the Abissares or Abiezrites. These Indians generally 
known as the Crows were among the handsomest and most 
warlike of the American aborigines.^^ The Japanese, and probably 
the Coreaus also, have ancient inscriptions, but they have not 
been studied in the light of modern discovery, Japanese writers 
contenting themselves with efforts to set forth the modern 
equivalents of the ancient characters, instead of presenting fac- 
similes of the original documents.^* All, therefore, that can be 
asserted at present is inference from geographical and tribal 
names in Asia, taken together with the recurrence of the same in 
Mexican history, as to the successive waves of Hittite migration 
into the east, and the dates at which the older immigrants into 
Japan became, under pressure of the younger, emigrants towards 
the American coast. Thus we learn that the Jephunnites, though 
one of the earliest of the migrating tribes of the Khitan, must 
liave been one of the last to occupy Corea and the Japanese 
islands, inasmuch as they are now the chief inhabitants of the 
former, and, with the Hamathites or Yamato, the principal 
occupants of the latter. The oldest American colonies from the 

- San Kokf. 

Ciitliii, North American Indians ; Schoolcraft's Indian Tribes. 
'' Ban Nobutomo, on Ancient Alphabets. 


mainland of Asia cannot antedate by any lengthened period the 
rise of Toltec dominion in Mexico, which is said to have be^^un in 
721 A.D., although some accounts take it back to 717.^^ If we 
allow as long an interval between the beginning of the Mound 
Builder empire in North America and that of the Toltec monarchy, 
as elapsed between the period of Sekata in the Yenisei mound 
country and the establishment of Khitan empire in Liao-tong, 
China, and Corea, the beginning of the sixth century will be time 
enough to bring the northern Hittites to America. There seems 
to be evidence that the southern or oceanic Hittites of changed 
speech came to Guatemala and Yucatan at a much earlier period, 
but, as has already been indicated, the changed conditions of these 
semitized Hittites so complicate the story of migration as to call 
for separate treatment from the historian. 

Before proceeding to the western coast of America, Hittite 
tribes, other than those which passed into and through Corea 
and Japan, call for attention. Of these five remnants still 
remain in Siberia, including the Yeniseians, Yukahirians, 
Koriaks, Tchuktchis, and Kamtchatdales. All travellers among 
these tribes, who have had any knowledge of the so-called abor- 
igines of North America, have been struck with the surprising 
likeness between the two peoples in personal appearance, habits 
and arts.''*' A comparison of the languages spoken by these 
tribes of central and eastern Siberia witli those of the American 
Khitan confirms the connection thus established, althougli few 
comparative philologists have taken the trouble to make the wiile 
induction necessary for such a comparison. The Yeniseian 
Koleda and the Iroquois Kcnc.fa, each denoting a village, seem 
to be distinct words, but when it is discovered that Die chiei 
dialectic changes in the Khitan languages consist in tlie permu- 
tation of the li(iuids, tlie identity of the two words is at once per- 
ceived. The present Yeni-seians can hardly be the same ])e()ple 
as the Raba Kita of the inscriptions in their country. Tiieir 
name of Kenniyeng, and their original extension towai-dsthe ()bi, 
seem to mark them as Paseacb.ites in the line of ("lianoeh, and 
the Asiatic I'elatives of the Ivanienke oi' .Moliiuvks of .Viiiei-iea. 

" ]}. do liourbdurg. 

Ki'iitiaii, I'cnt liiff in Sihi ri;i. 


Farther to the east and north, dwell the Yukahiri on the banks 
of the Jana, Indigirka, and Kolyma. They call themselves Adon 
or Andon Domni ; their name for man is yada or yad/ti ; and 
they have two words denoting people, koonshi and toroinma. 
Their god is Chail or Koil. In point of language they have 
many affinities to the Tarahumaras of the Aztec Sonora family 
of America. The god of the Yukahiri seems to be the same as 
the Lesghian Saal or Zalla, who is the Kenite Saul and Mexican 
Quetzal, but they themselves do not belong to his tribe or 
nation, the Beerothites. They rather represent the Maachathites 
or Massagetae, as descendants of Tirhanah, the second son of 
Maachah, and their name of Andon Domni connects with Ma 
Dmannah rather than with Temeni. The distinctive character- 
istic of the Yukahiri is that they are good tailors, being expert 
in skin and bead work, so that the Tungus employ them to 
make their garments.^^ Still farther to the east dwell the 
Koriaks and the Tchuktchis, the latter extending to Behring's 
Sti'ait, which some of them frequently cross for hunting and 
trading purposes into America.^^ The Tchuktchis represent the 
widely dispersed Zochethites, and their name Tshekto is the same 
as that of the American Chacta or Choctaws. The legend of the 
Crawfish Band found among the Choctaws and some other 
American (Dacotah) tribes, is that large crawfish dwelt in ancient 
times in holes near the Choctaws and would not mix with the 
red men, but retired to their underground dwellings as soon as 
they appeared in sight ; some Choctaws lay in ambush near their 
holes, and when the crawfish came out to look abroad, cut off 
their retreat, upon which the crustaceans surrendered, had their 
claws clipped, were taught to stand on their tails which soon 
developed into feet, and were finally admitted into the Choctaw 
nation.''^ This tradition points to the reception of a foreign 
people into the Zochethite tribe, and the crawfish, which is the 
nearest North American approach to a scorpion, suggests that 
the Cecropian Jerachmeelites, the scorpion men of Babylonia, were 

''7 Sauer's Billing's Expedition to the Northern Parts of Russia. 

'^ Dall, The Origin of the Innuit, Smithsonian Contributions to North American 
Ethnology, vol. i. pp. 93, seq. 

'' Catlin, North American Indians ; Dorsey, The Myths of the Raccoon and the 
Crawfish, American Antiquarian, vol. vi. p. 237. 


the people thus admitted. Here then is another historical founda- 
tion for the story of the white man among American Indian 
tribes. The Choctaw story of migration through a region of 
intense cold, seems to indicate that the Tshekto made their way 
into America b}' Behring's Strait, rather than by the Aleutian 
chain or by a long sea voyage. The Schelagi who formed part 
of the Tchuktchis were their near relations, the Cilicians or 
Colchians, descended from the Charashim of Joab, the Kenezzite. 
The so-called Cherokees wdio call themselves Chilake, and whose 
language has its chief affinities with the Iroquois, probably 
represent this family in America. In Mexico they were known 
as the Chalcas. The Koriaks, on the other hand, worshipped 
Arioski the god of war, who is the same as the Iroquois Ares- 
koui, and at the same time, as the Greek iVres, and Ma Reshah 
the Achashtarite.*^^ In the Koriaks, therefore, the Georgians 
may be found rather than the Colchians, and their name comes 
from Korach, the eldest son of Hebron, the son of Ma Reshah. 
Closely related to them in speech are the Kamtchatdales, who 
call themselves Itelnion. Their ancestor was Tigil which is also 
the name of their chief river. His wife was Sidanka, and the 
parents of this first pair were Katchu and Katligith.'"'^ There is 
a strange mixing of traditions in this theogony, for Tigil is 
Zochar as Taxil, Deucal, Tiglath ; Katchu is Cheth : and Katli- 
gith is a Mexican-like fcjrai of Jerigoth, the ancestress of Talmai, 
whence the name Itelrnen. The Kamtchatdales must, therefore, 
be a mixture of Zerethites and Zoharites. Adding to these two 
stocks that of the Ethnanite Tchuktchis it would appear that 
the sons of Naarah had driven those of Helah into the north. 
The connection of Tigil an<l Itelnien is, however, very dd going 
l)ack to the time when Teucer son of Telanion soon aftei- the 
Tnjjan war founded Salaniis in CN'pi'us. The ])assngt,' from 
Kamtchatka to America was In' the Aleutian chain ending in 
Alaska. The great cause of emigration iVoni tiiat point, from 
iiorthein Siberia and from .Jai)an was tin- prcs^iiri' df In stile 
ti'il)es, a pressui'c whieh bfgan with tlie ex]iulsion ol' ;Miti-Huil(lliist 
ti'il)es fi'oni India befoi-e' the ( liii^tian Mra. but nt' wliicli tin.' 

^" .Miickiiitu-li, ()iii:in '.f rli.- .Xmtli Am. rii-aii lii'liiin-. t',I. 
' l'ricli:u->l, I'hy-icil lli-t-ry <il .M.uiLinil, n. II'.'. .-.,. 


tide does not seem to have reached the ocean until the beginning 
of the sixth century.^- This continued without intermission 
down to the time of Kublai Khan, far on in the thirteenth 
century. His great fleet, manned chiefly by Coreans and the 
tribes of northern China and Siberia, and consisting of four 
thousand vessels, which he sent to the conquest of Japan was 
dispersed by storms, and doubtless contributed an element to the 
population of America ; but the civilized inhabitants of that 
continent must have gone forth from Japan, as did those who 
colonized the Loo Choo and Meia-co-Shimah islands as deliber- 
ately banished exiles in large sea-worthy junks well manned 
and provisioned, to find an unoccupied land. Since 1782, no 
fewer than forty-one Japanese junks have been known to be 
wrecked on the coast of America, twenty-one of them since 1850. 
Some were deserted, but in most of them sailors were found who 
settled in the neighborhood of their wrecks.^^ Such being the 
case in recent years when the voyagers had no intention of com- 
mitting themselves to the eastern current., how much more likely 
is it to have occurred on a large scale in the times of upheaval in 
eastern Asia, when the hunted Hittite, tired of weary wanderings, 
ardently sought a far off" home in which he might dwell at liberty 
and in peace. The stories of revolt that occur frequently in the 
ancient annals of Japan are generally accompanied by tales of 
expatriation, which could only take place by sea, the very tide 
of which favoured the exile's cause, and wafted him rapidly to 
the new world. The Zerethite, it must also be remembered, was 
a seaman. As the Cherethite his fleet had swept the Mediter- 
ranean from Crete to Sardinia, and as the Illyrinn Dardanian, he 
was the dreaded pirate of the Italian and Spanish coasts. In 
northern Asia, rivers and lakes must have kept up his water 
training, but when he reached the open sea, the native instinct 
must have revived, even as the hen nurtured duck takes to the 
pond, and have led the Toltec across the broad Pacific, while his 
more timorous b)'ethren followed the Aleutian stepping-stones, 
or in a single day traversed the icebridge at Beliring's Strait. 
Thus with our eyes towards the world which we call western, but 

C- Miirkham, Arctic Papers, Geographical Socy, of London, lS7u. 
'' Allen, La tres-ancienne Aniericpie, Congres des Auu-ricanistes, 1877, i. ^l. 


which to the Hittites was the land of the rising sun, we leave 
the Asiatic shore in the track of these bold pioneers, turning the 
back upon the only two Hittite kingdoms that have withstootl 
the ravages of time and the assaults of unnumbered enemies, 
with the hope that Japan and Corea may eunilate in nobler 
fields of enterprise the heroic deeds of those great ancestors of 
theirs, who, when the Semite was a vassal and the Aryan a 
mercenary warrior or a juggling priest, reigned over all the 
nations as kings of men. 



The Hittites in America. 

The histories of Mexico and Peru, and the traditions of the 
Iroquois and other tribes of North America, have been found to 
illustrate early Hittite history. The American continent was 
originally peopled from two different directions, the one being 
the north-eastern coasts of Asia, the other, the Malay and 
Polynesian archipelagos. To decide the question of derivation, 
the first question to ask is philological : does the tribe or people 
make use of prepositions, and generally prefer the abstract term 
to the concrete, in language ? If it does, it is of Malay-Polynesian 
origin; if not, of northern Asiatic. Another question relates to 
habits and tradition : is the people maritime or fluviatile, and is 
its heaven an insular one ? Again if the answer be affirmative, 
.the people is one that has come from Polynesia; if negative, it is of 
continental origin. Consulting the ethnographic map, it appears 
that the American tribes of insular derivation have everywhere 
been displaced, for they are found in the eastern parts of the 
continent as Algonquins, Mayas and Quiches, West India Islanders, 
and Mbaya-Abipones. Who displaced them from their original 
seats on the western coast ? The answer is the more warlike 
tribes of continental origin, that, through many ages, poured 
southward from the arctic limits of Alaska to Tierra del Fuego. 
There is no reason for supposing the Algonquins to have been 
very ancient colonists of America, for remnants of the same 
oceanic migration still occupy the western coasts, but the traditions 
of the Mayas and Quiches of Yucatan and Guatemala indicate 
that they were the primitive tribes of Central America.^ It is 
<iuite possible, as some writers have asserted, that they arrived in 
the New World before the beginning of the Christian era, 
bringing with them their strange system of conventional 
hieroglyphics that has puzzled so many investigators, and which 

1 V>. de Bourbourg, Nations civilisees. 


betrays relationship to the characters found on Easter Island and 
to the most ancient Chinese symbols.^ These tribes also brought 
with them traditions relating to the ancient period of Hittite 
supremacy in Egypt, Palestine, and Chaldea. Some of these 
traditions have been referred to in these pages, but this is not the 
place to consider them in detail. 

The first historical American people of continental origin is the 
great race of the Toltecs, whose monarchy was established in 
Mexico in the beginning of the eighth Christian century. The 
Quinames, Olmecs, and Othomis are supposed to have preceded 
them, but no nations of Quinames and Olmecs are known, and the 
Othomis have no history to speak of.^ The Toltecs are said to have 
come to Mexico by sea, but the same account is given of the 
Nahuatl, while the Chichimecs and the Aculhua Tepanecs are 
derived from the northern land of caverns in New Mexico and 
Colorado.'* That the Toltecs did come by sea, that is by a long 
sea voyage from Japan, the Loo Choo Islands, or the Meia-co- 
Shimahs, is very probable, but the admission that they did so cuts 
down the antiquity of the American Hittites of postponing speech 
by two centuries, for the Chichimecs were posterior by two 
centuries to the Toltecs. Thus the Chichimecs and Aculhua 
Tepanecs may have worked their way southwards from Alaska 
during the eighth and ninth centuries, while the Toltecs were 
extending their empire over the Maya-Quiche inhabitants of 
Mexico. But Mr. Becker has shewn that the traditions of the 
Mexicans bring all their trilies, Toltecs, Chiehiniecs, Aculhua- 
Tepanecs, Nahuatlaes, and Aztecs from Chicomoztoc, the land of 
the gi'ottos, which is Cohjrado.'' The Toltecs, thert'fore, although 
they came by sea, must have touclied land, not in Mexico, liut 
somewhere on the Califoi'uian coast, and ha\'e theiiee passed 
south-east\vai'(ls into the region of ca\enis. The colleetoj-s of 
nativ(,' ti'aditions ha\'e not sullieieiit ly ilist inguishe(l the \ai-i>>us 
ti'ilx'S of th<; Khitaii, bjr tlie\' call the Toltecs by the ('hichiuiec 
name-, and at times i(lentiiV lln'iii with the Nahuatlaes, and cncii 

- Cmiis Tlioiiia-, .V .StU'iy ..f tli.- .Mainir-i ripl 'J'; I-.i.n ,!, lii.^ny, Cr.ilrx 
( '. I Um tiiii-. 

' l;. -i. I'...url...urt'. 
' J',, .1.- r,..ii,l,..niu. 
' Il'-.'-kir, (,'oi]^'iN -i lii--^ .\!ii> ricMiii'-t.--,, Is77, 'I'i'Ijm- i p. ;>->. 


go SO far as to unite their traditions with those of the Mayas and 
Quiches. The Toltecs were the Zerethites, some of whose posterity 
occupy the Loo Choo Islands to this day. The Chichimecs were 
the Zuzim, the Tsutemame of the Indian inscriptions, and of these 
the Mexicas and Aztecs were branches. The Nahuatl were the 
Nairi Achashtarites, represented in Siberia by the Raba-Kita. 
And the Aculhua Tepanecs were the Jephunnites, descended from 
Keilah, whose ancestors founded the Kaoli or Kaokiuli kingdom 
of Corea. The Hepherites were represented among these tribes 
by the Amoxoaques or Haraathites who acted as their scribes and 
learned men. 

The arrival of these successive Khitan waves drove the 
American tribes of oceanic origin into the east. The Toltecs found 
in Mexico and farther to the south a civilization of no mean order, 
that of the Maya- Quiche peoples, which in its architectural 
remains exhibits affinity to the ancient civilization of the Malay 
archipelago.*' From that region also they must have introduced 
maize to the American continent. Mr. Crawford says : "As far as 
a ma.tter of this nature is capable of demonstration, it may also 
be conjectured that maize was cultivated in the Indian Islands 
before the discovery of America,and that the plant is an indigenous 
product."'^ In Mexico proper the Toltecs superseded the Maya 
Quiche civilization by their own, the characteristics of which 
were Japanese, at the same time borrowing many elements of 
culture from the oceanic aborigines. Undue attention has been 
paid to these borrowed elements, the result of which has been an 
obscuring of the relationship of the Mexicans. Following a similar 
process, the ethnologist might derive the Japanese from China. The 
Toltec empire came to an end in the middle of the eleventh 
century, when it was superseded by Chichimec monarchy in the 
Mexican and Aztec, or Maachathite and Jaclidaite, divisions of the 
Zuzim. Coincident with the fall of the Toltecs in Mexico was the 
I'ise of the Peruvian empire of the Incas.^ A great Toltec 
civilization, outri vailing that of Mexico, arose in Peru and 
extended itself southward into Chili, lasting until tlie Spanisli 

'' Edinburgh Review, Ajn-il, 18(57, 341, iti whicli the temjile of Piileiuiue is coiii- 
jjui'd with tliat of lioro-Bodo in .Java Conip. Crawfortl's Indian Arehiiiela^'o, vol. ii. 
^ rndiaii Arcl)i])eLag'o i. 3()G. 
^ J'cruvian .Vntiquities. 


conquest. Descendants of the Khitan are found not onlv in 
Chili but also in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, i-xhibitiui,' in 
the last named region the same degradation that obtains in tlie 
Escjuimaux country in Arctic America. A tliird, intermediate, 
centre of culture ^vas New Granada. Its inhabitants were not 
Toltecs but Chibchas or Muyscas, belonging, therefore, as Mosclii 
and Cappadocians, or Meshechites and Jabezites, to the Ammono- 
Hittite line, which lived in degradation in Japanese Yeso as the 
Yebis. Their great god was Nemqueteba, a disguised Mezahab or 
Montezuma, and their ancient teacher was the bearded Bbchica, 
who came from Pasco and disappeared at Sogamoso, an occidental 
Paseach, Pthah, or Budha. Humboldt has shewn that their 
government by two monarchs, one of peace, the otiier of war, was 
the same as that of the Japanese.'-^ They had money also 
consisting of circular plates of gold, and built temples that 
contained stone columns. Connnodore Perry has also indicated 
the identity of the Muyscan and Japanese astronomical systems.'" 
The same Japanese analogies will be found throughout the whole 
of the Khitan area in America. 

On American ground no antiquarian subject has been moi-e 
largely discussed than the origin of the ]\Iound 13uilders. I'luir 
niMUii'is have been traced from British C'olundjia westwai'd to Mich- 
injui. but aboinid in the valleys of the Ohio and the Mississip])i, 
111 characler they ditl'er little from those of Silieria and European 
8cvthia, the dead wliom they contain l)eiiig burled in the same 
manner, and the oi>jt_'Cts that aceom])aii\' them l)eing of a similar 
iintui-e. In Wisconsin one of the mounds ha> the form of an ele- 
I'liant, and in aiiotluT near 1 )a\enport, Iowa, a pipe was found 
c;ir\c'd ill the form of an elrpliaiit. The (jUrstion has. then Tore, 
bci-ii askrd wlietlier tli<- I'liiM-'i's and niakiTs of thoc wci-r cmm- 
t'-iiiporar\- with the .Ma>todoii in Aiiifriea, of \\liieli tin- lrMi|ii.'is- 
aecordiiiu' t" <"u-iek, had a tradition, or whrthn- tlii'V l^r.Hi^ht 
iheii- kiiouh-d-i' of till' animal from ,-outle rii Asia." ("rrtainly 
thi'ir aiiee>tors knew lie- tdfphant well in India, and madi' ii><- o| 

l|;i!ni...!'|t'-. \'i. '.-- Mf XaiMI-.-. iL'';. Tli' -.Uii- H I lU' . .f I h. M 'l-k. .<.-. tM i^, < i]:i'.-;i>:'>ii,.i!.|. \'..\.i,-. a. >>: . 

I'.rrv, I'.S, i:\!.f.lili..n t'. .!:.|.aii. \-. 7-''. 
Sli.T', N.iitli Aiii'Mi-ui- ..I Anil ,iii'\ ; <'M-irk. lli-l-iv i tin' Si\ 
i;;.-].'li:ni! I'l]..- ill til.- Mm-' '111, -! til'- Ar i.|. ti \ .! N.aili:ii S.lcll.'. -, I >.. wn I " .1 1 . |..v. ,i. 


that animal in war. The Khitan sculptures in Mathura and other 
ancient Indian seats portray the elephant in many forms.^" It is 
to be remembered, however, that Mammoths perfectly preserved 
in the ice have been found in Siberia about the Lena, in the very 
midst of the Yukahiri and other Khitan peoples, who would thus 
have an opportunity of reviving their recollection of the gigantic 
animals that their more ancient artists loved to represent. The 
elephant pipe of Davenport has been most unjustly and on purely 
a priori grounds denounced as a fraud, and the same stigma 
has been attached to the inscribed stones that were found along 
with it. There have been archaeological frauds in America and 
in other parts of the world. Negative criticism is also a very 
easy process, involving little knowledge and less labour on the 
part of the critic, who by crying Fraud ! gains for himself a repu- 
tation for acutenes.s. The Davenport inscribed tablets are not 
frauds, and the same is no doubt true of the elephant pipe. The 
principal Davenport stone is engraved on both sides, on one of 
which a hunting scene is depicted, very much in the same way as 
in the Siberian carvings represented by Spassky.^^ The other 
sets forth a cremation or sacrificial scene, over which, in three 
horizontal columns, are semi-hieroglyphic characters furnishing a 
new Hittite sj'llabary, having well determined connections with 
the Corean alphabet and the Siberian and Mexican graphic sys- 
tems. The stone was found in 1877 b}^ gentlemen who were 
unacquainted with the Siberian inscriptions, and at a time prior 
to anv sufjofestion of Hittite remains in America. The second 
stone is called the Calendar stone, and in its outer circle contains 
twelve figures much obscured that appear to constitute a zodiac. 
The third exhibits the Q^gy of a chief, around whose head are 
several characters, those on tlie left reading, according to Siberian 
interpretation, Makabala. The name appears in the same form 
on the cremation tablet, and also as Balamaka, and he is there 
called the king of Temba. Two other Mound Builder inscriptions, 
tlie genuineness of which is vouched for by a comparison of theii' 
leffonds with those of the Siberian stones, are those of the Grave 

- Archaef)logical Hurvcy of India. 

" Account of the Uiscoveiy of IiiscriV)ed Tablets, Davenport, July, 1S7 


Creek and Brush Creek Mounds.^* Their hrevity and the absence 
of punctuation make them hard to decipher. The most import- 
ant Mound Builder document, from an historical pomt of view, is 
the Davenport effigy stone, for on the rio^ht of the chief's head is 
a date, which apparently follows the Lat Indian and Siberian 
mode of computation from the death of Gautama Buddha. It has 
not yet been satisfactorily deciphered. According to Iroquois and 
Algonquin tradition the Mound Builders were the Allighewi, who 
named the Allegheny range of mountains.^* They were, there- 
fore, descendants of those Alazones mounds Herodotus saw 
in European Scythia, and of Homer's Halizones, whom HodiuS 
and Epistrophus led from Alybe to the defence of Troy. They 
thus belonged to the Albanian, Ossetic, Alan, Amalekite, or 
Temenite tribe, which figures in Mexican history in connection 
with sanguinary rites under the names Tetzcatlipoca, Texcalte- 
pocatl, Telpochtli. In southern migration some of them named 
the Tallapoosa river in Alabama, and remnants of them are pro- 
bably to be found among the Maskoki tribes who dwelt in that 
southern region. Others were apparently driven far into the east 
by the Algonquins and the Iroquois, for, when the Norse explorers 
landed on the American coast as far south as Massachussets, they 
found the Skraellings or Esquimaux there, some of whom as 
Amalig-mut claim the ancient name of Amalek.^*' 

It would be an endless task to distinguish, in the numerous 
tribes of northern Mexico and the south-eastern States of the 
American Union, the ancestral stocks of Asia. The former con- 
stitute a group called that of the Sonora Indians, all of wliose 
alHnities are with the ancient Mexicans, and rr])i-cseiit oti'shodts 
of many Hittite ti'ibes.^" In the second group, so well treatrd by 
Mr. Gatschet, all that is not Algomiuin fShawano, etc.) is Hittite.'^ 
Tin; Choctaws ai'e American Tslicktoor Zocliutliitrs.aiKl tin- ( "Ihto- 
kccs oi- ( 'iiilakt- ai-e the Scliclagi of the western woi'lil, de.scciKlaiit.N 

'^ Tiif fir>t i-- wi-Il Iciiowii, haviii!,' lii-i-ii iiriLriii:i!l\- imhlislii'il in .Sciiui.lcr.iftV Iinlian 
Tril.i-.-. ami -iiic^- fp-i|U'-iitly r.-pr.xinc'Mi \,y ('.il.,ni-l Wiiittl.-^.-y in cnnl lilmt i.m-i to tli-' 
Hi-toric;tl Sricicty of .\. nt liiTii Ohio. Tin- 1 '.ru-li ('nri< St . .iir \v;i> iiii r. " Inc.' 1 I " liiv 

Iiotir,. l,y I'p.f.-.M,r Hil.l-ruf .St. Lolli.. 

lli-'-kc-Ui-M'-r's .\rc.,UIlt of tlli' lllr|inll~. 

l'-:tuvoi-, L>-^ Si<r.ii-lin;,'-. Rimh- ( i i>-iital.- .-t .Viii.Tir.iin.'. .I;m Mar-. Is?'.'. ]' > 
' I'.ii-rliiiialiii, S|;uriii (ii-i- .V/.ti'liiM-ln-ii S|iracli'ii 


of those Cilices whom Josephus places in Moab. The Taensas are 
probably transported Tohen or Tehinnaites, and their relatives, 
the Natchez, the descendants of Tebinnah's son Nahash. They 
should thus be American Nairi and count among them the Pasca- 
goula.3 or Paseachites, and southern representatives of the Raba- 
Khita of Siberia. The Pawnees or Pani are a remarkable people 
whose history has been told by Professor Dunbar.^^ That they 
are of Hittite origin is undoubted, but it is not easy to tell in what 
original tribe to place their divisions Chaui, Kitkehaki, Pitahaue- 
rat, Skidi, and Arikara. The names of their chiefs at once exhibit 
relationship to those of Khita-sara and Pisi-sara. Such a name 
is Pitale-sharu, which means, a chief of men, Larucukale-sharu, 
the Sun chief, and Skurarare-sharu, lone chief. The iirst of these 
acquired great reputation for putting an end to the human sacri- 
fices of the Skidi clan. To the north of the Sonora tribes dwell 
the Pueblos, Yuma, and Paduca Indians. The Pueblo dwellers, 
of whom the Zuni are the chief, revere Montezuma, but do not 
appear to represent any one distinct Hittite tribe. Their cliff 
houses would naturally link them with the Kenites, and the word 
Zuni sufyorests a connection with the Kenite or Hamathite Zanoah.^'^ 
The Yuma Indians appear also to be largely Hamathite, Yuma 
being an abridged Hamath, and the Coco-Maricopan tribe being 
a western representative of Rechab as Merkab. A similar word 
is Maracaybo in South America, but Peru, the land of the Amautas, 
furnishes Arequipa. Mingled with the American Hamathifces 
were descendants of Mezahab, for the Mojeves, with their god 
Mathovelia, belong to the same division.-^ The Paducas are a 
remnant and a very considerable one, of the Chichimecs. The 
present name of the Chichimecs proper is the Shoshones. With 
them are the Yutes or Jahdaites of the same race as the Aztecs, the 
Apaches, who are American Japygians or Jabezites, the Wihinasts, 
probably Jephunnites or western Huns, and the Comanches, who 
may be descendants of the Assyrian men of Comani.-- 

The principal central and northern tril)es of the Khitan are 
the ])acotahs and the Irocjuois. The relations of the latter have 

'' DunVjar, The Pawnee Indians, a Sketcli. 

'-"' Gushing, Z\ini Researches ; Mindeletf, Researches among the Moki. 

-' \\'hii)iil(', Gallatin, Becker, Ue Lucy Fossarieu. 

'-"- Catlin, Latham, Hale, Schoolcraft, Gallatin. 


been sufficiently discussed. The Dacotah.s bear the Zocheth name, 
which may have been that by which the Circassians call them- 
selves, Adighen.-^ But many different families are represented in 
the many Dacotah tribes. The Seepohskah or Mandans betray in 
their name a Paseachite origin, and the Absarookcs, Upsarokas or 
Crows, an Abiezrite one. The Issatis or Sioux proper are men of 
Ishhod ; but the Omahas, lowas, Osages, Ottoes, Puncas, Quappas 
exhibit a different origin, for, while the ral)bit is their great hero, 
they call his chief enemy Ishtinnike, in which the name of Eshton, 
the ancestor of Paseach and Rapha, from whom Ishhod and 
Abiezer descended is founrl.^'* It appears, therefore, that the so 
called American nations, Peruvian, Muyscan, Isthmian, Mexican, 
Sonora, Pueblos, Paduca, Yuma, Mobilian, Dacotah, and Iro(|uois 
consist, and have consisted from the beginning, of portions of many 
Hittite tribes formed into small confederacies. A littk' study 
spent upon the original tribal names, in connection with the laws 
of phonetic change, will enable the ethnologist to assign to these 
tribes their place in Hittite f'enealoGfV, but the results of such 
study would be too voluminous and uninteresting to present to 
the general reader. There is a large Indian family known as the 
Tinneh, of which tribes are found from the borders of Mexico to 
the Esquimaux region in the north. The language and habits of 
these tribes are similar in many respects to those of the Asiatic 
Tniigus, but they also have many features in common with the 
Khitan. They are pro])ably a people of mixed blood.-'' 

The adoration of the Sun whieli characterizeil alike the .fapa- 
nese, the C(jreaii, and the Tshekto, is found t'veiywiiere among 
the American Khitan.'-'' It was perhaps more famous in Peru 
tlinn elsewht're, but in .Mexico the Sun was the oldest (leity. The 
same orb was adoi-e(l liy tin; .Muyseas. liy the Nateliez. the 
(.'hie-kasas, and the' Hui-ons.-" The Huron and Xatele/ t-ln'ei's 
pi-ofess to be the ilescendants of the Sun li!<e the j'h;ii-aolis of 
iv_:\-pt.-^ Th(! sfiiiie was tln' e;isr in .hipan and l'i-r:i. ' Dr. Tylur 

- .\I;iii-u'n.\' - \'uyau,'<"^. 

-' I > .i~'V, Sii.u\ I'' I^'.H-. i-tc, AiiH-i ii'.in A 'it i'|u:ii iaii. 

-' lliUKTMft. .\ati\>- llaci - (,{ thr I'ariiic Stat.'-. 

-' D'llli'N', Ku--I:in aliil .\'.l til- lvi~t' 1 II \'i.\ au'' -, ''"'. 

-T ("iiat.-aul.naiiil, V..\;i-.-^; r.:uiri.,n\ 1 1 i-t. .| y ..|" l li^ I uil.<i >ta'.-. 

- rh.if-aui.n umI. \'..ya).'i - : I '.ai,<i .11 - 1 1 1 t. .ry . .1 th.- T 111 ; - 1 St a' .-. 

'' 'V\ I'.r, I'liiii. ( 'nil uv, ii. '.'A 7. 


classes the Puelches and Araucanians of South America, and the 
Muskogees or Maskokis and Dacotahs of the Northern continent 
among Sun worshippers. ^ In the same class he places the Kols 
and Khonds of India, remnants of ancient Hittite days, and the 
Ainos of Yeso.^^ From the writings of Dr. Tylor and Sir John 
Lubbock large numbers of facts might be adduced to prove the 
oneness of the American and the Asiatic Khitan, but the setting 
forth of these would be of the nature of an argument which the 
author does not care to enter into. 

The descendants of the great heroes of the world's second 
infancy are to be found in the New World from the extreme north 
to the extreme south, some of them clothed and in their right 
mind, others leading a wanderino- savaije life. How great their 
capabilities are, our survey of their past greatness sufficiently 
proves. Nothing that man may achieve lies beyond the powers 
of a race that has produced a Hadad, a Paseach, a Job, a Jabez, a 
Saul, a Gautama Buddha, and an Asoka. Yet Ichabod seems long 
ago to have been written over the Hittite name so far as America 
is concerned, though a bright future appears before it in Japan. 
Physically and intellectually the Khitan are in the van of the 
American aborigines, and as individuals they may yet play an 
important part in history, but not as a nation.^- Their cohesion 
was gone before a white man set his foot on the New World, and 
it was never restored, nor will it ever be. The Khitan are shut 
in. B}' slow degrees the white man has been closing in upon them 
in the last retreat the world provided for the hunted race, until 
now there is no escape. The red man must amalgamate or perish 
on North American prairies and South American pampas, as on 
the wastes of Siberia, He has had almost all the northern hem- 
isphere and part of the southern in his possession, and has not 
been able to keep it. His nation was the strongest of all the 
nations of the earth, but internal strife, arising from religious 
diti'erences and the state system, weakened it in every field of 
empire, and made it the prey of the spoiler. Its record is one of 
blood and the avenging of blood, all the way from Egyptian Syene 

' Tylor, Prim. Culture, ii. 2G1. 

' Tylfjr. Prim. Culture. 

'- Slight's Indian Researches, 24 ; Conf,'res des Americanistes, 1877, Tome i. 326. 


and Elephantine to the snows of Lapland, and from Hebron in 
Palestine westward to the Fortunate Isles and eastward to Mexico. 
It is a nation that would not be taught by all the severe blows 
that fell upon it, by all the wise teachers whom Providence raised 
up for its instruction. Its nature was that of the beast of prey, 
brave and dignified, but cruel and insatiable. Its fall is part of 
the world's salvation, its sad tragedy a monument of retributive 
justice. Quern Dens vult perdere jjriits dementat. 


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